Margaret of Anjou
Margaret of Anjou was the Queen of England by marriage to King Henry VI from 1445 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. Born in the Duchy of Lorraine into the House of Valois-Anjou, Margaret was the second eldest daughter of René, King of Naples, Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, she was one of the principal figures in the series of dynastic civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses and at times led the Lancastrian faction. Owing to her husband's frequent bouts of insanity, Margaret ruled the kingdom in his place, it was she who called for a Great Council in May 1455 that excluded the Yorkist faction headed by Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, this provided the spark that ignited a civil conflict that lasted for more than 30 years, decimated the old nobility of England, caused the deaths of thousands of men, including her only son Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Margaret was taken prisoner by the victorious Yorkists after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury.
In 1475, she was ransomed by King Louis XI of France. She went to live in France as a poor relation of the French king, she died there at the age of 52. Margaret was born on 23 March 1430 at Pont-à-Mousson in Lorraine, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire east of France ruled by a cadet branch of the French kings, the House of Valois-Anjou. Margaret was King of Naples and of Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine, she had five brothers and four sisters, as well as three half-siblings from her father's relationships with mistresses. Her father, popularly known as "Good King René", was duke of Anjou and titular king of Naples and Jerusalem. Margaret was baptised at Toul in Lorraine and, in the care of her father's old nurse Theophanie la Magine, she spent her early years at the castle at Tarascon on the River Rhône in Provence and in the old royal palace at Capua, near Naples in the Kingdom of Sicily, her mother took care of her education and may have arranged for her to have lessons with the scholar Antoine de la Sale, who taught her brothers.
In childhood Margaret was known as la petite créature. On 23 April 1445, Margaret married King Henry VI of England, eight years her senior, at Titchfield Abbey in Hampshire; the king and queen of France were the uncle and aunt of the groom and the bride respectively: Henry's late mother, had been the sister of King Charles VII, whose wife Marie of Anjou was a sister of Margaret's father René. Further, Henry claimed for himself the Kingdom of France, controlled various parts of northern France. Due to all this, the French king agreed to the marriage of Margaret to his rival on the condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the lands of Maine and Anjou from the English; the English government, fearing a negative reaction, kept this provision secret from the English public. Margaret was crowned Queen Consort of England on 30 May 1445 at Westminster Abbey by John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury at the age of fifteen, she was described as beautiful, furthermore "already a woman: passionate and proud and strong-willed".
Those that anticipated the future return of English claims to French territory believed that she understood her duty to protect the interests of the Crown fervently. She seems to have inherited this indomitability from her mother, who fought to establish her husband's claim to the Kingdom of Naples, from her paternal grandmother Yolande of Aragon, who governed Anjou "with a man's hand", putting the province in order and keeping out the English, thus by family example and her own forceful personality, she was capable of becoming the "champion of the Crown". Henry, more interested in religion and learning than in military matters, was not a successful king, he had reigned since he was only a few months old and his actions had been controlled by protectors, magnates who were regents. When he married Margaret, his mental condition was unstable and by the time of the birth of their only son, Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, he had suffered a complete breakdown. Rumours were rife that he was incapable of begetting a child and that the new Prince of Wales was the result of an adulterous liaison.
Many have speculated that either Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, or James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond, both staunch allies of Margaret, was the young prince's actual father. Although Margaret was aggressively partisan and had a volatile temperament, she shared her husband's love of learning by dint of her cultured upbringing and gave her patronage to the founding of Queens' College, Cambridge. Elizabeth Woodville Queen of England as future wife of her husband's rival, King Edward IV, purportedly served Margaret of Anjou as a maid of honour. However, the evidence is too scanty to permit historians to establish this with absolute certainty: several women at Margaret's court bore the name Elizabeth or Isabella Grey. After retiring from London to live in lavish state at Greenwich, Margaret was occupied with the care of her young son and did not display any signs of political will until she believed her husband was threatened with deposition by the ambitious Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, who, to her consternation, had been appointed Lord Protector while Henry was mentally incapacitated from 1453 to 1454.
