Individual nation articles should be consulted on specific national responses to corruption. In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may involve practices that are legal in many countries. Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, narco-states and mafia states. Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.
Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime. Strategies to counter corruption are summarized under the umbrella term anti-corruption. Stephen D. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist Ian Senior defines corruption as an action to secretly provide a good or a service to a third party so that he or she can influence certain actions which benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both in which the corrupt agent has authority. Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law—as those with power have the ability to make laws for their protection; the effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit. The research work on social corruption developed at The Unicist Research Institute defines that corruption allows individuals to profit from the environment through illegitimate actions while they disintegrate the system they are part of.
Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. A number of indicators and tools have been developed which can measure different forms of corruption with increasing accuracy. Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, many other private and government sectors. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political and economic systems; such corruption is found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but in those without adequate policing of corruption.
The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another. Systemic corruption is corruption, due to the weaknesses of an organization or process, it can be contrasted with individual agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include discretionary powers. Specific acts of corruption include "bribery and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception." Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place. Some scholars argue that there is a negative duty of western governments to protect against systematic corruption of underdeveloped governments. Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or NGOs. However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control.
Therefore, the owners' investors' or sponsors' profits are decisive. Public corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts and hiring. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face. Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes, it can take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money. Evidence suggests that corruption can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less to identify with their country or reg
History of comics
The history of comics has followed different paths in different parts of the world. It can be traced back to early precursors such as Trajan's Column, in Rome, Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Bayeux Tapestry. An example of an early precursor to print comics is Trajan's Column. Rome's Trajan's Column, dedicated in 110 AD, is an early surviving example of a narrative told through sequential pictures, while Egyptian hieroglyphs, Greek friezes, medieval tapestries such as the Bayeux Tapestry and illustrated manuscripts combine sequential images and words to tell a story. Versions of the Bible relying on images rather than text were distributed in Europe in order to bring the teachings of Christianity to the illiterate. In medieval paintings, multiple sequential scenes of the same story appear in the same painting. However, these works did not travel to the reader; the invention of the printing press, allowing movable type, established a separation between images and words, the two requiring different methods in order to be reproduced.
Early printed material concentrated on religious subjects, but through the 17th and 18th centuries, they began to tackle aspects of political and social life, started to satirize and caricature. It was during this period that the speech bubble was developed as a means of attributing dialogue. One of the first creators of comics was William Hogarth. Hogarth created seven sets of sequential images on "Modern Moral Subjects". One of his works, A Rake's Progress, was composed of a number of canvases, each reproduced as a print, the eight prints together created a narrative; as printing techniques developed, due to the technological advances of the industrial revolution and newspapers were established. These publications utilized illustrations as a means of commenting on political and social issues, such illustrations becoming known as cartoons in the 1842. Soon, artists were experimenting with establishing a sequence of images to create a narrative. While surviving works of these periods, such as Francis Barlow's A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish-Plot as well as The Punishments of Lemuel Gulliver and A Rake's Progress by William Hogarth, can be seen to establish a narrative over a number of images, it wasn't until the 19th century that the elements of such works began to crystallise into the comic strip.
The speech balloon evolved during this period, from the medieval origins of the phylacter, a label in the form of a scroll, which identified a character either through naming them or using a short text to explain their purpose. Artists such as George Cruikshank helped codify such phylacters as balloons rather than scrolls, though at this time they were still called labels, they now represented narrative, but for identification purposes rather than dialogue within the work, artists soon discarded them in favour of running dialogue underneath the panels. Speech balloons were not reintroduced to the form; the Glasgow Looking Glass, published in 1826, was arguably the first comic strip. A satirical publication known as The Northern Looking Glass, it lampooned the fashions and politics of the times, it had all of the elements that make up the modern comic, including pictures with captions that display a continuous narrative told in installments, the use of speech bubbles and caricature. Rodolphe Töpffer, a Francophone Swiss artist, was a key figure in the early part of the 19th century.
