Branxholme Castle is a five-storey tower at Branxholme, about 3 miles south-west of Hawick in the Borders region of Scotland. The present castle is on land owned by the Clan Scott since 1420; the Earl of Northumberland burned the first castle in 1532. The next held out against the English in the War of the Rough Wooing in 1547, but in due course the Scotts themselves slighted the castle in 1570, the English, under the Earl of Essex, finishing the job with gunpowder. Within a decade Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch had commenced the rebuilding; the Scotts were during these troubled years the Wardens of the Middle March. The castle was extensively remodelled by William Burn in 1837 for the 5th Duke of Buccleuch; the Branksome Hall School in Toronto, Canada, is named after this castle, has been given a replica of a mantle from the castle. Branxholme castle consists of a sixteenth-century tower house of five storeys and incorporated in a mansion. There are vaulted chambers in the basement, a newel stair.
Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch was the “bauld Buccleuch” of the Border Ballad Kinmont Willie. Sir Walter Scott’s Lay of the Last Minstrel celebrates the success of Baron Henry of Cranston in securing the hand of Lady Margaret of Branksome Hall. List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland The Castles of Scotland, Martin Coventry, Goblinshead, 2001 Scotland’s Castles, Hubert Fenwick, Robert Hale Ltd, 1976
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Coldstream is a town and civil parish in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland. A former burgh, Coldstream is the home of the Coldstream Guards, a regiment in the British Army. Coldstream lies on the north bank of the River Tweed in Berwickshire, while Northumberland in England lies to the south bank, with Cornhill-on-Tweed the nearest village. At the 2001 census, the town had a population of 1,813, estimated to have risen to 2,050 by 2006; the parish, in 2001, had a population of 2,186. Coldstream is the location where Edward I of England invaded Scotland in 1296. In February 1316 during the Wars of Scottish Independence, Sir James Douglas defeated a numerically superior force of Gascon soldiery led by Edmond de Caillou at the Skaithmuir to the north of the town. In 1650 General George Monck founded the Coldstream Guards regiment, it is one of two regiments of the Household Division that can trace its lineage to the New Model Army. Monck led the regiment to London, helping to enable the Restoration of King Charles II.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Coldstream was a popular centre for runaway marriages, much like Gretna Green, as it lay on a major road. A monument to Charles Marjoribanks, MP for Berwickshire, whose ancestral home was in nearby Lees, stands at the east end of the town, near the Coldstream Bridge. Alec Douglas-Home, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1964, is buried in Coldstream. Notable buildings in the town include the toll house where marriages were conducted, The Hirsel, the family seat of the Earls of Home; each year, during the first week of August, Coldstream hosts a traditional "Civic Week" where it includes historical aspects of the town's history such as the Torchlight procession and horse-rides to the Battle of Flodden battlefield. The Priory of St Mary was founded before 1166 by Earl Gospatrick of Dunbar and ceased to exist in 1621, it had 11 members in 1537 and only 8 in 1621. Isabella Hoppringle was the abbess of Coldstream in 1505-1538; the border between Scotland and England runs down the middle of the River Tweed, however between the villages of Wark and Cornhill the Scottish border comes south of the river to enclose a small riverside meadow of 2 acres to 3 acres.
This piece of land is known as the Ba Green. It is said locally that every year the men of Coldstream would play the men of Wark at ba, the winning side would claim the Ba Green for their country; as Coldstream grew to have a larger population than Wark, the men of Coldstream always defeated those of Wark at the game, so the land became a permanent part of Scotland. Coldstream Bridge Coldstream F. C. List of places in the Scottish Borders List of places in Scotland
The Brus known as The Bruce, is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbour which gives a historic and chivalric account of the actions of Robert the Bruce and Sir James Douglas in the Scottish Wars of Independence during a period from the circumstances leading up to the English invasion of 1296 through to Scotland's restored position in the years between the Treaty of 1328 and the death of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray in 1332. The poem's centre-piece is an extensive account of the Battle of Bannockburn of 1314. Barbour's poetic account of these events is a keystone in Scotland's national story; the description of the battle is Barbour’s masterpiece. The poem was written about 1375, "...to throw behind the new king, Robert II the weight of his grandfather's achievements and reputation." Barbour's work is a romance based upon a lost life of Douglas and a chronicle or chronicles which told of King Robert and his times. At the beginning of the poem, he conflates three Bruces into the single person of the hero by design.