The duke was a credible claimant to the English throne and by the end of his protectorship there were many powerful nobles and relatives prepared to back his claim. The Duke of York was powerful.
Battle of Tewkesbury
The Battle of Tewkesbury, which took place on 4 May 1471, was one of the decisive battles of the Wars of the Roses. The forces loyal to the House of Lancaster were defeated by those of the rival House of York under their monarch, King Edward IV; the Lancastrian heir to the throne, Prince of Wales, many prominent Lancastrian nobles were killed during the battle or were dragged from sanctuary two days and executed. The Lancastrian king, Henry VI, a prisoner in the Tower of London, died or was murdered shortly after the battle. Tewkesbury restored political stability to England until the death of Edward IV in 1483; the term Wars of the Roses refers to the informal heraldic badges of the two rival houses of Lancaster and York, contending for power—and for the throne—since the late 1450s. In 1461 the Yorkist claimant, Earl of March, was proclaimed King Edward IV and defeated the supporters of the weak, intermittently insane Lancastrian King Henry VI at the Battle of Towton. Lancastrian revolts in the far north of England were defeated in 1464, the fugitive King Henry was captured and imprisoned the next year.
His wife, Margaret of Anjou, their 13-year-old son Edward of Westminster were exiled and impoverished in France. Edward IV's hold on the throne appeared temporarily to be secure. Edward owed his victory in large measure to the support of his cousin, the powerful 16th Earl of Warwick, they became estranged when Edward spurned the French diplomatic marriage that Warwick was seeking for him and instead married Elizabeth Woodville, widow of an obscure Lancastrian gentleman, in secret in 1464. When the marriage became public knowledge, Edward placed many of his new queen's family in powerful positions that Warwick had hoped to control. Edward meanwhile reversed Warwick's policy of friendship with France by marrying his sister Margaret to Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy; the embittered Warwick secured the support of Edward IV's brother George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, for a coup in exchange for Warwick's promise to crown Clarence king. Although Edward was imprisoned Clarence was unacceptable as monarch to most of the country.
Edward was allowed to resume his rule, outwardly reconciled with Clarence. Within a year, though, he forced them to flee to France. With no hope of a reconciliation with King Edward, Warwick's best hope of regaining power in England lay in restoring Henry VI to the throne. Louis XI of France feared a hostile alliance of Burgundy under Charles the Bold and England under Edward, he was prepared to support Warwick with men and money, but to give legitimacy to any uprising by Warwick, the acquiescence of Margaret of Anjou was required. Warwick and Margaret were sworn enemies, but her attendants and Louis persuaded her to ally the House of Lancaster with Warwick. At Angers Warwick begged her pardon on his knees for all past wrongs done to her, was forgiven. Prince Edward was betrothed to Warwick's younger daughter Anne, they swore loyalty to Henry VI on a fragment of the True Cross in Angers Cathedral. However, Margaret declined to let Prince Edward land in England or to land there herself until Warwick had established a firm government and made the country safe for them.
Warwick landed in the West Country on 13 September 1470, accompanied by Clarence and some unswerving Lancastrian nobles, including the Earl of Oxford and Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke. As King Edward made his way south to face Warwick, he realised that Warwick's brother John, Marquess of Montagu, who had up until remained loyal to Edward, had defected at the head of a large army in the north of England. Edward fled to King's Lynn, where he took ship for Flanders, part of Burgundy, accompanied only by his youngest brother Richard of Gloucester and a few faithful adherents. In London Warwick released King Henry, led him in procession to Saint Paul's cathedral and installed him in Westminster palace. Warwick's position remained precarious, his alliance with Louis of France and his intention to declare war on Burgundy was contrary to the interests of the merchants, as it threatened English trade with Flanders and the Netherlands. Clarence had long been excluded from Warwick's calculations. In November 1470 Parliament declared that Prince Edward and his descendants were Henry's heirs to the throne.