Though speech balloons fell from favour during the middle 19th century, Töpffer's sequentially illustrated stories, with text compartmentalized below images, were reprinted throughout Europe and the United States. The lack of copyright laws at the time meant that pirated editions proliferated, translated versions created a market on both continents for similar works. In 1843, Töpffer formalised his thoughts on the picture story in his Essay on Physiognomics: "To construct a picture-story does not mean you must set yourself up as a master craftsman, to draw out every potential from your material—often down to the dregs! It does not mean you just devise caricatures with a pencil frivolous. Nor is it to dramatize a proverb or illustrate a pun. You must invent some kind of play, where the parts are arranged by plan and form a satisfactory whole. You do not pen a joke or put a refrain in couplets. You make a book: good or bad, sober or silly, crazy or sound in sense." In 1845, the satirical drawings, which appeared in newspapers and magazines, gained a name: cartoons.
The British magazine Punch, launched in 1841, referred to its'humorous pencilings' as cartoons in a satirical reference to the Parliament of the day, who were themselves organising an exhibition of cartoons, or preparatory drawings, at the time. This usage became common parlance. Similar magazines containing cartoons in continental Europe included Fliegende Blätter and Le Charivari, while in the U. S. Judge and Puck were popular.1865 saw the publication of Max and Moritz by Wilhelm Busch by a German newspaper. Busch refined the conventions of sequential art, his work was a key influence within the form, Rudolph Dirks was inspired by the strip to create The Katzenjammer Kids in 1897; the first weekly comic to feature a regular character was Ally Sloper's Half Holiday, which debuted in the British humour magazine Judy in 1867 and was created by C. H. Ross and illustrated by his French wife Emilie de Tessier. In 1884 the highly popular character was sp
Photo comics are a form of sequential storytelling that uses photographs rather than illustrations for the images, along with the usual comics conventions of narrative text and word balloons containing dialogue. They are sometimes referred to in English as fumetti and similar terms; the photographs posed dolls or other toys on sets. Although far less common than illustrated comics, photo comics have filled certain niches in various places and times. For example, they have been used to adapt popular film and television works into print, tell original melodramas, provide medical education. Photo comics have been popular at times in Italy and Latin America, to a lesser extent in English-speaking countries; the terminology used to describe photo comics is somewhat idiosyncratic. Fumetti is an Italian word; because of the popularity of photo comics in Italy, fumetti became a loanword in English referring to that technique. By extension, comics which use a mixture of photographic and illustrated imagery have been described as mezzo-fumetti.
Meanwhile, the Spanish term fotonovela – referring to popular photo-comics melodramas in Latin America – was adapted in English as fotonovel or photonovel, came to be associated with film and television adaptations, which were marketed using those terms. Variations such as "photo funnies" and "photostories" have been used. In Italian, a photo comic is referred to as a fotoromanzo. In Spanish-speaking countries, the term fotonovela refers to several genres of photo comics, including original melodramas. Photo comics expanded into the 1950s; the lurid Italian crime photo comic Killing ran from 1966 through 1969, was reprinted in other countries. The technique spread to Latin America, first adapting popular films for original stories. By the 1960s, there were about two dozen fotonovela movie adaptations circulating in Latin America and nearly three times as many original works, they remained popular in Mexico into the late 1980s, when 70 million copies of fotonovelas were printed each month. Photo comics first became successful in the United States and Canada with Harvey Kurtzman's Help! magazine, which ran humorous photo stories from 1960 to 1965.
Similar "Foto Funnies" – featuring female nudity – were a regular feature of National Lampoon magazine beginning in the early 1970s. During the 1970s lines of American paperback books were marketed as "Fotonovels" and "Photostories", adapting popular films and television shows. Although home video supplanted this market in the 1980s, a small number of photo comic adaptations continued to be produced as promotional tie-ins to the original work. Photo comics were common in British magazines such as Jackie in the 1980s, a few are still published. There are a number of photo newspaper strips in the UK and the form was popular in girls comics in the 1980s. Boys comics of the early 1980s such as Load Runner and the relaunched Eagle experimented with photo comics but without much success. Online series such as Night Zero, A Softer World, Alien Loves Predator are more recent examples of photo comics. In 2007, the Web Cartoonist's Choice Awards gave the first award for "Outstanding Photographic Comic".
