1963 Pan American Games
The 4th Pan American Games were held from April 20 to May 5, 1963, in São Paulo, Brazil. For the first time, two cities submitted bids to host the 1963 Pan American Games that were recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization. On August 25, 1959, São Paulo was selected over Winnipeg to host the IV Pan American Games by the PASO at the VII Pan American Sports Congress in Chicago, United States. * Host nation NoteA The medal counts for the United States and Argentina are disputed. According to the Brazilian Olympic Committee, twenty-two nations sent competitors to São Paulo, but only twenty-one were listed. Barbados took part in the Pan American Games for the first time. Costa Rica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic competed in 1959 but did not participate in the 1963 Games; the games used 11 different venues
Pan American Games
The Pan American Games is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games; the only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. And from 2021, there would be a Junior Pan American Games for young athletes; the Pan American Sports Organization is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter. The XVII Pan American Games were held in Toronto from July 10–26, 2015. Since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games, in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another; the Parapan American Games are held following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees that are recognized by PASO, organizing committees for each specific Pan American Games.
As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter and rules; the Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in nearly 400 events; the first and third-place finishers in each event receive gold and bronze medals, respectively. The idea of holding a Pan American Games was first raised at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where Latin American representatives of the International Olympic Committee suggested that a competition among all the countries in the Americas should be created; the first event called the Pan American Games took place in Dallas in 1937 as part of the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition, but it attracted so little attention it has never counted in the records of the competition.
At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the participants decided that the first games should be held in Buenos Aires in 1942. The plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, which were held in 1951; the games offered 18 sports. Countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games; the second games were held in Mexico. Competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports; the Pan American Games have been held subsequently every four years. While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, the most recent 2015 Pan American Games involved 6,132 competitors from 41countries. During the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village.
This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, locations for religious expression. PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand; as a result and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being under the jurisdiction of another power. There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, but these have had little success. An initial attempt to hold winter events was made by the organizers of the 1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, who planned to stage winter events in the year but dropped the idea due to lack of interest. Reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to the United States and Canada. Andean winter weather is fickle, higher elevation areas in South America with annual snow lack the infrastructure to host major sporting events.
Another difficulty is that the Americas cover two hemispheres, which creates scheduling issues related to reverse seasons. Lake Placid, New York tried to organize Winter Games in 1959 but, not enough countries expressed interest; the plans were cancelled. In 1988, members of PASO voted to hold the first Pan American Winter Games at Las Leñas, Argentina in September 1989, it was further agreed. Lack of snow however, forced the postponement of the games until September 16–22, 1990 when only eight countries sent 97 athletes to Las Leñas. Of that total, 76 were from just three countries: Argentina and the United States. Weather was unseasonably warm and again there was little snow, so only three Alpine Skiing events – the Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super G were staged; the United States and Canada won all 18 medals. PASO awarded the second Pan American Winter Games to Santiago, Chile for 1993; the United States warned. The Santiago organizing committee gave up on planning the Games after the United States Olympic Committee declined to participate, the idea has not been revived since.
On 16 January 2019 PASO announced the creation of the Juni
Georgia Sports Hall of Fame
The Georgia Sports Hall of Fame is located in Macon, Georgia. It is the largest state sports hall of fame in the United States at 43,000 square feet; the Hall of Fame houses over 14,000 square feet of exhibit space broken down into sections including Hall of Fame Inductees, High School, collegiate sports, Paralympic, Professional Sports, Great Moments in Georgia Sports History areas. Interactive exhibits in the museum include NASCAR simulators and football games, computer programs; the Hall of Fame is owned by the state of Georgia and operated by the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame Authority. It is governed by an 18-member Authority appointed by the Governor, Lt. Governor, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the State of Georgia; the Hall of Fame portion of the museum was created in 1956 as the Georgia Prep Sports Hall of Fame. In 1963 it was expanded to encompass prep, college and professional sports. In 1978 the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame was created by the Georgia State Legislature. In 1994 the state of Georgia appropriated $6.5 million to construct the Sports Hall of fame museum, added another $1.8 million in 1996.