Unknown to Warwick, Clarence secretly became reconciled with King Edward. With Warwick in power in England, it was Charles of Burgundy's turn to fear a hostile alliance of England and France; as an obvious counter to Warwick, he supplied King Edward with money and several hundred men. Edward set sail from Flushing on 11 March 1471 with 1200 men, he touched on the English coast at Cromer but found that the Duke of Norfolk, who might have supported him, was away from the area and that Warwick controlled that part of the country. Instead, his ships made for Ravenspurn, near the mouth of the River Humber, where Henry Bolingbroke had landed in 1399 on his way to reclaim the Duchy of Lancaster and depose Richard II. Edward's landing was inauspicious at first; the port of Kingston-upon-Hull refused to allow Edward to enter, so he made for York, claiming rather like Bolingbroke that h
Lady Margaret Beaufort
Lady Margaret Beaufort was the mother of King Henry VII and paternal grandmother of King Henry VIII of England. She was a key figure in an influential matriarch of the House of Tudor, she is credited with the establishment of two prominent Cambridge colleges, founding Christ's College in 1505 and beginning the development of St John's College, completed posthumously by her executors in 1511. Lady Margaret Hall, the first Oxford college to admit women, is named after her and has a statue of her in the college chapel, she was the daughter and sole heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his third surviving son, John of Gaunt by Katherine Swynford. Margaret was born at Bletsoe Castle, Bedfordshire, on either 31 May 1441 or, more on 31 May 1443; the day and month are not disputed, as she required Westminster Abbey to celebrate her birthday on 31 May. The year of her birth is more uncertain. William Dugdale, the 17th-century antiquary, suggested that she may have been born in 1441, based on evidence of inquisitions post mortem taken after the death of her father.
Dugdale has been followed by a number of Margaret's biographers. At the moment of her birth, Margaret's father was preparing to go to France and lead an important military expedition for King Henry VI. Somerset negotiated with the king to ensure that in case of his death the rights to Margaret's wardship and marriage would be granted only to his wife; as a tenant-in-chief of the crown the wardship of his heir fell to the crown under the feudal system. Somerset fell out with the king after coming back from France and was banished from the royal court pending a charge of treason against him, he died shortly afterwards. According to Thomas Basin, Somerset died of illness, but the Crowland Chronicle reported that his death was suicide. Margaret, as his only child, was heiress to his fortune. Upon her first birthday, the king broke the arrangement with Margaret's father and granted the wardship of her extensive lands to William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, although Margaret herself remained in the custody of her mother.
Margaret's mother was pregnant at the time of Somerset's death, but the child did not survive and Margaret remained the sole heir. Although she was her father's only legitimate child, Margaret had two maternal half-brothers and three maternal half-sisters from her mother's first marriage whom she supported after her son's accession to the throne. Margaret was married to John de la Pole; the wedding may have been held between 28 January and 7 February 1444, when she was a year old but no more than three. However, there is more evidence to suggest they were married in January 1450, after Suffolk had been arrested and was looking to secure his son's future. Papal dispensation was granted on 18 August 1450, necessary because the spouses were too related, this concurs with the date of marriage. Margaret never recognised this marriage. Three years the marriage was dissolved and King Henry VI granted Margaret's wardship to his own half-brothers and Edmund Tudor. In her will, made in 1472, Margaret refers to Edmund Tudor as her first husband.
Under canon law, Margaret was not bound by the marriage contract as she was entered into the marriage before reaching the age of twelve. Before the annulment of her first marriage, Henry VI chose Margaret as a bride for his half-brother, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond. Edmund was the eldest son of Catherine of Valois, by Owen Tudor. Margaret was 12 when she married the 24-year-old Edmund Tudor on 1 November 1455; the Wars of the Roses had just broken out. He died of the plague in captivity at Carmarthen on 3 November 1456, leaving a 13-year-old widow, seven months pregnant with their child. Taken into the care of her brother-in-law Jasper, at Pembroke Castle, the Countess gave birth on 28 January 1457 to her only child, Henry Tudor, the future Henry VII of England; the birth was difficult. She never gave birth again. Margaret and her son remained in Pembroke until the York triumphs of 1461 saw the castle pass to Lord Herbert of Raglan. From the age of two, Henry lived with his father's family in Wales, from the age of fourteen, he lived in exile in France.