In 2010 and 2011 the bilingual photo comic Union of Heroes was nominated for the "Web-Sonderman"-Awards for the best German webcomic. In the 2010s, cartoonist John Byrne – inspired by 1970s photo-comics adaptations of Star Trek episodes – produced a series of "photonovel adventures" which combined stills from the series with original digitally-rendered background illustrations and new dialog, to produce new stories featuring the characters. Software applications such as Comic Life, Comic Strip It, Strip Designer, which allow users to add word balloons and sound effects to their personal photos and incorporate them into storytelling layouts, have revived some interest in the medium. In the United States, one of the common uses of photo comics has been TV and film adaptations abridged for length. Still frames from the film or video are reproduced in simple grids but sometimes with creative layouts and cropping, overlaid with balloons with abbreviated dialogue from the screenplays, they are a cost-effective way to adapt films and TV series into comics without the expense of commissioning illustrations, were a way for consumers to revisit motion-picture stories before the widespread availability of affordable home recording and video playback equipment such as VCRs.
The widespread familiarity of fotonovelas in Spanish-language culture makes photo comics an effective vehicle for health promotion and health education. Since the small pamphlets can be traded among individuals, they possess an element of portability that traditional materials lack. Both health and non-health entities have utilized the fotonovela as informational pamphlets; the fotonovelas produced by these organizations present information in a variety of illustrated forms but contain a summation of key points at the end. Health educators have utilized the fotonovela because the medium overcomes issues of health literacy, the degree to which individuals can obtain and understand basic health information to make appropriate health decisions, in their target audience. Most providers believe that health education materials designed for patients w
Speech balloons are a graphic convention used most in comic books and cartoons to allow words to be understood as representing the speech or thoughts of a given character in the comic. There is a formal distinction between the balloon that indicates thoughts and the one that indicates words spoken aloud: the balloon that conveys thoughts is referred to as a thought bubble. One of the earliest antecedents to the modern speech bubble were the "speech scrolls", wispy lines that connected first-person speech to the mouths of the speakers in Mesoamerican art between 600 and 900 AD. Earlier, depicting stories in subsequent frames, using descriptive text resembling bubbles-text, were used in murals, one such example witten in Greek, dating to the 2nd century, found in Capitolias, today in Jordan. In Western graphic art, labels that reveal what a pictured figure is saying have appeared since at least the 13th century; these were in common European use by the early 16th century. Word balloons began appearing in 18th-century printed broadsides, political cartoons from the American Revolution used them.
They fell out of fashion, but by 1904 had regained their popularity, although they were still considered novel enough to require explanation. With the development of the comics industry in the 20th century, the appearance of speech balloons has become standardized, though the formal conventions that have evolved in different cultures, can be quite distinct. Richard F. Outcault's Yellow Kid is credited as the first American comic strip character, his words appeared on his yellow shirt, but word balloons much like those in use today were added immediately, as early as 1896. By the start of the 20th century, word balloons were ubiquitous. In Europe, where text comics were more common, speech balloons caught on, with well-known examples being Alain Saint-Ogan's Zig et Puce, Hergé's The Adventures of Tintin and Rob-Vel's Spirou; the most common is the speech bubble. It comes in two forms for two circumstances: an off-panel character. An in-panel character uses a bubble with a pointer, directed towards the speaker.
When one character has multiple balloons within a panel only the balloon nearest to the speaker's head has a tail, the others are connected to it in sequence by narrow bands. This style is used in Mad Magazine, due to its "call-and-response" dialogue-based humor. An off-panel character has some of them rather unconventional; the first is a standard speech bubble with a tail pointing toward the speaker's position. The second option, which originated in manga, has the tail pointing into the bubble, instead of out; the third option replaces the tail with a sort of bottleneck that connects with the side of the panel. It can be seen in the works of Marjane Satrapi. In American comics, a bubble without a tail means that the speaker is not outside the reader's field of view but invisible to the viewpoint character as an unspecified member of a crowd. Characters distant from the scene of the panel can still speak, in squared bubbles without a tail. In contrast to captions, the corners of such balloons never coincide with those of the panel.
