A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator for magazines, or more speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote distant, location. A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country; the term "Correspondent" refers to the original practice of filing news reports via postal letter. The largest networks of correspondents belong to ARD and BBC. In Britain, the term'correspondent' refers to someone with a specific specialist area, such as health correspondent. A'reporter' is someone without such expertise, allocated stories by the newsdesk on any story in the news. A'correspondent' can sometimes have direct executive powers, for example a'Local Correspondent' of the Open Spaces Society has some delegated powers to speak for the Society on path and commons matters in their area including representing the Society at Public Inquiries. A capitol correspondent is a correspondent. A legal or justice correspondent reports on issues involving legal or criminal justice topics, may report from the vicinity of a courthouse.
A red carpet correspondent is an entertainment reporter, selected to report from the red carpet of an entertainment or media event, such as a premiere, award ceremony or festival. A foreign correspondent is any individual who reports from foreign locations. A war correspondent is a foreign correspondent. A foreign bureau is a news bureau set up to support a news gathering operation in a foreign country. In TV news, a "live on-the-scene" reporter reports from the field during a "live shot"; this has become an popular format with the advent of Eyewitness News. A recent cost-saving measure is for local TV news to dispense with out-of-town reporters and replace them with syndicated correspondents supplied by a centralized news reporting agency; the producers of the show schedule time with the correspondent, who appears "live" to file a report and chat with the hosts. The reporter will do a number of similar reports for other stations. Many viewers may be unaware; this is a popular way to report the weather.
For example, AccuWeather doesn't just supply data, they supply on-air meteorologists from television studios at their headquarters. From Our Own Correspondent John Pory Letter from America List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War Parachute journalism People's correspondent Press pool Reporters Without Borders Stringer Media related to Correspondents at Wikimedia Commons
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door, they deliver news in a creative format, not only informative, but entertaining. Timeliness The images have meaning in the context of a published record of events. Objectivity The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone. Narrative The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to audiences.
Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter, but he or she must make decisions and carry photographic equipment while exposed to significant obstacles. The practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred in the mid 19th century. Although early illustrations had appeared in newspapers, such as an illustration of the funeral of Lord Horatio Nelson in The Times, the first weekly illustrated newspaper was the Illustrated London News, first printed in 1842; the illustrations were printed with the use of engravings. The first photograph to be used in illustration of a newspaper story was a depiction of barricades in Paris during the June Days uprising taken on 25 June 1848. During the Crimean War, the ILN pioneered the birth of early photojournalism by printing pictures of the war, taken by Roger Fenton. Fenton was the first official war photographer and his work included documenting the effects of the war on the troops, panoramas of the landscapes where the battles took place, model representations of the action, portraits of commanders, which laid the groundwork for modern photojournalism.
Other photographers of the war included Carol Szathmari. The American Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harper's Weekly. Disaster, including train wrecks and city fires, was a popular subject for illustrated newspapers in the early days; the printing of images in newspapers remained an isolated occurrence in this period. Photos were used to enhance the text rather than to act as a medium of information in its own right; this began to change with the work of one of the pioneers of photojournalism, John Thomson, in the late 1870s. In collaboration with the radical journalist Adolphe Smith, he began publishing a monthly magazine, Street Life in London, from 1876 to 1877; the project documented in photographs and text, the lives of the street people of London and established social documentary photography as a form of photojournalism. Instead of the images acting as a supplement to the text, he pioneered the use of printed photographs as the predominant medium for the imparting of information combining photography with the printed word.