During this period, the relationship between mother and son was sustained by letters and a few visits. The Countess always respected the memory of Edmund as the father of her only child. In 1472, sixteen years after his death, Margaret specified in her will that she wanted to be buried alongside Edmund though she had enjoyed a long and close relationship with her third husband, who had died in 1471. On 3 January 1458, the teenaged Margaret married Sir Henry Stafford, son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. A dispensation for the marriage, necessary because Margaret and Stafford were second cousins, was granted on 6 April 1457; the Countess enjoyed a long and harmonious marital relationship during her marriage to Stafford and they were given somewhat ruinous Woking Palace where Margaret sometimes retreated and which she restored. Margaret and her husband were given 400 marks' worth of land by Buckingham, but Margaret's own estates were still the main source of income, their marriage bore no children.
In 1471, Stafford
House of Beaufort
The House of Beaufort is an English noble family, which originated in the fourteenth century and played an important role in the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth century. The name Beaufort refers to Montmorency-Beaufort, once the possession of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son of King Edward III; the family is descended from John of Gaunt by his then-mistress Katherine Swynford. Gaunt married Swynford in 1396, their children were legitimized by Richard II and Pope Boniface IX, they had four children: John, Henry and Joan. The House of Tudor was descended from the Beauforts in the female line and all subsequent English and British monarchs are descended from the Tudors; the House of Beaufort continues to exist. The current, 12th Duke of Beaufort is Henry Somerset, a direct male-line descendant of Edward III; the Beauforts were a powerful and wealthy family from the start, rose to greater power after their half-brother and uncle became King Henry IV in 1399. However, in 1406, Henry IV decided that although the Beauforts were legitimate, their genetic line could not be used to make any claim to the throne.
John Beaufort had been created Earl of Somerset in 1397. His second son John became the first Duke of Somerset in 1443; the second son, became a bishop, Lord Chancellor, a Cardinal. Joan had the most pedigree, her many descendants including the Dukes of York, Warwick the "Kingmaker", the Dukes of Norfolk, the Dukes of Buckingham, the Earls of Northumberland, Henry VIII's last queen, Catherine Parr; when the dynastic struggle known as the Wars of the Roses broke out in the fifteenth century, the Beauforts were the chief supporters of Henry VI and the House of Lancaster. Henry VII traced his claim to the English crown through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, granddaughter of John Beaufort, great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt; the Beauforts suffered in the Wars of the Roses. Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and his three elder sons were killed in the war, leaving no legitimate male heir; the male line was continued through Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset.
Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester was the great-great-great-great-grandson of Charles Somerset. He assisted in the Restoration to the throne of Charles II. In 1682, Charles created Henry Somerset the first Duke of Beaufort; the Beaufort family in the male line is today represented by its cadet branch the House of Somerset, whose senior representative is Henry Somerset, 12th Duke of Beaufort. These included: 1st Earl of Somerset. Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, mother of King Henry VII of England Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Stafford Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset. John Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Devon Henry Beaufort, Cardinal Bishop of Winchester Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, mother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III of England Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Beaufort". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. BibliographyAiles, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 Amin, The House of Beaufort, The Bastard Line That Captured The Crown, Stroud: Amberley, ISBN 9781445684734 Brooke-Little, J. P. FSA, Boutell's Heraldry, London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 Louda, Jiří. ISBN 0517545586 Pinches, John Harvey.
