Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
Sierre is the capital of the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of 16,332. Sierre is nicknamed City of the Sun for its average of 300 days of sunshine a year, it is the last official French speaking city in Valais before the French–German language border of the canton located at the forêt de Finges, few kilometres after the town. A German-speaking minority lives in Sierre. Sierre is first mentioned about 800 as Sidrium, though a 12th-century document refers to the village being founded in 515. In 1179 it was mentioned in 1393 as Syder; the area around the modern town Gerunden hill, was settled early. Archeological sites on Gerunden hill have produced neolithic objects and grave goods, Bronze Age weapons and jewelry, Early Iron Age objects and Roman era inscriptions, jars and coins. A soapstone pot from the Early Middle Ages and a gold signet ring with the name Graifarius from the 6th century have been found. Other sites on nearby hills and near the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the Château de Villa, the churches of Sainte-Croix, Grands-Prés, Muraz and Bernunes have yielded up graves originating from the Bronze Age to the Carolingian era.
In Grands-Prés there is a fire pit from the beginning of the Late Iron Age. During the Roman era it appears that there was no major population center, but rather several scattered groupings of separate, upper class dwellings. Under the chapel of Saint-Ginier, the remains of a Roman era house or estate have been discovered. Other Roman ruins have been found near the Château de Villa, in the church of Sainte-Croix, in Grands-Prés by Muraz another house and in Gerunden the remains of buttress reinforced masonry indicate that a public or government building once stood there. Five altars were found in Saint-Ginier, along with another two in the scattered settlements, one of, dedicated to Mercury. During the early imperial period, the duumvir or mayor of the Civitas Vallensium, Caius Cominus Chiu, lived in Sierre. In the late imperial period, the family of the senator of Vinelia Modestina lived in the area; the chapel of Saint-Félix was built in the beginning of the 6th century on Gerunden hill. In 515 the estate at Sierre was given by the King of Burgundy Sigismund to the Abbey of Saint-Maurice to hold as a fief.
By the 11th century, the fief of Sierre was owned by the Bishop of Sion. The aristocratic families and the residents of the fief lived on the Gerunden, Vieux-Sierre and Plantzette hills. On each of these hills there was a castle that served as the residence for the Bishop's representatives and as a refuge for the population; the castles were razed in the mid-14th century when the noble families stood with the Bishop in his war with the Zenden of the Upper Valais and Counts of Savoy. The demolished castles and villages were abandoned and most residents settled farther north, in plan-Sierre; the only castle that survived the wars of the 14th century was Goubing Castle, southeast of Sierre, which belonged to the lords of Granges. The Contrée of Sierre was a group the managed the commons; as vassals of the Bishop, they had the right to assemble twice a year to regulate the management of the common lands and the affairs of the local police. In the 14th and 15th century this cooperative adopted a larger political role as they started to administer more of the daily affairs in the villages and acquired the right to appoint their own judges.
This grew into the Noble Contrée which formed the core of Sierre Zenden from which the city of Sierre developed. The town of Plan-Sierre soon took over the leadership role in the Noble Contrée; until 1798, the Noble Contrée was appointed by a council of village representatives, under the leadership of the Bishop's representative. In 1559, Plan-Sierre divided into four quarters Monderèche, La Salla and Glarey. In 1620, the town hall was built; as the capital of a Zenden, Sierre fought the French in the 1798–99 invasion. In 1799, the city was occupied by Vaudois troops; the French set up their headquarters in Sierre. In the conflicts between the conservative Upper Valais and the liberal Lower Valais, Sierre served as the seat of government in 1839–40. After 1848, the villages of the Noble Contrée became municipalities under the Valais cantonal constitution; the Zenden of Sierre became the District of Sierre with Sierre as the capital. The new city executive council had nine members, while of the General Council had 60.
The majority of the power was held by the Conservatives. In 1913, they were joined in 1945 the Social Democrats and in 2004 the Greens. At the beginning of the 20th century, Sierre became economically important as early aluminium smelting is enabled by its access to hydroelectricity. Today the aluminium industry Novelis and Alcan employs 1,200 workers in Sierre. In 2007, the agglomeration of Sierre/Crans-Montana was formed to address created to common problems in the fields of tourism and transportation. Sierre has an area, as of 2009, of 19.2 square kilometers. Of this area, 6.61 km2 or 34.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.1 km2 or 21.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.6 km2 or 34.4% is settled, 1.31 km2 or 6.8% is either rivers or lakes and 0.6 km2 or 3.1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 5.4% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 10.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 10.3%. Powe
Brienzwiler is a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Besides the village of Brienzwiler, the municipality includes the settlement of Balmhof. Brienzwiler is first mentioned in 1347. During the Middle Ages Brienzwiler was held by the Ministerialis family of Rudenz, they held the city for the Lords of Ringgenberg. The Rudenz family held the village until 1361. Over the following years it passed from owner to owner and was subdivided until the city of Bern acquired the entire village in 1522; when Bern adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1528, they secularized and annexed the lands of the nearby Interlaken Abbey, including some land near Brienzwiler. Bern assigned Brienzwiler to the newly created, secular bailiwick of Interlaken. Brienzwiler belongs to the large parish of Brienz. However, since the early 20th century they have their own filial cemetery. Traditionally, the village's economy was based on farming in the Aare river valley and seasonal alpine herding in the alpine valleys.