Archie Duncan notes Barbour's fondness for exaggerated numbers for the size of any army. Here and there the order of events is transposed. Despite this, it has been regarded from his own time as, in all details, a trustworthy source for the history of the period. Throughout the piece, Bruce overshadows all his associates. In book nine, in recounting Edward Bruce's victories in Galloway, Barbour does not relate the whole story, but sums up his worthiness by remarking that "he might have rivaled any of his contemporaries excepting only his brother"; the king is a hero of the chivalric type common in contemporary romance. Many lines are full of vigour. Despite a number of errors of fact, the account has a greater degree of historical veracity than is associated with the verse-chronicle genre, but it is much more than a rhyming chronicle. Its style is somewhat severe. No one has doubted Barbour's authorship of the Brus, but argument has been attempted to show that the text as we have it is an edited copy by John Ramsay, a Perth scribe, who wrote out the two extant texts, one preserved in the Advocates Library and the other in the library of St John's College, Cambridge.
Barbour's influence on Scottish writers can be seen in Robert Burns' Scots Wha Hae, Walter Scott's Lord of the Isles and Castle Dangerous. Text from The Brus by Barbour THE POET’S PROEM. Storyß to rede ar delitabill, suppoß þat þai be nocht bot fabill, þan suld storyß þat suthfast wer, And þai war said on gud maner, Hawe doubill plesance in heryng. Þe fyrst plesance is þe carpyng, And þe toþir þe suthfastnes, þat schawys þe thing rycht. Þarfor I wald fayne set my will, Giff my wyt mycht suffice þartill, To put in wryt a suthfast story, þat it lest ay furth in memory, Swa þat na length of tyme it let, na ger it haly be forȝet. For auld storys þat men redys, Representis to þaim þe dedys Of stalwart folk þat lywyt ar, Rycht as þai þan in presence war. And, certis, þai suld weill hawe pryß þat in þar tyme war wycht and wyß, And led thar lyff in gret trawaill, And oft in hard stour off bataill Wan gret price off chewalry, And war woydit off cowardy; as wes king Robert off Scotland, þat hardy wes off hart and hand.
Off þaim I thynk þis buk to ma. Scottish literature Barbour, Innes, Cosmo, ed; the Brus: From a Collation of the Cambridge and Edinburgh Manuscripts, Aberdeen: The Spalding Club, retrieved 2011-12-14 - in Scots Barbour, Skeat, Walter W. ed. The Bruce; the Bruce, being the Metrical History of Robert The Bruce, King of Scots, London: Gowans & Gray Limited, retrieved 2011-12-14 - a modern English translation The Brus edited by Emeritus Professor A A M Duncan
First War of Scottish Independence
The First War of Scottish Independence was the initial chapter of engagements in a series of warring periods between English and Scottish forces lasting from the invasion by England in 1296 until the de jure restoration of Scottish independence with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. De facto independence was established in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn. England attempted to establish its authority over Scotland while the Scots fought to keep English rule and authority out of Scotland; the term "War of Independence" did not exist at the time. The war was given that name retroactively many centuries after the American War of Independence made the term popular; when King Alexander III ruled Scotland, his reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse; the heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians.
Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as Competitors for the Crown of Scotland or the "Great Cause", with several families laying claim to the throne. With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgement was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. John was a weak king, known as "Toom Tabard" or "Empty Coat". John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town.
In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar in East Lothian and by July, Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles. Throughout Scotland, there was widespread discontent and disorder after the dominion exercised by the English Crown, acts of defiance were directed against local English officials. In 1297, the country erupted in open revolt, Andrew de Moray and William Wallace emerged as the first significant Scottish patriots. Andrew de Moray was the son of Sir Andrew de Moray of Petty. Andrew and his father were both captured in the rout after the Battle of Dunbar in April 1296. Andrew the younger was held captive in Chester Castle on the Anglo-Welsh border, from which he escaped during the winter of 1296-97, he returned to his father's castle at Avoch on the northern shore of the Moray Firth, where he raised his banner in the name of Scotland's king, John Balliol. Moray gathered a band of like-minded patriots, employing hit-and-run guerrilla tactics, began to attack and devastate every English-garrisoned castle from Banff to Inverness.
