Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
International Alliance of Women
The International Alliance of Women is an international non-governmental organization that works to promote women's human rights around the world, focusing on empowerment of women and development issues and more broadly on gender equality. The basic principle of the IAW is that the full and equal enjoyment of human rights is due to all women and girls, it is one of the oldest and most influential organizations in its field. The organization was founded as International Woman Suffrage Alliance in 1904 in Berlin, Germany, by Marie Stritt, Millicent Fawcett, Carrie Chapman Catt, Susan B. Anthony and other leading feminists from around the world to campaign for women's suffrage; the IWSA was headquartered in London, it was the preeminent international women's suffrage organization. Its emphasis has since shifted to a broad human rights focus. Today it represents over 50 organizations world-wide comprising several hundred thousand members, has its seat in Geneva. From 1926, the organization had strong ties to the League of Nations.
Since 1947, the IAW has had general consultative status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the highest UN status possible for a non-governmental organization, the 4th organization to be granted this status. The IAW has participatory status with the Council of Europe, it has representatives at the UN headquarters in New York, the UN office in Geneva, the UN office in Vienna, UNESCO in Paris, the Food and Agriculture Organization in Rome and the Council of Europe in Strasbourg. It has representatives to the Arab League in Cairo and the Gulf Countries Council in Riyadh, is an influential member of the European Women's Lobby in Brussels, its President and Chief Representative to the United Nations is Joanna Manganara. Its current main UN representative in New York Soon-Young Yoon is chair of the NGO Committee on the Status of Women, New York and First Vice-President of the Conference of NGOs. IAW's official working languages are French; the decision for the establishment of the organization was taken in Washington in 1902 by suffragists frustrated at the reluctance of the International Council of Women to support women's suffrage.
The Alliance was formally constituted during the 2nd conference in Berlin in 1904 as the International Woman Suffrage Alliance, was headquartered in London for much of its history. Its founders included Carrie Chapman Catt, Millicent Fawcett, Helene Lange, Susan B. Anthony, Anita Augspurg, Rachel Foster Avery, Käthe Schirmacher. Amongst subsequent congresses were those held in Copenhagen, London and Budapest; the French Union for Women's Suffrage, founded in February 1909, was formally recognized by the IWFA congress in London in April 1909 as representing the French suffrage movement. The IWSA started its own monthly journal, the Jus Suffragii; the IWSA, influenced by Millicent Fawcett against the militancy of suffragettes in the style of Emmeline Pankhurst refused membership to the WSPU at their 1906 Copenhagen meeting. In the late 1920s the organization changed its name to the International Alliance of Women for Suffrage and Equal Citizenship, in 1946 this was altered to its current name, International Alliance of Women.
The first Executive Board included Carrie Chapman Catt, Anita Augspurg, Donovan Bolden and Rachel Foster Avery. The organization's first President Carrie Chapman Catt founded the League of Women Voters in the United States during her presidency; the organization's traditional colour, used to symbolize women's rights and women's suffrage, is yellow. 1st, Washington, D. C. 1902 2nd, Berlin, 1904 3rd, Copenhagen, 1906 4th, Amsterdam, 1908 5th, London, 1909 6th, Stockholm, 1911 7th, Budapest, 1913 8th, Geneva, 1920 9th, Rome, 1923 10th, Paris, 1926 11th, Berlin, 1929 12th, Istanbul, 1935 13th, Copenhagen, 1939 14th, Interlaken, 1946 15th, Amsterdam, 1949 16th, Naples, 1952 17th, Ceylon, 1955 18th, Athens, 1958 19th, Dublin, 1961 20th 21st, England, 1967 22nd, West Germany, 1970 23rd, New Delhi, 1973 An International Congress is held triennially in the home country of a member organization, elects the Executive Board. The current President and Chief Representative to the United Nations is Joanna Manganara.