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, 6th Earl of Salisbury, 8th & 5th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer, known as Warwick the Kingmaker, was an English nobleman and military commander. The eldest son of Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, Warwick was the wealthiest and most powerful English peer of his age, with political connections that went beyond the country's borders. One of the leaders in the Wars of the Roses on the Yorkist side but switching to the Lancastrian side, he was instrumental in the deposition of two kings, which led to his epithet of "Kingmaker". Through fortunes of marriage and inheritance, Warwick emerged in the 1450s at the centre of English politics, he was a supporter of King Henry VI. From this conflict, he gained the strategically valuable post of Captain of Calais, a position that benefited him in the years to come; the political conflict turned into full-scale rebellion, where in battle York was slain, as was Warwick's father Salisbury. York's son, however triumphed with Warwick's assistance, was crowned King Edward IV.
Edward ruled with Warwick's support, but the two fell out over foreign policy and the king's choice of Elizabeth Woodville as his wife. After a failed plot to crown Edward's brother, Duke of Clarence, Warwick instead restored Henry VI to the throne; the triumph was short-lived, however: on 14 April 1471, Warwick was defeated by Edward at the Battle of Barnet, killed. Warwick had no sons; the elder of his two daughters, married George, Duke of Clarence. His younger daughter Anne had a short-lived marriage to King Henry's son Edward of Westminster, who died in battle at the age of 17, she married King Edward's younger brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, who became King Richard III. Warwick's historical legacy has been a matter of much dispute. Historical opinion has alternated between seeing him as self-centred and rash, regarding him as a victim of the whims of an ungrateful king, it is agreed, that in his own time he enjoyed great popularity in all layers of society, that he was skilled at appealing to popular sentiments for political support.
The Neville family, an ancient Durham family, came to prominence in England's fourteenth-century wars against the Scots. In 1397, King Richard II granted Ralph Neville the title of Earl of Westmorland. Ralph's son Richard, the Earl of Warwick's father, was a younger son by a second marriage, not heir to the earldom, he received a favourable settlement and became jure uxoris Earl of Salisbury through his marriage to Alice and heiress of Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury. Salisbury's son Richard, the Earl of Warwick, was born on 22 November 1428. At the age of six, Richard was betrothed to Lady Anne Beauchamp, daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, of his wife Isabel Despenser; this made him heir not only to the earldom of Salisbury, but to a substantial part of the Montague and Despenser inheritance. Circumstances would, increase his fortune further. Beauchamp's son Henry, who had married the younger Richard's sister Cecily, died in 1446; when Henry's daughter Anne died in 1449, Richard found himself jure uxoris Earl of Warwick.
Richard's succession to the estates did not go undisputed, however. A protracted battle over parts of the inheritance ensued with Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, who had married a daughter from Richard Beauchamp's first marriage; the dispute centred on land, not on the Warwick title, as Henry's half-sisters were excluded from the succession. By 1445 Richard had become a knight at Margaret of Anjou's coronation on 22 April that year, he is visible in the historical record of service of King Henry VI in 1449, which makes mention of his services in a grant. He performed military service in the north with his father, might have taken part in the war against Scotland in 1448–1449; when Richard, Duke of York, unsuccessfully rose up against the king in 1452, both Warwick and his father rallied to the side of King Henry VI. In June 1453, Somerset was granted custody of the lordship of Glamorgan – part of the Despenser heritage held by Warwick until – and open conflict broke out between the two men.
In the summer of that year, King Henry fell ill. Somerset was a favourite of the king and Queen Margaret, with the king incapacitated he was in complete control of government; this put Warwick at a disadvantage in his dispute with Somerset, drove him into collaboration with York. The political climate, influenced by the military defeat in France started turning against Somerset. On 27 March 1454, a group of royal councillors appointed the Duke of York protector of the realm. York could now count on the support not only of Warwick, but of Warwick's father Salisbury, who had become more involved in disputes with the House of Percy in the north of England. York's first protectorate did not last long. Early in 1455 the king rallied sufficiently to return to power, at least nominally, with Somerset again wielding real power. Warwick returned to his estates, as did York and Salisbury, the three started raising troops. Marching towards London, they encountered the king at St Albans; the battle was brief and not bloody, but it was the first instance of armed hostilities between the forces of the Houses of York and Lancaster in the conflict known as the Wars of the Roses.