Thought bubbles come in two forms: the chain thought bubble and the "fuzzy" bubble. The chain thought bubble is the universal symbol for thinking in cartoons, it consists of a large, cloud-like bubble containing the text of the thought, with a chain of smaller circular bubbles leading to the character. Some artists use an elliptical bubble instead of a cloud-shaped one. Animal characters like Snoopy and Garfield "talk" using thought bubbles. Thought bubbles may be used in circumstances when a character is gagged or otherwise unable to speak. Another, less conventional thought bubble has emerged: the "fuzzy" thought bubble. Used in manga, the fuzzy bubble is circular in shape, but the edge of the bubble is not a line but a collection of spikes close to each other, creating the impression of fuzziness. Fuzzy thought bubbles do not use tails, are placed near the character, thinking; this has the advantage of reflecting the TV equivalent effect: something said with an echo. Writers and artists can refuse to use thought bubbles, expressing the action through spoken dialogue and drawing.
However, they are restricted to the current viewpoint character. An example is Alan Moore and David Lloyd's V for Vendetta, wherein during one chapter, a monologue expressed in captions serves not only to express the thoughts of a character but the mood, st
Comics is a medium used to express ideas through images combined with text or other visual information. Comics takes the form of juxtaposed sequences of panels of images. Textual devices such as speech balloons and onomatopoeia indicate dialogue, sound effects, or other information; the size and arrangement of panels contribute to narrative pacing. Cartooning and similar forms of illustration are the most common image-making means in comics. Common forms include comic strips and gag cartoons, comic books. Since the late 20th century, bound volumes such as graphic novels, comic albums, tankōbon have become common, while online webcomics have proliferated in the 21st century with the advent of the internet; the history of comics has followed different paths in different cultures. Scholars have posited a pre-history as far back as the Lascaux cave paintings in France. By the mid-20th century, comics flourished in the United States, western Europe, Japan; the history of European comics is traced to Rodolphe Töpffer's cartoon strips of the 1830s, but the medium became popular in the 1930s following the success of strips and books such as The Adventures of Tintin.
American comics emerged as a mass medium in the early 20th century with the advent of newspaper comic strips. Histories of Japanese comics and cartooning propose origins as early as the 12th century. Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th century, the output of comics magazines and books expanded in the post-World War II era with the popularity of cartoonists such as Osamu Tezuka. Comics has had a lowbrow reputation for much of its history, but towards the end of the 20th century began to find greater acceptance with the public and academics; the term comics is used as a singular noun when it refers to the medium, but becomes plural when referring to particular instances, such as individual strips or comic books. Though the term derives from the humorous work that predominated in early American newspaper comic strips, it has become standard for non-humorous works too. In English, it is common to refer to the comics of different cultures by the terms used in their original languages, such as manga for Japanese comics, or bandes dessinées for French-language comics.
There is no consensus amongst historians on a definition of comics. The increasing cross-pollination of concepts from different comics cultures and eras has only made definition more difficult. Examples of early comics The European and Japanese comics traditions have followed different paths. Europeans have seen their tradition as beginning with the Swiss Rodolphe Töpffer from as early as 1827 and Americans have seen the origin of theirs in Richard F. Outcault's 1890s newspaper strip The Yellow Kid, though many Americans have come to recognize Töpffer's precedence. Japan had a long prehistory of satirical comics leading up to the World War II era; the ukiyo-e artist Hokusai popularized the Japanese term for comics and cartooning, manga, in the early 19th century. In 1930s, Mr. Chester, an early founder of "the Golden Age of Comics", which make the comics flourished after World War II. In the post-war era modern Japanese comics began to flourish when Osamu Tezuka produced a prolific body of work.
Towards the close of the 20th century, these three traditions converged in a trend towards book-length comics: the comic album in Europe, the tankōbon in Japan, the graphic novel in the English-speaking countries. Outside of these genealogies, comics theorists and historians have seen precedents for comics in the Lascaux cave paintings in France, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Trajan's Column in Rome, the 11th-century Norman Bayeux Tapestry, the 1370 bois Protat woodcut, the 15th-century Ars moriendi and block books, Michelangelo's The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, William Hogarth's 18th-century sequential engravings, amongst others. Illustrated humour periodicals were popular in 19th-century Britain, the earliest of, the short-lived The Glasgow Looking Glass in 1825; the most popular was Punch. On occasion the cartoons in these magazines appeared in sequences. American comics developed out of such magazines as Puck and Life; the success of illustrated humour supplements in the New York World and the New York American Outcault's The Yellow Kid, led to the development of newspaper comic strips.