The Executive Board includes the Secretary-General, the Treasurer and until 20 other members, including two Executive Vice Presidents as well as Vice Presidents for Europe, the Arab countries, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, South Asia. Carrie Chapman Catt 1904–1923 Dame Margery Corbett Ashby 1923–1946 Hanna Rydh 1946–1952 Ester Graff 1952–1958 Ezlynn Deraniyagala 1958–1964 Begum Anwar Ahmed 1964–1970 Edith Anrep 1970–1973 Irène de Lipkowski 1973–1979 Olive Bloomer 1979–1989 Alice Yotopoulos-Marangopoulos 1989–1996 Patricia Giles 1996–2004 Rosy Weiss 2004–2010 Lyda Verstegen 2010–2013 Joanna Manganara 2013– The IAW represents more than 50 organizations world-wide and has attracted many individual members; the IAW was granted general consultative status to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the highest level possible, in 1947, has participatory status with the Council of Europe. The IAW has permanent representatives in New York, Geneva, Rome and Strasbourg and addresses the European Union through its membership in the European Women’s Lobby in Brussels.
The IAW's current representative to the UN headquarters, Soon-Young Yoon, is chair of the NGO Committee on the Status of Women, New York. The IAW pays pa
Margery Corbett Ashby
Dame Margery Irene Corbett Ashby, was a British suffragist, Liberal politician and internationalist. She was born at Danehill, East Sussex, the daughter of Charles Corbett, a barrister, Liberal MP for East Grinstead and Marie Corbett, herself a Liberal feminist and local councillor in Uckfield. Margery was educated at home, her German governess was the feminist polymath Lina Eckenstein. Eckenstein was to assisted with her work, she passed the Classics tripos as a student at Cambridge. She married lawyer Brian Ashby in 1910, their only child, a son, Michael Ashby, was a neurologist who gave evidence as an expert witness at the 1957 trial of suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams. With her sister Cicely and friends, she founded the Younger Suffragists in 1901. After deciding against teaching, she was appointed Secretary of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies in 1907, she served as President of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance from 1923 to 1946. She received an honorary LLD at Mount Holyoke College, USA, in 1937 in recognition of her international work.
In 1942 she went on a government propaganda mission to Sweden. Ashby was one of the seventeen women candidates to contest a parliamentary election at the first opportunity in the General Election of 1918, she stood for Birmingham Ladywood against Neville Chamberlain the Unionist Coalition candidate. Her slogan was'A soldier's wife for Ladywood'. Although she came third behind Chamberlain and the Labour candidate J. W. Kneeshaw, she forced Chamberlain to address women's issues during his campaign, one of the few candidates who tried, her papers at the Women's Library at the LSE in London contain a selection of her affectionate letters to her husband, still in France for the early stages of the campaign. Chamberlain kept his sisters up to date with the campaign and his letters are preserved in the Cadbury Research Library at the University of Birmingham. Together they provide a unique record of the candidates' contrasting view of the election campaign. In 1922 and 1923 she contested Richmond, Surrey, 1924 Watford, 1929 Hendon, 1935 and 1937 Hemel Hempstead.
She stood as an independent liberal with the backing of Radical Action at the Bury St Edmunds by-election, 1944. The archives of Margery Corbett Ashby are held at The Women's Library at the London School of Economics, her name and picture are on the plinth of the statue of Millicent Fawcett in Parliament Square, unveiled in 2018. Biodata Oxford DNB Biodata
Carrie Chapman Catt
Carrie Chapman Catt was an American women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which gave U. S. women the right to vote in 1920. Catt served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women, she "led an army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced state legislatures to ratify it in 1920" and "was one of the best-known women in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women". Catt was born Carrie Clinton Lane in Ripon, the daughter of Maria Louisa and Lucius Lane. Catt spent her childhood in Iowa, she moved to Iowa at the age of seven. As a child, Catt wanted to become a doctor. After graduating from high school, she enrolled at Iowa State Agricultural College in Iowa. Catt's father was reluctant to allow her to attend college, but he relented, contributing only a part of the costs.
To make ends meet, Catt worked as a dishwasher, in the school library, as a teacher at rural schools during school breaks. Catt’s freshman class consisted of 27 students. Catt joined the Crescent Literary Society, a student organization aimed at advancing student learning skills and self-confidence. Although only men were allowed to speak in meetings, Catt defied the rules and spoke up during a male debate; this started a discussion about women’s participation in the group, led to women gaining the right to speak in meetings. Catt was a member of Pi Beta Phi, started an all girls' debate club, advocated for women's participation in military drill. After four years at Iowa State, Catt graduated on November 10, 1880, with a Bachelor of Science degree, the only female in her graduating class. Iowa State did not name valedictorians during Catt's time there, so there is no way to know her class rank, she worked as a law clerk after graduating she became a teacher and superintendent of schools in Mason City, Iowa in 1885.
