As freelancers, stringers do not receive a regular salary and the amount and type of work is typically voluntary. However, stringers often have a relationship with one or more news organizations. The term is confined to news industry jargon. In print or in broadcast terms, stringers are sometimes referred to as correspondents or contributors, at other times, in this capacity, stringers are used heavily by most television news organizations and some print publications for video footage and interviews. The etymology of the word is uncertain, newspapers once paid stringers per inch of printed text they generated. Another possibility is using a sports analogy, the freelance journalist is seen as a second string whereas the staff journalist positions are more of the first string. Put another way, Still gathering string is newsroom jargon for the process of looking for something that you cant yet name, the string being the stuff that accumulates in a journalists pocket. The significance, however, of this discovery has yet to be determined
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work. The editing process begins with the authors idea for the work itself. As such, editing can involve creative skills, human relations, there are various editorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds editorial assistants reporting to the editorial staff. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release, the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, a frequent and highly regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor. Mid-level newspaper editors often manage or help to manage sections, such as business, sports, in U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is usually the managing editor.
Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor, copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy, fairness. In some positions, they design pages and select news stories for inclusion, at U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may choose the layout of the publication and communicate with the printer and these editors may have the title of layout or design editor or makeup editor. However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of research articles. Called the authors editor, this works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication.
The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. K, technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the editing function
A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. As of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue.
Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa 2005, there were approximately 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day. Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7, plunged during the financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers.
Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in 1664. While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers. Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now understood to refer only to still images. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a format that is not only informative. Timeliness The images have meaning in the context of a published record of events. Objectivity The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone, narrative The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level. Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter, but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, the practice of illustrating news stories with photographs was made possible by printing and photography innovations that occurred in the mid 19th century.
The illustrations were printed with the use of engravings, during the Crimean War, the ILN pioneered the birth of early photojournalism by printing pictures of the war that had been taken by Roger Fenton. Other photographers of the war included William Simpson and Carol Szathmari, the American Civil War photographs of Mathew Brady were engraved before publication in Harpers Weekly. Disaster, including wrecks and city fires, was a popular subject for illustrated newspapers in the early days. The printing of images in newspapers remained an isolated occurrence in this period, Photos were used to enhance the text rather than to act as a medium of information in its own right. This began to change with the work of one of the pioneers of photojournalism, John Thomson, in collaboration with the radical journalist Adolphe Smith, he began publishing a monthly magazine, Street Life in London, from 1876 to 1877. The project documented in photographs and text, the lives of the people of London. On March 4,1880, The Daily Graphic published the first halftone reproduction of a news photograph, in March 1886, when General George Crook received word that the Apache leader Geronimo would negotiate surrender terms, photographer C. S.
Fly took his equipment and attached himself to the military column, during the three days of negotiations, Fly took about 15 exposures on 8 by 10 inches glass negatives. His photos of Geronimo and the other free Apaches, taken on March 25 and 26, are the known photographs taken of American Indians while still at war with the United States. Fly coolly posed his subjects, asking them to move and turn their heads and faces, the popular publication Harpers Weekly published six of his images in their April 24,1886 issue
A columnist is someone who writes for publication in a series, creating an article that usually offers commentary and opinions. Columns appear in newspapers and other publications, including blogs and they take the form of a short essay by a specific writer who offers a personal point of view. In some instances, a column has been written by a composite or a team, appearing under a pseudonym, some columnists appear on a daily or weekly basis and reprint the same material in book collections. In some cases, such as Winchell and Parsons, their programs were quite similar in format to their newspaper columns. Rona Barrett began as a Hollywood gossip columnist in 1957, duplicating her print tactics on television by the mid-1960s, FPA and McIntyre both collected their columns into a series of books, as did other columnists. McIntyres book, The Big Town, New York Day by Day was a bestseller, fPAs The Melancholy Lute collected selections from three decades of his columns. When Smiths column, The Totem Pole, was syndicated by United Features, he told Time, a typewriter can be a pretty formidable contraption when you sit down in front of it and say, All right, now Im going to be funny.
The writing of French humor columnist Alain Rémond has been collected in books, the Miami Herald promoted humor columnist Dave Barry with this description, Dave Barry has been at The Miami Herald since 1983. A Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, he writes about issues ranging from the economy to exploding toilets. Barry has collected his columns into a series of successful books and he stopped writing his nationally syndicated weekly column in 2005, and The Miami Herald now offers on its website a lengthy selection of past columns by Barry. It has had the advantage of high-powered promotion and it is still riding on the crest of the first big wave its own splash sent out. But Mr. Davis did think that in a decade or two the newspapers might be promoting their columns along with their comic strips, the World had started the ball rolling with billboard advertising of Heywood Brouns It Seems to Me. The McNaught Syndicate was sitting pretty with O. O. McIntyre, Will Rogers, the New York Herald Tribune offered Don Marquis and Franklin P.