On March 4, 1880, The Daily Graphic published the first halftone reproduction of a news photograph. In March 1886, when General George Crook received word that the Apache leader Geronimo would negotiate surrender terms, photographer C. S. Fly attached himself to the military column. During the three days of negotiations, Fly took about 15 exposures on 8 by 10 inches glass negatives, his photos of Geronimo and the other free Apaches, taken on March 25 and 26, are the only known photographs taken of American Indians while still at war with the United States. Fly coolly posed his subjects, asking them to move and turn their heads and faces, to improve his composition; the popular publication Harper's Weekly published six of his images in their April 1886 issue. In 1887, flash powder was invented, enabling journalists such as Jacob Riis to photograph informal subjects indoors, which led to the landmark work How the Other Half Lives. By 1897, it became possible to reproduce halftone photographs on printing presses running at full speed.
In France, agencies such as Rol and Chusseau-Flaviens syndicated photographs from around the world to meet the need for timely new illustration. Despite these innovations, limitations remained, many of the sensational newspaper and magazine stories in the period from 1897 to 1927 were illustrated with engravings. In 1921, the wirephoto made it possible to transmit pictures as as news itself could travel; the "Golden Age of Photojournalism" is considered to be the 1930s through the 1950s. It was made possible by the development of the compact commercial 35mm Leica camera in 1925, the first flash bulbs between 1927 and 1930, which allowed the journalist true flexibility in taking pictures. A new style of magazine and newspaper appeared; the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung was the first to pioneer the format of the illustrated news magazine. Beginning in 1901, it began to print photographs inside a revolutionary innovation. In the su
A gossip columnist is someone who writes a gossip column in a newspaper or magazine a gossip magazine. Gossip columns are material written in a light, informal style, which relates the gossip columnist's opinions about the personal lives or conduct of celebrities from show business, professional sports stars, other wealthy people or public figures; some gossip columnists broadcast segments on television. The columns mix factual material on arrests, divorces and pregnancies, obtained from official records, with more speculative gossip stories and innuendo about romantic relationships and purported personal problems. Gossip columnists have a reciprocal relationship with the celebrities whose private lives are splashed about in the gossip column's pages. While gossip columnists sometimes engage in defamatory conduct, spreading innuendo about alleged immoral or illegal conduct that can injure celebrities' reputations, they are an important part of the "Star System" publicity machine that turns movie actors and musicians into celebrities and superstars that are the objects of the public's obsessive attention and interest.
The publicity agents of celebrities provide or "leak" information or rumors to gossip columnists to publicize the celebrity or their projects, or to counteract "bad press" that has surfaced about their conduct. While gossip columnists’ "bread and butter" is rumor and allegations of scandalous behavior, there is a fine line between acceptable spreading of rumor and the making of defamatory statements, which can provoke a lawsuit. Newspaper and magazine editorial policies require gossip columnists to have a source for all of their allegations, to protect the publisher against lawsuits for defamation. In the United States, celebrities or public figures can sue for libel if their private lives are revealed in gossip columns and they believe that their reputation has been defamed — that is, exposed to hatred, ridicule, or pecuniary loss. Gossip columnists cannot defend against libel claims by arguing that they repeated, but did not originate the defaming rumor or claim. In the mid-1960s, rulings by the United States Supreme Court made it harder for the media to be sued for libel in the U.
S. The court ruled that libel only occurred in cases where a publication printed falsehoods about a celebrity with “reckless disregard” for the truth. A celebrity suing a newspaper for libel must now prove that the paper published the falsehood with actual malice, or with deliberate knowledge that the statement was both incorrect and defamatory. Moreover, the court ruled, thus if a gossip columnist writes that they “...think that Celebrity X is an idiot,” the columnist does not face a risk of being sued for libel. On the other hand, if the columnist invents an allegation that “... Celebrity X is a wife beater,” with no supporting source or evidence, the celebrity can sue for libel on the grounds that their reputation was defamed. There is however circumstances where gossip columnist may not be fact checking the information they are receiving from their sources before publishing their stories. Not to mention that there are gossip columnist that are not reputable themselves to be posting articles about celebrities.