She was the first female superintendent of the district. In February 1885, Carrie married newspaper editor Leo Chapman, but he died in California in August 1886, soon after of typhoid fever, she remained in San Francisco. In 1890, she married a wealthy engineer and Alumnus of Iowa State University, he encouraged her being involved in suffrage. Their marriage allowed her to spend a good part of each year on the road campaigning for women's suffrage, a cause she had become involved with in Iowa during the late 1880s. In 1887, Catt returned to Charles City, where she had grown up, became involved in the Iowa Woman Suffrage Association. From 1890 to 1892, Catt served as the Iowa association's state organizer and groups recording secretary. During her time in office, Catt began working nationally for the National American Woman Suffrage Association, was a speaker at its 1890 convention in Washington D. C. In 1892, Susan B. Anthony asked Catt to address Congress on the proposed woman's suffrage amendment.
During her early years in the NAWSA, Catt expressed her unease with the views of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a founder of the women's suffrage movement who tended to be more radical than many of the younger activists. In 1895, Stanton created a stir by writing The Woman's Bible, a critical examination of the Bible that challenged traditional religious beliefs that women are to be passive and are inferior to men. Many NAWSA members feared that the book would damage the suffrage movement by alienating its more orthodox members. Catt and Susan B. Anthony, the NAWSA's president, met with Stanton prior to its publication to voice their concerns, but Stanton was unmoved. An intense debate about Stanton's book occurred at the 1896 NAWSA convention after her opponents introduced a resolution declaring that the NAWSA "has no official connection with the so-called Woman's Bible". Catt supported the resolution, along with Anna Howard Shaw, a future president of the organization, other leading figures. Despite strong opposition from Anthony, who argued that there was no need for such a resolution, it passed by a vote of 54 to 41.
Stanton afterwards tried to convince Anthony, her old friend and co-worker, that they should both resign from the NAWSA in protest, but Anthony refused. Stanton did not resign from the organization either. Catt would go on to succeed Anthony as NAWSA president, she was elected president of NAWSA twice. She resigned after her first term to care for her ailing husband, she would resume leadership of NAWSA in 1915, which had become badly divided under the leadership of Anna Howard Shaw. During her years of leadership she increased the size of the organization and raised many dollars of funds. In 1916, at a NAWSA convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Catt unveiled her "Winning Plan". Catt established this plan in 1916 to have senators and representatives from different states support the suffrage amendment, her campaign's goals were to obtain suffrage on both the state and federal levels, to compromise for partial suffrage in the states resisting change. Under Catt's leadership, NAWSA won the backing of the U.
S. House and Senate, as well as state support for the amendment's ratification. Under Catt's leadership the movement focused on success in at least one eastern state, because previous to 1917 only western states had granted female suffrage. Catt thus led a successful campaign in Ne
Fredrika Bremer Association
The Fredrika Bremer Association is the oldest women's rights organisation in Sweden. It is a member of the International Alliance of Women, which has general consultative status with the United Nations; the FBF works with forming public opinion in favor of gender equality by information and activities, by handing out money from various funds and scholarships. It collaborates with other organisations with similar goals both nationally and internationally; the FBF had a representative in the governmental council of equality. The organisation was founded in 1884 by a group consisting of the board of the women's magazine Home Review, it consisted of the feminist Sophie Adlersparre, Ellen Anckarsvärd, Fredrika Limnell, Ellen Fries, Hans Hildebrand and G. Sjöberg, it was named in honor of the Swedish novelist Fredrika Bremer, whose novel Hertha was responsible for the legislation emancipating unmarried women from wardship of their male relatives. It led to the foundation of Gothenburg's Women's Association in Sweden's second city of Gothenburg, founded as a local answer to the FBF.