The total construction of the building and its exhibits cost $8.3 million. The building had more than 65,000 visitors during its first year of operations. Yearly operations are funded by the State of Georgia and partnerships with local organizations provide in-kind contributions and relationships. Additional fundraising is continued through facility rentals, a 5k walk, Hall of Fame induction-ceremony table sales. Meetings for the inductions process for the Georgia State Hall of Fame are now all open to the public. While inductee selection was always public, screening meetings only became open and it is considered somewhat controversial. To date, over 300 members have been inducted into the Hall of Fame; the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame has developed extensive rental programs aimed at youth, area organizations. Youth party possibilities include admission to the museum, catering availability, access to chairs and tables, use of the Georgia room for two hours. Equipment rentals are available for parties including: TV/VCR, overhead projectors, portable screens and easels.
In addition to youth parties, the Hall of Fame offers rentals of the Conference Room, the Georgia Room, the Rotunda and the Theater The building itself was built to resemble a turn-of-the-century ballpark, with red-brick exterior and green roof. From the old style ticket booths to the brick columns in the rotunda and special lighting the Hall of Fame was created to put visitors into the heart of a sports experience. Over 1,000 artifacts are on display in the building and over 7,000 objects in the Hall of Fame collection. In addition to the exhibits, the building houses a 1,500-square-foot "Georgia Room" for rentals and receptions, a gift shop, a 205-seat theater, a research center, staff offices and storage space. Ivan Allen Jr. Braves Museum and Hall of Fame Ty Cobb Museum Official website Georgia Lacrosse Chapter Hall of Fame. National Lacrosse Hall of Fame webpage. US Lacrosse website
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Wyomia Tyus is a retired American track and field sprinter, the first person to retain the Olympic title in the 100 m. Raised on a dairy farm, as the youngest of four children, the only girl in the family Tyus was encouraged by her father to participate in sports. While a high school athlete Tyus participated in basketball and began her track endeavors as a high jumper before transitioning to the sprints after being invited to a summer track clinic at Tennessee State University in 1960, it was in this same year that Tyus's father died leaving the job of male role model in Tyus's life to her soon to be track coach at Tennessee State Ed Temple. Tyus, from Tennessee State University, participated in the 1964 Summer Olympics at age 19. In the heats of the event, she equaled Wilma Rudolph's world record, propelling her to a favored position for the final, where her main rival was fellow American Edith McGuire. Tyus won the final. At the same Olympics, she won a silver medal with the 4 × 100 m relay team.
The following years, Tyus won numerous national championships in the sprint events, a gold medal in the 200 m at the Pan-American Games. In 1968, she returned to the Olympics to defend her title in the 100 m. In the final, she set a new world record of 11.08 s to become the first person, male or female, to retain the Olympic 100 metres title. Tyus qualified for the 200 m final, in which she finished sixth. Running the final leg for the relay team, Tyus helped setting a new world record, winning her third gold medal. Director Bud Greenspan filmed Tyus casually dancing behind her starting blocks before the Olympic final; when interviewed she said she was doing the "Tighten Up" to stay loose. Tyus retired from amateur sports after the 1968 Olympics. In 1973 she was invited to compete in the 60-yard dash in the new Professional International Track Association competitions. In her first-year return, she won eight of eighteen events; the following year, she won every event. Tyus continued to compete in the 60 yard dash up until 1982.
Tyus went on to coach at Beverly Hills High School, was a founding member of the Women's Sports Foundation. During the Richard Dawson era of Family Feud, Tyus appeared with her family, they won the $5,000 prize. In 1976 Tyus was inducted into the Georgia Sports Hall of Fame. In 1980, Tyus was inducted into the National Field Hall of Fame. At the 1984 Summer Olympics, she was one of eleven athletes who carried in the Olympic Flag during the Opening Ceremony. In 1985, she was inducted into the U. S. Olympic Hall of Fame. In 1999 her hometown Griffin, Georgia honored her with the unveiling of the Wyomia Tyus Olympic Park; the 2010 Breeder's World Cup featured a two-year-old filly racing horse bearing her namesake. In 2018 she published the memoir Tigerbelle: the Wyomia Tyus story, with co-author Elizabeth Terzakis. Tyus grew up in a white neighborhood and became aware of her race and of racial segregation at an early age, she was forced to take an hour bus ride to school each day, in spite of the fact that there was a white school within walking distance.