The entire province of Moray was soon in revolt against King Edward I's men, before long Moray had secured Moray, leaving him free to turn his attention to the rest of the northeast of Scotland. Wallace rose to prominence in May 1297, when he killed Sir William Haselrig, the English sheriff of Lanark, members of his garrison at Lanark with the aid of Sir Richard Lundie; when news of Wallace's latest attack on the English rippled throughout Scotland, men rallied to him. The rebels were supported by Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, who longed for the defeat of the English; the blessing of Wishart gave the patriots a mark of respectability. He was soon joined by others. In early June and Douglas planned a symbolic strike to liberate Scone, the seat of the English-appointed Justiciar of Scotland, William de Ormesby, it was from Scone, a site held sacred by the Scots, that Ormesby had been dispensing English justice. Ormesby was hastily fled. On hearing about the start of an aristocratic uprising, Edward I, although engaged in events in France, sent a force of foot soldiers and horsemen under Sir Henry Percy and Sir Robert Clifford to resolve the "Scottish problem".
On receiving reports that Sir William Douglas had defected to the rebels, Edward dispatched Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, together with his father's vassals of Annandale, to attack Douglas's stronghold in Lanarkshire. Whilst traveling north to face Douglas, Bruce began to think about where his loyalties lay, he decided to follow the Scottish cause, being quoted as saying, "No man holds his flesh and blood in hatred, I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in whom I was born."The confederacy of men that Bruce joined included James the Steward, Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow and William Douglas. Dissension broke out in the Scottish camp when the Scottish and English armies met in July 1297 near Irvine; the aristocratic revolt halted before it started, but its leaders led long and futile negotiations. It has been suggested that this was a deliberate move in order to provide space and time for Wallace to levy and train men. Percy and Clifford assumed that this was the end of the problem and retired back to the south, only to be followed once more by Wallace and Moray.
These two divided their forces and in a short time again forced the English south of the Forth, leaving them holding only the castle of Dundee. While laying siege to Dundee Castle, Wallace heard that an En
Berwick Castle is a ruined castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. The castle was founded in the 12th century by the Scottish King David I. In 1296–8, the English King Edward I had the castle rebuilt and the town fortified, before it was returned to Scotland. In November 1292, King Edward announced in the great hall before the full parliament of England and many of the nobility of Scotland his adjudication in favour of John Balliol of the dispute between him, Robert the Bruce and the count of Holland for the Crown of Scotland. 1330 "Domino Roberto de Lawedre" of the Bass, described as Custodian or Keeper of the Marches and the Castle of Berwick-upon-Tweed, received upon the termination of his employment there, £33.6s.8d, plus a similar amount, from the Scottish Exchequer. The town and castle changed hands several times during the English-Scottish conflicts. In 1464 the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland record that Robert Lauder of Edrington was paid £20 for repairs made to Berwick Castle. In the 16th century, during the reign of Elizabeth I, the walls were strengthened with the addition of two semi-circular artillery flanking towers, one at the river's edge and the other on the angle of the curtain wall.
The castle's location in the hotly disputed border country between England and Scotland made it one of the most important strongholds in the British Isles, it had an eventful history. As a major tactical objective in the region, the castle was captured by both the English and Scots on a number of occasions and sustained substantial damage; the castle changed hands in less violent circumstances when the English King Richard I sold the castle to the Scots, to help fund the Third Crusade. The castle fell into English hands in the last week of August 1482. After invading Scotland following a pact with the Duke of Albany, Duke of Gloucester captured the castle from Patrick Hepburn, Lord Hailes; the construction of modern ramparts around Berwick in the sixteenth century rendered the castle obsolete and its history is one of steady decline. Large parts of the structure were used as a quarry, while in the nineteenth century, the great hall and much of what remained was demolished to make way for Berwick-upon-Tweed railway station.