The purpose of the organisation was to support women's rights, to inform women of their rights and to encourage them to use them. At the time of its foundation, for example, the focus was to inform women of their rights to serve in the boards of public institutions, of the rights of women of a certain income to vote in municipal elections and to use those rights. By 1890, the office of the organisation in Stockholm functioned as an employment agency for women of the middle classes, offered juridical and medical information and advice to women, it was noted at that time, that many women came there to be informed of the movement for women suffrage. In 1899, a delegation from the FBF presented a suggestion of woman suffrage to prime minister Erik Gustaf Boström; the delegation was headed by Agda Montelius, accompanied by Gertrud Adelborg, who had written the demand. This was the first time the Swedish women's movement themselves had presented a demand for suffrage. In 1896, the Married Woman Property Association was merged in the association.
The FBF published the women's magazine Dagny, which succeeded Adlersparre's Home Review in 1886. This publication was renamed Hertha in 1914 and was the oldest women's magazine in the world when it was discontinued in the late 1990s. 1884–1903: Hans Hildebrand 1903–1920: Agda Montelius 1920–1937: Lizinka Dyrssen 1937–1949: Hanna Rydh 1949–1958: Elsa Ewerlöf 1958–1959: Elin Lauritzen 1959–1961: Inger Leijonhufvud 1961–1967: Anna-Greta Hybbinette 1967–1970: Astrid Schönberg 1970–1976: Karin Ahrland 1976–1982: Birgitta Wistrand 1982–1985: Monica Påhlsson 1985–1989: Gerd Forssell 1989–1990: Ann Egefalk 1990–1991: Eivor Lilja 1991–1997: Inge Garstedt 1997–2000: Anna-Karin Sjöstrand 2000–2004: Irene Rundberg 2004–2008: Ann Falkinger 2008–2013: Birgitta Wistrand 2013–: Louise Lindfors Stig Hadenius, Torbjörn Nilsson & Gunnar Åselius: Sveriges historia. Vad varje svensk bör veta Official website
Hanna Albertina Rydh was a Swedish archaeologist and politician for the Liberal People's Party. She served as a Member of Parliament in the Riksdag from 1943 to 1944 and was the 3rd President of the International Alliance of Women from 1946 to 1952. Hanna Rydh was born in Stockholm to director Johan Albert Rydh and his wife Matilda Josefina Westlund. In 1919, she was married to fellow archaeologist Bror Schnittger. After his death, she was married in 1929 to Mortimer Munck af Rosenschöld who served as Governor of Jämtland-Härjedalen. Rydh was a pupil at the Wallinska skolan in Stockholm and proceeded studying archaeology at Stockholm University, she graduated in literature history and art history in 1915. She submitted her doctoral dissertation at Uppsala University in May 1919. Between 1916 and 1930, she and her husband conducted archaeological excavations at Adelsö and between 1917 and 1921 at Gästrikland. In 1922, she was granted a research grant from the International Federation of University Women.
When asked if she should be given the scholarship, as she had just became a mother, she famously replied: "my son's birth makes no difference", given attention worldwide. She was attaché temporaire at the Musée des Antiquités Nationales in S:t Germain-en-Laye in 1924-1925. Aside from her work as an archaeologist, she published in many popular scientific journal, she was engaged as a social reformer. Her first assignment was as a member of the central comity of the Swedish Student's Temperance Association or SSUH in 1909-1914. About the time of her graduation and beginning of her professional life in 1919, women in Sweden had only achieved equal rights with men, the goal of the women's movement since its start fifty years prior; the new focus of the Swedish women's movement was to use these rights, defy traditional gender prejudices, prove wrong those who doubted women could handle their new role in society. Hanna Rydh provided an example and role model of the "new woman" who could use her rights as a professional public person and still be a married woman with a family, which she demonstrated during the tenure of her second spouse as governor in 1931-1938, when she performed all the social representational duties of a governor's wife of the time while in parallel being an internationally respected career professional.
She was awarded the Swedish Royal Medal Illis Quorum in 1936. She was a member of the board of the Sveriges Husmodersföreningars riksförbund in 1936-1941, chairperson of Fredrika-Bremer-förbundet in 1937-1949, second vice chairperson of the Finland Relief Society in 1940, vice president of the International Alliance of Women in 1939-1946, member of the commission of home-and family issues in 1941, the 3rd President of the International Alliance of Women from 1946 to 1952. 1930- Adelsö 1948 - Jämtland och Härjedalen Magarita Díaz-Andreu, Marie Louise Stig Sorensen Excavating Women: A History of Women in European Archaeology ISBN 9781134727766 Nerman, Birger Hanna Rydh: in memoriam