Adams rhymed satirically in The Conning Tower for the New York World Syndicate. A Line o Type Or Two, Bert Leston Taylors verse column in the Chicago Tribune, was now being done by Richard Henry Little. Other offerings, humorous sketches by Damon Runyon, O. Henry stories, editorials by Arthur Brisbane, Ring Lardner letter, Rippling Rhymes, by Walt Mason, in at least one situation, a column expanded to become an entire successful magazine. When Cyrus Curtis founded the Tribune and Farmer in 1879, it was a weekly with an annual subscription rate of 50 cents. With 25,000 subscribers by the end of its first year, it was such a success that Curtis sold Tribune and Farmer to put his energy into the new publication, which became the Ladies Home Journal. Advice columnist Critic Editorial opinion columnist Gossip columnist Humor columnist Food columnist Food columnists of note National Society of Newspaper Columnists
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information. A journalists work is called journalism, a journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, for example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a job is sometimes called reporting. Reporters may split their time working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a beat or area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards.
While objectivity and a lack of bias are of concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism. This has become prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions. These platforms often project extreme bias, as sources are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, nor did they often directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights. These limitations were made worse by a media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was really important. ”Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom, as of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment.
The ten deadliest countries for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1st 2010,145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. The ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Ethiopia, apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically. This applies especially to war reporters, but their offices at home often do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger
A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country. The term correspondent refers to the practice of filing news reports via postal letter. The largest networks of correspondents belong to ARD and BBC, a correspondent generally includes some of his/her own perspective on the news. For example, a correspondent is expected to provide context to the events being chronicled. A reporter, on the hand, offers largely fact-based reporting. In Britain, the term correspondent usually refers to someone with a specific specialist area, a reporter is usually someone without such expertise who is allocated stories by the newsdesk on any story in the news. A capitol correspondent is a correspondent who reports from headquarters of government, a legal or justice correspondent reports on issues involving legal or criminal justice topics, and may often report from the vicinity of a courthouse. A red carpet correspondent is an entertainment reporter who is selected to report from the red carpet of an entertainment or media event, such as a premiere, a foreign correspondent is any individual who reports from primarily foreign locations. A war correspondent is a correspondent who covers stories first-hand from a war zone. A foreign bureau is a news bureau set up to support a news gathering operation in a foreign country, in TV news, a live on-the-scene reporter reports from the field during a live shot.
This has become a popular format with the advent of Eyewitness News. A recent cost-saving measure is for local TV news to dispense with out-of-town reporters and replace them with syndicated correspondents, the producers of the show schedule time with the correspondent, who appears live to file a report and chat with the hosts. The reporter will go and do a number of reports for other stations. Many viewers may be unaware that the reporter does not work directly for the news show and this is a popular way to report the weather. For example, AccuWeather doesnt just supply data, they supply on-air meteorologists from television studios at their headquarters
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and they are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, the term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields, this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Upon receipt of an article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by scholars of the editors choosing who typically remain anonymous. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, even accepted articles are often subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print.
The peer review can take several weeks to several months. Review articles, called reviews of progress, are checks on the published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms, some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a subject, others are selective. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field, some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions and they are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field. Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the books published by scholars, unlike articles.
Journals typically have a book review editor determining which new books to review. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editors request for a book review, publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook, an academic journals prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century, the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local, Meteorology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology, the interactions between Earths atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in diverse fields such as the military, energy production, agriculture.
The word meteorology is from Greek μετέωρος metéōros lofty, high and -λογία -logia -logy, varāhamihiras classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides clear evidence that a deep knowledge of atmospheric processes existed even in those times. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology, Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle and they are all called swooping bolts because they swoop down upon the Earth. Lightning is sometimes smoky, and is called smoldering lightning, sometimes it darts quickly along, at other times, it travels in crooked lines, and is called forked lightning. When it swoops down upon some object it is called swooping lightning, the Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather, in 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system.
According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. St. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the size of the rainbow. He stated that a rainbow summit can not appear higher than 42 degrees above the horizon, in the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow, in 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by magnetic effluvia moving along the Earths magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejongs son, Prince Munjong, invented the first standardized rain gauge and these were sent throughout the Joseon Dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based upon a farmers potential harvest. In 1450, Leone Battista Alberti developed a swinging-plate anemometer, and was known as the first anemometer, in 1607, Galileo Galilei constructed a thermoscope
In the context of publication in print, copy editing is done before typesetting and again before proofreading, the final step in the editorial cycle. In the United States and Canada, an editor who does this work is called a copy editor, an organisations highest-ranking copy editor, or the supervising editor of a group of copy editors, may be known as the copy chief, copy desk chief, or news editor. The senior subeditor of a publication is called the chief subeditor. As the prefix sub suggests, copy editors typically have less authority than regular editors, in the context of the internet, online copy refers to the text content of web pages. Similar to print, online copy editing is the process of revising the raw or draft text of web pages, copy editing has three levels, light and heavy. Depending on the budget and scheduling of the publication, the publisher will let the copy editor know what level of editing to employ, the type of editing one chooses, will help the copy editor prioritize their efforts.