As a result of this there is a chance that there are stories that have been publish that could lead to the defamation of celebrities. The first gossip columnist, dominating the 1930s and 40s, was Walter Winchell, who used political and social connections to mine information and rumors, which he either published in his column On Broadway, or used for trade or blackmail, to accumulate more power, he became "the most feared journalist" of his era. In Hollywood's "golden age" in the 1930s and 1940s, gossip columnists were courted by the movie studios, so that the studios could use gossip columns as a powerful publicity tool. During this period, the major film studios had "stables" of contractually obligated actors, the studios controlled nearly all aspects of the lives of their movie stars. From the 1930s through the 1950s, the two best-known - and competing - Hollywood gossip columnists were Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons. Well-timed leaks about a star's purported romantic adventures helped the studios to create and sustain the public's interest in the studios' star actors.
As well, the movie studios' publicity agents acted as unnamed "well-informed inside sources" who provided misinformation and rumors to counteract whispers about celebrity secrets — such as homosexuality or an out-of-wedlock child — that could have damaged not only the reputation of the movie star in question, but the movie star's box office viability. Having fallen into ill-repute after the heyday of Hopper and Parsons, gossip columnists saw a comeback in the 1980s. Today, many mainstream magazines such as Time which would once have considered the idea of hiring gossip columnists to pen articles to have been beneath their stature, have sections titled "People" or "Entertainment"; these mainstream gossip columns provide a light, chatty glimpse into the private lives and misadventures of the rich and famous. At the other end of the journalism spectrum, there are entire publications that deal in gossip and innuendo about celebrities, such as the'red-top' tabloids in the UK and celebrity'tell-all' magazines.
Notable gossip columnists include: Gossip columns that are not named after a specific columnist, along with the media source, include: 3am — Dail
A columnist is a person who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that offers commentary and opinions. Columns appear in newspapers and other publications, including blogs, they take the form of a short essay by a specific writer. In some instances, a column has been written by a composite or a team, appearing under a pseudonym, or a brand name; some columnists appear on a daily or weekly basis and reprint the same material in book collections. Newspaper columnists of the 1930s and 1940s, such as Franklin Pierce Adams, Nick Kenny, John Crosby, Jimmie Fidler, Louella Parsons, Drew Pearson, Ed Sullivan and Walter Winchell, achieved a celebrity status and used their syndicated columns as a springboard to move into radio and television. In some cases, such as Winchell and Parsons, their radio programs were quite similar in format to their newspaper columns. Rona Barrett began as a Hollywood gossip columnist in 1957, duplicating her print tactics on television by the mid-1960s. One of the more famous syndicated columnists of the 1920s and 1930s, O. O. McIntyre, declined offers to do a radio series because he felt it would interfere and diminish the quality of writing in his column, "New York Day by Day."
Franklin Pierce Adams and O. O. McIntyre both collected their columns into a series of books, as did other columnists. McIntyre's book, The Big Town: New York Day by Day was a bestseller. Adams' The Melancholy Lute is a collection of selections from three decades of his columns. H. Allen Smith's first humor book, Low Man on a Totem Pole, his two following books, were so popular during World War II that they kept Smith on the New York Herald Tribune's Best Seller List for 100 weeks and prompted a collection of all three in 3 Smiths in the Wind; when Smith's column, The Totem Pole, was syndicated by United Features, he told Time: Just between you and me, it's tough. A typewriter can be a pretty formidable contraption when you sit down in front of it and say: "All right, now I'm going to be funny." The writing of French humor columnist Alain Rémond has been collected in books. The Miami Herald promoted humor columnist Dave Barry with this description: "Dave Barry has been at The Miami Herald since 1983.
A Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, he writes about issues ranging from the international economy to exploding toilets." Barry has collected his columns into a series of successful books. He stopped writing his nationally syndicated weekly column in 2005, the Miami Herald now offers on its website a lengthy selection of past columns by Barry. In 1950, Editor & Publisher looked back at the newspaper columnists of the 1920s: "Feature service of various sorts is new," Hallam Walker Davis wrote in a book, The Column, published in 1926. "It has had the advantage of high-powered promotion. It is still riding on the crest of the first big wave its own splash sent out." But Mr. Davis did think that in a decade or two the newspapers might be promoting their columns along with their comic strips; the World had started the ball rolling with billboard advertising of Heywood Broun's "It Seems to Me." The McNaught Syndicate was sitting pretty with O. O. McIntyre, Will Rogers and Irvin S. Cobb on its list.
The New York Herald Tribune offered Don Marquis and Franklin P. Adams rhymed satirically in "The Conning Tower" for the New York World Syndicate. "A Line o' Type or Two", Bert Leston Taylor's verse column in the Chicago Tribune, was now being done by Richard Henry Little. Other offerings: humorous sketches by Damon Runyon. In at least one situation, a column expanded to become an entire successful magazine; when Cyrus Curtis founded the Tribune and Farmer in 1879, it was a four-page weekly with an annual subscription rate of 50 cents. He introduced a women's column by his wife, Louise Knapp Curtis, it proved so popular that in 1883, he decided to publish it as a separate monthly supplement, Ladies Journal and Practical Housekeeper, edited by Louise Curtis. With 25,000 subscribers by the end of its first year, it was such a success that Curtis sold Tribune and Farmer to put his energy into the new publication, which became the Ladies' Home Journal. Advice columnist Critic Editorial opinion columnist Gossip columnist Humor columnist Food columnist List of newspaper columnists List of syndicated columnists Food columnists of note National Society of Newspaper Columnists
A blog is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete informal diary-style text entries. Posts are displayed in reverse chronological order, so that the most recent post appears first, at the top of the web page; until 2009, blogs were the work of a single individual of a small group, covered a single subject or topic. In the 2010s, "multi-author blogs" emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, think tanks, advocacy groups, similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic; the rise of Twitter and other "microblogging" systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the news media. Blog can be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog; the emergence and growth of blogs in the late 1990s coincided with the advent of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or computer programming.
A knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the Web, early Web users therefore tended to be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the majority are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to leave online comments, it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites. In that sense, blogging can be seen as a form of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers do not only produce content to post on their blogs, but often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers. However, there are high-readership blogs. Many blogs provide commentary on topic, ranging from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, others function more as online brand advertising of a particular individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, links to other blogs, web pages, other media related to its topic; the ability of readers to leave publicly viewable comments, interact with other commenters, is an important contribution to the popularity of many blogs.
However, blog owners or authors moderate and filter online comments to remove hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are textual, although some focus on art, videos and audio. In education, blogs can be used as instructional resources; these blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another type of blogging, featuring short posts. On 16 February 2011, there were over 156 million public blogs in existence. On 20 February 2014, there were around 172 million Tumblr and 75.8 million WordPress blogs in existence worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is the most popular blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics. Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014. The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997; the short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used "blog" as both a noun and verb and devised the term "blogger" in connection with Pyra Labs' Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.
Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services such as GEnie, Byte Information Exchange and the early CompuServe, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems. In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with "threads". Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual "corkboard". From 14 June 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their "What’s New" list of new websites, updated daily and archived monthly; the page was accessible by a special ``. The earliest instance of a commercial blog was on the first business to consumer Web site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc. which featured a blog in a section called "Online Diary". The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by Web site visitors; the modern blog evolved from the online diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is recognized as one of the earlier bloggers, as is Jerry Pournelle.
Dave Winer's Scripting News is credited with being one of the older and longer running weblogs. The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News on their web site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of new websites in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text, digital video, digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site in 1994; this practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as sousveillance, such journals were used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, such as The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997 referred to their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the "Online Diary" on
Copy editing is the process of reviewing and correcting written material to improve accuracy and fitness for its purpose, to ensure that it is free of error, omission and repetition. In the context of publication in print, copy editing is done before typesetting and again before proofreading, the final step in the editorial cycle. In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor. An organization's highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. In book publishing in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world that follow British nomenclature, the term copy editor is used, but in newspaper and magazine publishing, the term is subeditor shortened to sub; the senior subeditor of a publication is called the chief subeditor. As the prefix sub suggests, copy editors have less authority than regular editors. In the context of the Internet, online copy refers to the text content of web pages on the World Wide Web.