It was significant be
Paon de Roet
Paon de Roet called Paon de Roët, Sir Payn Roelt, Payne Roet and sometimes Gilles Roet, was a herald and knight from Hainaut, involved in the early stages of the Hundred Years War. He became attached to the court of King Edward III of England through the king's marriage to Philippa of Hainaut, he is most notable for the fact that he became the ancestor of the monarchs of England and of Scotland. The children of his daughter Katherine and wife of the king's son John of Gaunt, were given the surname Beaufort and her great-granddaughter Margaret Beaufort gave rise to the Tudor dynasty while her granddaughter Joan Beaufort married into the Stuart dynasty. Another of his daughters, Philippa made a notable marriage to the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. Born about 1310 in Hainaut, he was "probably christened as Gilles," in English'Giles' and in Latin'Egidius', a name used in each generation of the knightly family who were feudal lords of the town of Le Roeulx; however he became written in Latin as Paganus.
He may have been inspired to seek his fortune in England by the example of Fastre de Roet, who accompanied John of Beaumont in 1326, with three hundred followers, he went to fight for the English against the Scots. Fastre was a younger brother of Eustace VI, last lord of Le Roeulx and a descendant of the Counts of Hainault, he and his brother Eustace fell into pecuniary straits, were obliged to alienate their landed possessions. Fastre died in 1331, was buried in the abbey church of Le Roeulx, while his brother Eustace survived till 1336. Paon was, like Fastre, a younger brother, if not of Eustace VI of a collateral line. Paon de Roet may have come to England as part of the retinue of Philippa of Hainaut, accompanying the young queen in her departure from Valenciennes to join her youthful husband Edward III in England at the close of 1327, his name does not appear in the official list of knights. However, Froissart says he was one of a number of additional young knights and squires who added to the queen's retinue, referred to as'pluissier jone esquier', i.e. "plusieurs jeunes escuyers".
He is described as "Paganus de Rouet Hannoniensis, aliter dictus Guien Rex Armorum". The latter part refers to the title of King of Arms granted by Edward III to Roet for the territory of Guyenne, controlled by Edward. In 1347, Roet was sent to the Siege of Calais, was one of two knights deputed by Queen Philippa to conduct out of town the citizens whom she had saved, he had returned to the lands of Hainaut by 1349. He went to serve the queen’s sister, the empress of Germany, his three younger children—Walter and Katherine—were left in the care of Queen Philippa, he died in Ghent, County of Flanders in 1380. Paon had three daughters, Katherine and Isabel de Roet, a son, Walter. Isabel was to become Canoness of the convent of St. Waudru at Mons in Hainaut, c. 1366. Philippa married the poet Geoffrey Chaucer in 1366, they met while still children when they were attached to the household of Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster. Katherine became governess to the daughters of John of Gaunt. After the death of John's wife Blanche in 1369, Katherine and John began a love affair which would bring forth four children born out of wedlock and would endure as a lifelong relationship.
However, John made a dynastic marriage to Constance of Castille, a claimant to the throne of Castile, after which he called himself "King of Castille". When Constance died he legitimised their children. Paon de Roet's tomb was near Sir John Beauchamp's tomb. In 1631 the antiquary John Weever reported that "upon a faire marble stone, inlaid all over with brasse, engraven with the representation and cote-Armes of the party defunct, thus much of a mangled funerall Inscription was of late time perspicuous to be read". By 1658, still without its brass plate and effigies, the tomb was again described by William Dugdale, it was destroyed, along with many others in 1666 in the Great Fire of London. A modern monument in the crypt lists De Roet amongst the important graves lost; the inscription began: Hic Jacet Paganus Roet miles Guyenne Rex Armorum Pater Catherine Ducisse Lancastrie