They received some income from travelers over the Brünig Pass. Beginning in the 19th century, there was a small tourist industry in the municipality and in 1888 a rail station of the Brünig railway line allowed more tourists to visit. Today the local economy is based on wood carving, government jobs and tourism related work and the Ballenberg Open Air Museum. Brienzwiler has an area of 17.64 km2. Of this area, 5.44 km2 or 30.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 5.91 km2 or 33.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.52 km2 or 2.9% is settled, 0.15 km2 or 0.8% is either rivers or lakes and 5.62 km2 or 31.8% is unproductive land. Of the built up area and buildings made up 1.4% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.9%. Out of the forested land, 30.4% of the total land area is forested and 1.7% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 3.3% is pastures and 27.5% is used for alpine pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water. Of the unproductive areas, 9.6 % is unproductive 21.6 % is too rocky for vegetation.
Brienzwiler is located on both sides of the Aare River. North of the Aare it includes the villages of Brienzwiler and Balmhof as well as several small settlements, including Wiler-Vorsass and Ramseren and the peak of the Wilerhorn 2,005 m. South of the Aare it includes the exclave Alp Oltscheren. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Interlaken-Oberhasli; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure on a Bend Argent a Tower embattled Gules. Brienzwiler has a population of 494; as of 2010, 7.8% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -10.5%. Migration accounted for -7.1%, while births and deaths accounted for -2.6%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Albanian is the second most common and English is the third. There are 5 people who speak 1 person who speaks Italian; as of 2008, the population was 50.3 % female.
The population was made up of 18 non-Swiss men. There were 22 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 232 or about 40.0% were born in Brienzwiler and lived there in 2000. There were 181 or 31.2% who were born in the same canton, while 102 or 17.6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 62 or 10.7% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2010, children and teenagers make up 20.9% of the population, while adults make up 60.3% and seniors make up 18.8%. As of 2000, there were 248 people who never married in the municipality. There were 28 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 77 households that consist of only one person and 26 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 225 apartments were permanently occupied, while 69 apartments were seasonally occupied and 43 apartments were empty; as of 2010, the construction rate of new housing units was 2 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2011, was 1.71%. The historical population is given in the following chart: The Swiss Open Air Museum, shared with Hofstetten, is listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance.
The entire village of Brienzwiler is part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party which received 48.3% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the Conservative Democratic Party, the Green Party and the Social Democratic Party. In the federal election, a total of 180 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 45.8%. As of 2011, Brienzwiler had an unemployment rate of 1.28%. As of 2008, there were a total of 97 people employed in the municipality. Of these, there were 18 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 5 businesses involved in this sector. 22 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 7 businesses in this sector. 57 people were employed in the tertiary sector, with 15 businesses in thi
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Modern vernacular usage has extended the term "stained glass" to include domestic lead light and objects d'art created from foil glasswork exemplified in the famous lamps of Louis Comfort Tiffany; as a material stained glass is glass, coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. The coloured glass is crafted into stained glass windows in which small pieces of glass are arranged to form patterns or pictures, held together by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are used to enhance the design; the term stained glass is applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and fused to the glass in a kiln.
Stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained intact since the Late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason stained glass windows have been described as "illuminated wall decorations"; the design of a window may be figurative. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church – episodes from the life of Christ. Stained glass is still popular today, but referred to as art glass, it is prevalent in luxury homes, commercial buildings, places of worship.
Artists and companies are contracted to create beautiful art glass ranging from domes, backsplashes, etc. During the late medieval period, glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential material for glass manufacture. Silica requires a high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve; such materials as potash and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable. Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, gold produces wine red and violet glass. Much modern red glass is produced using copper, less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass. Using a blow-pipe, a "gather" of molten glass is taken from the pot heating in the furnace.
The gather is formed to a bubble of air blown into it. Using metal tools, molds of wood that have been soaking in water, gravity, the gather is manipulated to form a long, cylindrical shape; as it cools, it is reheated. During the process, the bottom of the cylinder is removed. Once brought to the desired size it is left to cool. One side of the cylinder is opened, it is put into another oven to heat and flatten it, placed in an annealer to cool at a controlled rate, making the material more stable. "Hand-blown" cylinder and crown glass were the types used in ancient stained-glass windows. Stained glass windows were in churches and chapels as well as many more well respected buildings; this hand-blown glass is created by blowing a bubble of air into a gather of molten glass and spinning it, either by hand or on a table that revolves like a potter's wheel. The centrifugal force causes the molten bubble to flatten, it can be cut into small sheets. Glass formed this way can be either coloured and used for stained-glass windows, or uncoloured as seen in small paned windows in 16th- and 17th-century houses.