Similar to print, online copy editing is the process of revising the raw or draft text of web pages and reworking it to make it ready for publication. Copy editing has three levels: light and heavy. Depending on the budget and scheduling of the publication, the publisher will let the copy editor know what level of editing to employ; the type of editing one chooses. Within copy editing, there is mechanical editing and substantive editing: mechanical editing is the process of making a text or manuscript follow editorial or house style, keeping the preferred style and grammar rules of publication consistent across all content, it refers to editing in terms of spelling and correct usage of grammatical symbols, along with reviewing special elements like tables, formatting footnotes, endnotes. Content editing known as substantive editing, is the editing of material, including its structure and organization, to correct internal inconsistencies and discrepancies. Content editing may require heavy rewriting as compared to mechanical editing.
In addition, copy editing may change punctuation and usage for a different country. For a Commonwealth readership, the Oxford British and American spelling of "organize" may be changed to "organise", "color" changed to "colour". Mechanical editing is the process of proofreading a piece of writing for consistency, either internally or in accordance with the publisher's house style. According to Einsohn, mechanical editors work with such things as the following: Abbreviations and acronyms Additional elements, such as charts and graphs Capitalization Footnotes and endnotes Hyphenation Italicization and boldfaced type Numbers and numerals Punctuation Quotations SpellingGilad mentions the following: Charts, graphs and their keys Initialisms Page numbers and footers Tables of contents and page numbers UnderscoringProper spelling and punctuation are subjective in some cases, where they must be left to the discretion of the copyeditor or the publisher. Most publishing firms use a recognized style manual such as The Chicago Manual of Style or The Associated Press Stylebook.
Companies that produce documents and reports but do not consider themselves publishers in the usual sense, tend to rely on in-house style guides or on the judgment of the copyeditor. The goal of the copyeditor is to enforce inviolable rules while respecting personal stylistic preferences; this can be difficult, as some writers view grammatical corrections of the copyedited manuscript as a challenge to their intellectual ability or professional identity. For this reason, copy editors are encouraged to side with the author. If the author's preference is acceptable, it should be respected; this practice is complicated further by evolving language conventions as recorded by books on grammar and usage. Additionally, the authors of such books disagree. Content editing consists of restructuring the content of a document; this involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Copyeditors can either fix the content by rewriting it or editing it. However, the copyeditor will point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time.
Although copyeditors are not responsible for factual correctness of the document, they can provide comments for the author on any information they know to be incorrect, such as year discrepancies or misleading ideas. This type of fact checking is acceptable for copyeditors; the copyeditor must point out any biased language without infringing on the author's meaning. This includes material "that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity"; some see censoring biased language as political correctness, so it is important the copyeditor distinguishes between the two. To do this, the copyeditor will permit intentional "politically incorrect" views and censor only marginalized, offensive, or exclusive language. Most manuscripts will require the copyeditor to correlate the parts within it. Copyeditors must carry out the following tasks in this process: Verify any cross-references that appear in the text Check the numbering of footnotes, endnotes and illustrations Specify the placement of tables and illustrations Check the content of the illustrations against the captions and the text Read the list of illustrations against the illustrations and captions Read the table of contents against the manuscript Read the footnotes/endnotes and in-text citations against the bibl
A news presenter – known as a newsreader, anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or an anchor – is a person who presents news during a news program on the television, on the radio or on the Internet. They may be a working journalist, assisting in the collection of news material and may, in addition, provide commentary during the program. News presenters most work from a television studio or radio studio, but may present the news from remote locations in the field related to a particular major news event; the role of the news presenter developed over time. Classically, the presenter would read the news from news "copy" which he may or may not have helped write with a or news writer; this was taken directly from wire services and rewritten. Prior to the television era, radio-news broadcasts mixed news with opinion and each presenter strove for a distinctive style; these presenters were referred to as commentators. The last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the United States was Paul Harvey.