Within copy editing, there is mechanical editing and substantive editing and it refers to editing in terms of spelling, correct usage of grammatical symbols, along with reviewing special elements like tables, formatting footnotes, and endnotes. Substantive editing, known as content editing, is the editing of material, including its structure, in this type of editing, internal inconsistencies and discrepancies can be dealt with. Substantive editing oftentimes can require heavy editing or rewriting as compared to mechanical editing, Mechanical editing is the process of proofreading a piece of writing for consistency, either internally or in accordance with the publishers house style. Most publishing firms use a widely recognized style manual such as The Chicago Manual of Style or The Associated Press Stylebook. Companies that produce documents and reports but do not consider themselves publishers in the usual sense, the goal of the copyeditor is to enforce inviolable rules while respecting personal stylistic preferences.
This can be difficult, as some writers view grammatical revisions of the manuscript as a challenge to their intellectual ability or professional identity. For this reason, copy editors are encouraged to side with the author, if the authors preference is acceptable, it should be respected. This practice is complicated further by constantly evolving language conventions as recorded by books on grammar, the authors of such books often disagree. Content editing consists of reorganizing or restructuring the content of a document and this involves any inconsistent parts of the content as well as any variances. Copyeditors can either fix the content by rewriting it or heavily editing it, the copyeditor will often point out any difficult passages for the author to resolve on his or her own time. This type of fact checking is acceptable for copyeditors that know the subject matter. The copyeditor must point out any biased language without infringing on the authors meaning and this includes material that might form the basis for a lawsuit alleging libel, invasion of privacy, or obscenity
Celebrities, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, screenplay authors can use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Ghostwriting occurs in other creative fields, ghosting occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes lyrics and a melody in the style of the credited musician, in hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece that is credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain, a consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance her credibility as an expert in their field.
Public officials and politicians employ correspondence officers to respond to the volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters, some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers and dissertations. This is largely considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing, ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several-hundred page autobiography or how-to book. Even if a celebrity or public figure has the skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several-hundred page book so that it is captivating. Ghostwriters may have varying degrees of involvement in the production of a finished work, some ghostwriters are hired to edit and clean up a rough draft or partially completed work, while others are hired to do most of the writing based on an outline provided by the credited author.
For some projects, such as creating an autobiography for a celebrity, ghostwriters are hired to write fiction in the style of an existing author, often as a way of increasing the number of books that can be published by a popular author. Ghostwriters will often spend a period from several months to a year researching, writing. Ghostwriters are paid either per page, per each word or via total word count, with a fee, with a percentage of the royalties of the sales. The division of work between the ghostwriter and the credited author varies a great deal, in some cases, the ghostwriter is hired to edit a rough draft of a mostly completed manuscript. In this case, the outline and much of the language in the book or article are those of the credited author
They may be a working journalist, assisting in the collection of news material and may, in addition, provide commentary during the program. News presenters most often work from a studio or radio studio. The role of the news presenter developed over time, the presenter would read the news from news copy which he may or may not have helped write with a producer or news writer. This was often taken almost directly from services and rewritten. Prior to the era, radio-news broadcasts often mixed news with opinion. These presenters were referred to as commentators, the last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the United States was Paul Harvey. With the development of the 24-hour news cycle and dedicated cable news channels, many anchors write or edit news for their programs, although modern news formats often distinguish between anchor and commentator in an attempt to establish the character of a news anchor. The mix of news and commentary varies depending on the type of program.
In 1948, anchor man was used in the game show Who Said That. to refer to John Cameron Swayze, the anchor term became commonly used by 1952 to describe the most prominent member of a panel of reporters or experts. The term anchorman was used to describe Walter Cronkites role at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, the widespread claim that news anchors were called cronkiters in Swedish has been debunked by linguist Ben Zimmer. Anchors occupy a role in news broadcasts. Some argue anchors have become sensationalized characters whose identities overshadow the news itself, while others cite anchors as necessary figureheads of wisdom and truth in the news broadcast. Brian Williams, a minor character in NBCs sitcom 30 Rock. A criticism levied against the role of anchor stems from this dynamic, regurgitat or reproduc the report of others. Differentiating them from the occupations of journalists and on-site reporters. The identity of a particular anchor seems to influence viewer perception less than the presence of an anchor in general.
More specifically, the media may do an important social good when using the techniques of dramaturgy to make governance more interesting to people than would be the case otherwise. At the same time, there is an important difference between drama and democracy, with the former requiring spectators and the latter participants