Racial divide in her neighborhood prevented Tyus from playing with the white girls that lived nearby and as the nearest black family lived a mile away, Tyus spent most of her time playing sports with her brothers and the white boys in the neighborhood. As she grew older her father helped to solidify the idea that she could accomplish anything in her life, but not without hard work to overcome racial stigma. After finishing high school Tyus attended Tennessee State University, making her the first of her family to go to college. While at TSU Tyus participated in the Tigerbelles collegiate team. Tyus began training with TSU coach Ed Temple, however poor grades, study habits, a general lack of interest in her classes nearly derailed her chances to continue her training and attend the 1964 Olympics, she has credited her training with Coach Temple as helping with her development and success in her sports and professional life as he highlighted the struggle that comes with being a black athlete and having to work harder to receive positive recognition.
In December 1968 Tyus moved with her boyfriend from Georgia to California, where she worked as a substitute teacher. She married her boyfriend in 1969 and held multiple jobs until becoming a teacher in 1971. Tyus left this job within a year. Tyus's first marriage ended in 1974 and in 1978 she married Duane Tillman, with whom she had her second child, a son. Lansbury, Jennifer H. A spectacular leap: black women athletes in twentieth-century America. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1557286582. Retrieved 24 March 2018. Tyus, Wyomia. Tigerbelle - The Wyomia Tyus Story. Edge of Sports/Akashic Books. ISBN 978-1-61775-676-4. Retrieved 4 October 2018. Tigerbelles Olympic Tradition Olympic Anthem Los Angeles 1984 Opening Ceremony on YouTube Retains Olympic 100m on YouTube 1968 Olympic Funky dance Wyomia Tyus Olympic Park
Renate Stecher is a German sprint runner and a triple Olympic champion. She was the first woman to run 100 meters within 11 seconds. Born as Renate Meißner, she was a talented athlete competing in the high jump and pentathlon, she debuted internationally at the 1969 European Championships, where she – as a last minute substitute – won a silver medal in the 200 m and a gold in the 4 × 100 m relay. In 1970 she was the World Student Games Champion in both 200 metres. At the next European Championships, in 1971, she won both the 100 and 200 m and the silver in the relay. At that time, she was competing as Renate Stecher, having married hurdler Gerd Stecher the previous year. At the 1972 Summer Olympics, Stecher repeated that performance, she won the 100 m in time of 11.07, only in 1976 recognised as world record, measured in tenths of seconds before. She equalled the world record in the 200 meters with a time of 22.40. The following year, Stecher set world records in both sprint events becoming the first woman to beat 11 seconds.
She clocked 10.8 for the 100 metres and 22.1 for the 200 metres. In Rome at the 1974 European Championships she was defeated in both the 100 m and 200 m, by Irena Szewińska of Poland and had to settle for silver in both distances; however the GDR 4 × 100 m relay team, in which Stecher ran the second leg, won the gold medal in a world record time. At the 1976 Summer Olympics, Stecher again competed in the three sprint events, winning medals in all three once again, she was beaten for the 100 m title by Annegret Richter, came third in a 200 m race with five German women in the first five positions. With the 4 × 100 m relay team they beat West Germany, taking revenge for the race four years earlier. Following the release of East German secret service files, it was revealed that many of the country's athletes were involved with a state-sponsored drug program; the files document that Stecher had wanted to step down her drug use after the 1972 Olympics, so that she could safely have children. Raelene Boyle, who had finished second to Stecher in both the 100 and 200 metres at the Olympics, stated that she felt cheated, as it is unlikely that Stecher would have beaten her without the use of performance-enhancing drugs.
In 2011 Stecher was inducted into the Germany's Sports Hall of Fame
Elizabeth Alyse Cuthbert, was an Australian athlete and a fourfold Olympic champion. She was nicknamed Australia's "Golden Girl". During her career, she set world records for 60 metres, 100 yards, 200 metres, 220 yards and 440 yards. Cuthbert contributed to Australian relay teams completing a win in the 4 × 100 metres, 4 × 110 yards, 4 × 200 metres and 4 × 220 yards. Cuthbert had a distinctive running style, with a high knee mouth wide open, she was named in 1998 an Australian National Treasure and was inducted as a Legend in the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Athletics Australia Hall of Fame in 2000. Cuthbert was born to Leslie and Marion alongside her fraternal twin sister, Marie'Midge', she had another sister, a brother, John. Cuthbert was born 20 minutes before Marie. According to Midge, the twins were not alike, but special to each other; the daughter of nursery owners, Cuthbert was born in Merrylands, New South Wales and grew up in the Sydney suburb of Ermington, where she attended Ermington Public School.