With the development of the 24-hour news cycle and dedicated cable news channels, the role of the anchor evolved. Anchors would still present material prepared for a news program, but they interviewed experts about various aspects of breaking news stories, themselves provided improvised commentary, all under the supervision of the producer, who coordinated the broadcast by communicating with the anchor through an earphone. Many anchors write or edit news for their programs, although modern news formats distinguish between anchor and commentator in an attempt to establish the "character" of a news anchor; the mix of "straight" news and commentary varies depending on the type of program and the skills and knowledge of the particular anchor. The terms anchor and anchorman are derived from the usage common in relay racing the anchor leg, where the position is given to the fastest or most experienced competitor on a team. In 1948, "anchor man" was used in the game show "Who Said That?" to refer to John Cameron Swayze, a permanent panel member of the show, in what may be the first usage of this term on television.
The anchor term became used by 1952 to describe the most prominent member of a panel of reporters or experts. The term "anchorman" was used to describe Walter Cronkite's role at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, where he coordinated switches between news points and reporters; the widespread claim that news anchors were called "cronkiters" in Swedish has been debunked by linguist Ben Zimmer. Anchors occupy a contestable role in news broadcasts; some argue anchors have become sensationalized characters whose identities overshadow the news itself, while others cite anchors as necessary figureheads of "wisdom and truth" in the news broadcast. The role of the anchor has changed in recent years following the advent of satirical journalism and citizen journalism, both of which relocate the interpretation of truth outside traditional professional journalism, but the place anchormen and anchorwomen hold in American media remains consistent. "Just about every single major news anchor since the dawn of the medium after World War II has been aligned with show business," says Frank Rich, writer-at-large for New York Magazine, in a polemic against commoditized news reporting, "reading headlines to a camera in an appealing way is incentivized over actual reporting".
Brian Williams, an anchor for NBC Nightly News, evidences this lapse in credibility generated by the celebration of the role of the anchor. In early 2015, Williams apologized to his viewers for fabricating stories of his experiences on the scene of major news events, an indiscretion resulting in a loss of 700,000 viewers for NBC Nightly News. David Folkenflik of NPR asserted that the scandal "corrodes trust in the anchor, in NBC and in the greater profession", exhibiting the way in which the credibility of the anchor extends beyond his or her literal place behind the news desk and into the expectation of the news medium at large. CBS's long-running nighttime news broadcast 60 Minutes displays this purported superfluousness of anchors, insofar as it has no central figurehead in favor of many correspondents with important roles. Up-and-coming news networks like Vice Magazine's documentary-style reporting eschew traditional news broadcast formatting in this way, suggesting an emphasis on on-site reporting and deemphasizing the importance of the solitary anchor in the news medium.
In her essay, "News as Performance", Margaret Morse posits this connection between anchor persona newsroom as an interconnected identity fusing many aspects of the newsroom dynamic: For the anchor represents not the news per se, or a particular network or corporate conglomerate that owns the network, or television as an institution, or the public interest. In this way, the network anchor position is a "symbolic representation of the institutional order as an integrated totality", an institutional role on par with that of the president or of a Supreme Court justice, although the role originates in corporate practices rather than political or judicial processes. Despite the anchor's construction of a commodified, aestheticized version of the news, some critics defend the role of the anchor in society, claiming that he or she functions as a necessary conduit of credibility; the news anchor's position as an omnipotent arbiter of information results from his or her place behind a elevated desk, wherefrom he or she interacts with reporters through a screen-within-screen spatial setup.
A criticism levied against the role of anchor stems from this dyn