The railway platforms now stand where King Edward took oaths of allegiance from Scottish nobility in 1296, marked by a large notice to that effect. The principal surviving part of the structure is the late thirteenth century White Wall and the steep and long flight of steps known as the Breakneck Stairs, it is now administered by English Heritage. Sir William Douglas, 1294–1296 surrendered to Edward I of England following the Massacre of Berwick Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley, English governor c.1314 Edmond de Caillou, Gascon governor for the English, Killed at the Battle of Skaithmuir 1316. Sir Robert de Lawedre of the Bass, 1330-3. Patrick de Dunbar, 5th Earl of March, Jan-July 1333. Robert de Lawedre of Edrington, 1461/2–1474. David, Earl of Crawford, 1474–1478. Sir Robert Lauder of The Bass, Knt. 1478–1482. Sir Patrick Hepburn, 1st Lord Hailes, 1482. Sir William Drury, Marshal of Berwick-upon-Tweed, before 1564. Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, appointed 1564 Sir George Bowes of Streatlam, County Durham, Marshal of Berwick.
In 1568 he escorted Queen of Scots, from Carlisle to Bolton Castle. His sister Margery married John Knox. Images of Berwick upon Tweed Castle Berwick Castle The David & Charles Book of Castles, by Plantagenet Somerset Fry, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3 The History of Scotland, by John Hill Burton, Edinburgh, 1874: vols: iv. p. 364–5, v. pps: 68, 71, 73, 115, 120, 257, 365, for Sir William Drury John Knox, by Lord Eustace Percy, London, 1937, p.165
William Fraser (historian)
Sir William Fraser, was a solicitor and notable expert in ancient Scottish history and genealogy. Fraser's family came of the stock of craftsmen in The Mearns, he was born the eldest of two sons and a daughter of James Fraser, a mason, his spouse Ann, daughter of James Walker, tenant of the farm of Elfhill of Fetteresso, about 5 miles from Stonehaven. The couple were feuholders at Links of Arduthie. William Fraser was educated at a private school in Stonehaven kept by the Reverend Charles Michie, a M. A. graduate of Aberdeen's Marischal College in 1810. On 23 August 1830, Fraser began a five-year apprenticeship with Messrs. Brand and Burnett, solicitors in Stonehaven, he went to Edinburgh in December 1835, where he joined the firm of Hill and Tod, Writers to Her Majesty's Signet. He continued his education at Edinburgh University in conveyancing. In 1838 he was taking classes in French, it was his good fortune to be subsequently concerned in various cases requiring antiquarian and, in particular, genealogical research, he was thus early introduced to those studies in which he became such an expert, built up a remarkable body of knowledge which made possible his great series of fifty or so volumes on the histories of between twenty and thirty of the leading noble and landed families of Scotland.
Fraser was summoned to London to give evidence before the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords. In 1882 the University of Edinburgh conferred on him the honorary degree of LL. D. In 1885 he was created a Companion of the Order of the Bath and in 1887 he was made a Civil Knight Commander of the Bath, being invested by Queen Victoria at Osborne House on 2 August that year; the knighthood was a unique distinction for a Scottish historian at that time. An article in the Dundee Advertiser on 1 June 1896, stated: "There is no Scotsman living who has so much experience in deciphering ancient documents, nor one who can so skillfully extract information from faded and time-worn parchments" as Sir William Fraser. Sir William Fraser died three months after his sister Ann, who had kept house for him since 1846, they share a unusual and ornate grave, designed by the architect Arthur Forman Balfour Paul, in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh just south of the northmost path in the north section of the original cemetery.
The Sir William Fraser Chair of Scottish History and Palaeography at the University of Edinburgh, founded in 1901, is the oldest chair of Scottish History. The professorship was named after and endowed by Sir William Fraser, who gave the university £25,000 for it; the chair has been held by a number of distinguished historians. In his will he endowed the Fraser Homes at Colinton for "authors or artists in necessitous circumstances." He left money for "printing works which would tend to elucidate the history and antiquities of Scotland." The nine-volume book series, The Scots Peerage, by Sir James Balfour Paul, was used for that purpose and is dedicated to him. Sir William Fraser Chair of Scottish History and Palaeography professors Peter Hume Brown 1901-1918 Robert Kerr Hannay 1919-1940 William Croft Dickinson 1940-1963 Gordon Donaldson 1963-1979 Geoffrey W. S. Barrow 1979-1992 Michael Lynch 1993-2005 Tom M Devine 2006-2011 Ewen A. Cameron 2012- Fraser's writings include: Memorials of the Montgomeries Earls of Eglinton Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Henderson, Thomas Finlayson.
"Fraser, William". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Donaldson, Sir William Fraser - The Man and His Work, Edinburgh, 1985, ISBN 0-905695-11-9 Works by or about William Fraser in libraries