Of her upbringing, Cuthbert stated "My parents always encouraged I had a good home life. We were always taught to respect things and other people."Marion attended church and sent her four children to Sunday school. As a teenager, Cuthbert attended Parramatta Home Science School, she left school at the age of 16 to work in the family nursery. Cuthbert was a member of the Western Suburbs Athletic Club. At the age of 18, with the 1956 Summer Olympics to be held in Melbourne, Cuthbert set a World Record in the 200 metres, making her one of the favorites for a gold in that event. Cuthbert first reached the finals of the 100 metres, setting an Olympic record of 11.4 seconds in her heat, while the Australian world record holder Shirley Strickland was eliminated. Cuthbert won the final and was the big favourite for the 200 metres title, she lived up to the expectations, became the Australian "Golden Girl". A third gold medal for Cuthbert came when she ran the final leg on in the 4 × 100 metres final, which the Australian team won in a new World Record.
During 1958 Cuthbert set world records for 100 and 220 yards but was beaten in both events by arch-rival and double-Olympic bronze medalist Marlene Mathews at the Australian Championships. In the year, at the Empire Games at Cardiff, Cuthbert could only place fourth in the 100y and second in the 220y, again behind Mathews, she set a world record at 440 yards, broken in September 1959 by Maria Itkina of the Soviet Union. In the lead-up to the 1960 Summer Olympics, in Rome, Cuthbert set a world 220 yards and 200 metres record of 23.2 seconds in winning the Australian championships. At the Rome Games, she suffered from injury and was eliminated from the quarterfinals of the 100 metres. Subsequently, she retired from the sport of field, her retirement did not last long, for she returned at the 1962 Commonwealth Games in Perth, Western Australia, helping Australia to a gold medal in the sprint relay. Afterwards, she concentrated on the 400 metres, she competed in that event in the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, when it was on the Olympic program for women for the first time.
Though not impressive in the heats, Cuthbert won the title for her fourth Olympic gold medal, beating out Ann Packer of Great Britain in an Olympic record of 52.01. She is the only Olympian, male or female, to have won a gold medal in all sprint events: 100, 200 and 400 metres, she subsequently verified her retirement for good after Tokyo. In 1964 she received the Helms Award for her sporting contributions, she was coached by June Ferguson, her physical education teacher in high school. Cuthbert had suffered from multiple sclerosis from 1969 on and in 2002 had a severe brain hemorrhage, she stated that, despite her MS, she never once asked God'Why me?', instead "knew that God wanted her to use it to help other people." In 1985 Cuthbert became a born again Christian at the age of 47. Always believing she was a Christian, the speaker at a public rally said there were private practising Christians present, she felt compelled to publicly declare her faith in Jesus. From on, Cuthbert tried to share the good news of Jesus with as many people as possible.
She did, however want to be healed of her MS, someone encouraged her to go to church where she could be healed. She claimed. In her own words: "I found out about the healer, I couldn't care less about the healing. That's the best thing. I get so much joy out of it and I want to tell other people about it. I think that's why I was meant to come back to the Olympics in 1964 because now I'm well known and it helps me to tell people about Jesus."Following her diagnosis with multiple sclerosis, Cuthbert became a dedicated advocate for the disease and was an important player in the creation of MS Research Australia, attending the organisation's 2004 inauguration alongside then-PM John Howard. She was a tireless campaigner for national awareness of the disease, following her death in 2017, was credited by CEO of MS Research Australia, Dr. Matthew Miles, as having had an incredible impact on Australia's recognition and understanding of MS. In 1991, Cuthbert left her home state, New South Wales, for Western Australia, where she settled in Mandurah.
Cuthbert was one of the bearers of the Olympic Torch at the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Sitting in a wheelchair and accompanied by Raelene Boyle, she carried the Olympic Torch at the stadium, as one of the runners for the final segment, before the lighting of the Olympic Flame by Cathy Freeman. Cuthbert died in 2017, aged 79, in Mandurah. Cuthbert never married or had c