Concentric, curving waves are characteristic of the process. The center of each piece of glass, known as the "bull's-eye", is subject to less acceleration during spinning, so it remains thicker than the rest of the sheet, it has the distinctive lump of glass left by the "pontil" rod, which holds the glass as it is spun out. This lumpy, refractive quality means the bulls-eyes are less transparent, but they have still been used for windows, both domestic and ecclesiastical. Crown glass is still made today, but not on a large scale. Rolled glass is produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal or graphite table and rolling it into a sheet using a large metal cylinder, similar to rolling out a pie crust; the rolling can be done by machine. Glass can be "double rolled", which means it is passed through two cylinders at once to yield glass of a specified thickness (typically about 1/8" or
The Berner Oberland, is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the southern end of the canton, one of the canton's five administrative regions. The region consists of the area around Meiringen and Hasliberg up to Grimsel Pass, around Lake Thun and Lake Brienz, the valleys of many high mountains with the towering Jungfrau Peak, the area southwest of the Lake Thun with Kandersteg and Adelboden, the area round Gstaad and Lenk in the Simmental; the mountain range in the Berner Oberland south of the Aare and north of the Rhône are collectively called the Bernese Alps. The flag of the Berner Oberland consists of a black eagle in a gold field over two fields in the cantonal colours of red and black; the Swiss German dialects spoken in the Berner Oberland are Highest Alemannic German, contrasting with the High Alemannic Bernese German spoken in Bern and the northern parts of the canton. In the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the Berner Oberland was a separate canton. Prehistorically the Berner Oberland was crossed by hunters or traders, but the first known settlements were from the Roman era.
The Romans settled along the lakes. They used. During the High Middle Ages, a number of Berner Oberland villages grew around valley parish churches which were religious and cultural centers within each surrounding valley. During Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland first belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy followed by the Dukes of Zähringen. After the extinction of the Zähringen line, the Berner Oberland was ruled by a number of local Barons. For a time, some of the Walser barons ruled portions of the Berner Oberland; the Saanen valley was ruled by the Counts of Gruyères. Portions of the alpine passes were held, by the Bishop of Sion; the expansionist policy of the city of Bern led them into the Berner Oberland. Through conquest, mortgage or marriage politics Bern was able to acquire the majority of the Berner Oberland from the indebted local barons between 1323 and 1400. Under Bernese control, the five valleys enjoyed extensive rights and far-reaching autonomy in the Bäuerten and Talverbänden. Throughout the Late Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland, as a whole or in part, revolted several times against Bernese authority.
The Evil League in 1445 fought against Bernese military service and taxes following the Old Zürich War, in 1528 the Berner Oberland rose up in resistance to the Protestant Reformation and in 1641 Thun revolted. During the Middle Ages, the settlement pattern in the Berner Oberland was somewhat consistent. A main settlement grew on the valley floor below an elevation near 1,100 m; this main settlement had a market and a castle or other fortifications. This market town was surrounded by scattered villages and individual farm houses to an elevation of 1,600 m. During the 14th-16th centuries, the Berner Oberland villages began extensive trading with the Bernese grain producing towns in the lowlands; this allowed the alpine villages to renounce self-sufficiency in grain and focus on raising cattle in the high alpine pastures and bringing them down into the valleys in the winter. They exported cattle over the passes into Italy and into the Bernese lowlands. Around 1500, in addition to the seven medieval markets, eleven new cattle markets opened to allow the Berner Oberland villagers to sell their cattle.
After the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the old Bernese order was fractured and the Berner Oberland was separated from the canton of Bern, forming the canton of Oberland. Within this new canton, historic borders and traditional rights were not considered; as there had been no previous separatist feeling amongst the conservative population, there was little enthusiasm for the new order. The 1801 Malmaison Constitution proposed reuniting the canton of Oberland with Bern, but it was not until the Act of Mediation, two years with the abolition of the Helvetic Republic and the partial restoration of the ancien régime, that the two cantons were reunited. In 1729, Albrecht von Haller published the poem Die Alpen about his travels through the alpine regions; this combined with other reports and alpine paintings started the tourism industry in the Berner Oberland. By 1800 there were resorts on Lake Brienz. Shortly thereafter the resorts expanded into the alpine valleys, began attracting English guests.
However, because of the widespread poverty of the 19th century many residents of the Simmen valley and the Interlaken district emigrated to North America, Germany or Russia. In the late 19th century, new transportation links made it easier for people to travel into the valleys; the Bern-Lötschberg-Simplon railway opened in 1913 and became the largest owned railroad in Switzerland. The collapse of the hotel industry during both world wars forced a diversification of the economy. After 1950 a new wave of hotel construction of hotels and holiday homes and apartments, led to a strong population growth. Starting in the 1930s and after 1950 funiculars, cable cars and chair lifts opened up many of t