Early Sunday strips were full-page and in colour. Between 1896 and 1901 cartoonists experimented with sequentiality and speech balloons. Shorter, black-and-white daily strips began to appear early in the 20th century, became established in newspapers after the success in 1907 of Bud Fisher's Mutt and Jeff. In Britain, the Amalgamated Press established a popular style of a sequence of images with text beneath them, including Illustrated Chips and Comic Cuts. Humour strips predominated at first, in the 1920s and 1930s strips with continuing stories in genres such as adventure and drama became popular. Thin periodicals called
South Sea Company
The South Sea Company was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt. The company was granted a monopoly to trade with South America and nearby islands, hence its name; when the company was created, Britain was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession and Spain controlled South America. There was no realistic prospect that trade would take place, the company never realised any significant profit from its monopoly. Company stock rose in value as it expanded its operations dealing in government debt, peaking in 1720 before collapsing to little above its original flotation price; the Bubble Act 1720, which forbade the creation of joint-stock companies without royal charter, was promoted by the South Sea company itself before its collapse. In Great Britain, a considerable number of people were ruined by the share collapse, the national economy reduced as a result; the founders of the scheme engaged in insider trading, using their advance knowledge of when national debt was to be consolidated to make large profits from purchasing debt in advance.
Huge bribes were given to politicians to support the Acts of Parliament necessary for the scheme. Company money was used to deal in its own shares, selected individuals purchasing shares were given loans backed by those same shares to spend on purchasing more shares; the expectation of profits from trade with South America was used to encourage the public to purchase shares, but the bubble prices reached far beyond the profits of the slave trade. A parliamentary inquiry was held after the crash to discover its causes. A number of politicians were disgraced, people found to have profited unlawfully from the company had assets confiscated proportionate to their gains; the company was continued to operate for more than a century after the Bubble. The headquarters were at the centre of the financial district in London. At the time of these events, the Bank of England was a private company dealing in national debt, the crash of its rival consolidated its position as banker to the British government..
In August 1710 Robert Harley was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in a government of commission. The government at this time had become reliant on the Bank of England; this was a owned company, chartered 16 years which had obtained a monopoly as the lender to Westminster, in return for arranging and managing loans to the government. The government had become dissatisfied with the service it was receiving and Harley was seeking new ways to improve the national finances. A new Parliament met in November 1710 with a resolve to attend to national finances, which were suffering from two simultaneous wars: the war with France, which ended in 1713, the Great Northern War, not to end until 1721. Harley came prepared, with detailed accounts of the situation of the national debt, customarily a piecemeal affair, with different government departments arranging their own loans as the need arose, he released the information continually adding new reports of debts incurred and scandalous expenditure, until in January 1711 the House of Commons agreed to appoint a committee to investigate the entire debt.
The committee included Harley himself. Included were the Secretary of the Treasury, William Lowndes, who had had significant responsibility for reminting the entire debased British coinage in 1696. Harley's first concern was to find £300,000 for the next quarter's pay for the British army operating in Europe under Marlborough; this was provided by a private consortium of George Caswall and Hoare's Bank. The Bank of England had been operating a state lottery on behalf of the government, but this had not been successful in 1710, another had begun in 1711; this too was performing poorly, so Harley granted authority to sell tickets to John Blunt, a director of the Hollow Sword Blade Company, which despite its name was an unofficial bank. With sales commencing on 3 March 1711, tickets had sold out by the 7th; this was the first successful English state lottery. The success was shortly followed by another, lottery, "The Two Million Adventure" or "The Classis", with tickets costing £100, a top prize of £20,000 and every ticket winning a prize of at least £10.
Although prizes were advertised by their total amount, they were paid in the form of a fixed annuity over a period of years, so that the government held the prize money as a loan until it was paid out to the winners. Marketing was handled by members of the Sword Blade syndicate, Gibbon selling £200,000 of tickets and earning £4,500 commission, Blunt selling £993,000. Charles Blunt was made Paymaster of the lottery with expenses of £5,000; the national debt investigation had concluded that a total of £9,000,000 was owed, without any allocated income to pay it off. Edward Harley and John Blunt together had devised a scheme to consolidate this debt in much the same way that the Bank of England had consolidated previous debt
Bethlem Royal Hospital
Bethlem Royal Hospital known as St Mary Bethlehem, Bethlehem Hospital and Bedlam, is a psychiatric hospital in London. Its famous history has inspired several horror books, films and TV series, most notably Bedlam, a 1946 film with Boris Karloff; the hospital is associated with King's College London and, in partnership with the Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, is a major centre for psychiatric research. It is part of the King's Health Partners academic health science centre and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health; the hospital was near Bishopsgate just outside the walls of the City of London. It moved outside of Moorfields in the 17th century to St George's Fields in Southwark in the 19th century, before moving to its current location at Monks Orchard in West Wickham in 1930; the word "bedlam", meaning confusion, is derived from the hospital's nickname. Although the hospital became a modern psychiatric facility it was representative of the worst excesses of asylums in the era of lunacy reform.
The hospital was founded in 1247 as the Priory of the New Order of our Lady of Bethlehem in the city of London during the reign of Henry III. It was established by the Bishop-elect of Bethlehem, the Italian Goffredo de Prefetti, following a donation of personal property by the London alderman and former sheriff, Simon FitzMary; the original location was in the parish of St Botolph, Bishopsgate's ward, just beyond London's wall and where the south-east corner of Liverpool Street Station now stands. Bethlem was not intended as a hospital, in the clinical sense, much less as a specialist institution for the insane, but as a centre for the collection of alms to support the Crusader Church and to link England to the Holy Land. De Prefetti's need to generate income for the Crusader Church and restore the financial fortunes of his see had been occasioned by two misfortunes: his bishopric had suffered significant losses following the destructive conquest of Bethlehem by the Khwarazmian Turks in 1244, his immediate predecessor had further impoverished his cathedral chapter through the alienation of a considerable amount of its property.
The priory, obedient to the Church of Bethlehem, would house the poor and, if they visited, provide hospitality to the bishop and brothers of Bethlehem. Thus, Bethlem became a hospital, in medieval usage, "an institution supported by charity or taxes for the care of the needy"; the subordination of the priory's religious order to the bishops of Bethlehem was further underlined in the foundational charter, which stipulated that the prior and inmates were to wear a star upon their cloaks and capes to symbolise their obedience to the church of Bethlehem. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, with its activities underwritten by episcopal and papal indulgences, the hospital's role as a centre for alms collection persisted, but its linkage to the Order of Bethlehem unravelled, putting its purpose and patronage in doubt. In 1346 the master of Bethlem, a position at that time granted to the most senior of London's Bethlemite brethren, applied to the city authorities seeking protection, it is doubtful whether the city provided substantial protection and much less that the mastership fell within their patronage but, dating from the 1346 petition, it played a role in the management of Bethlem's finances.
By this time the Bethlehemite bishops had relocated to Clamecy, under the surety of the Avignon papacy. This was significant as, throughout the reign of Edward III, the English monarchy had extended its patronage over ecclesiastical positions through the seizure of priories under the control of non-English religious houses; as a dependent house of the Order of Saint Bethlehem in Clamecy, Bethlem was vulnerable to seizure by the crown and this occurred in the 1370s when Edward III took control. The purpose of this appropriation was, in the context of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, to prevent funds raised by the hospital from enriching the French monarchy via the papal court. After this event the masters of the hospital, semi-autonomous figures in charge of its day-to-day management, were crown appointees and it became an secularised institution; the memory of its foundation became muddled. The removal of the last symbolic link to the Bethlehemites was confirmed in 1403 when it was reported that master and inmates no longer wore the star of Bethlehem.
In 1546 the Lord Mayor of London, Sir John Gresham, petitioned the crown to grant Bethlem to the city. This petition was successful and Henry VIII reluctantly ceded to the City of London "the custody and governance" of the hospital and of its "occupants and revenues"; this charter came into effect in 1547. The crown retained possession of the hospital. Following a brief interval when it was placed under the management of the governors of Christ's Hospital, from 1557 it was administered by the governors of Bridewell, a prototype house of correction at Blackfriars. Having been thus one of the few metropolitan hospitals to have survived the dissolution of the monasteries physically intact, this joint administration continued, not without interference by both the crown and city, until incorporation into the National Health Service in 1948, it is Europe's oldest extant psyc