George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Waukesha is a city in and the county seat of Waukesha County, United States. It is part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area, its population was 70,718 at the 2010 census. The city is adjacent to the Town of Waukesha; the area that Waukesha now encompasses was first settled by European-Americans in 1834, with Morris D. Cutler as its first settler; when the first settlers arrived, there was nothing but wild prairie. The settlers laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes; the original founders of Waukesha consisted of settlers from New England Connecticut, rural Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine, as well some from upstate New York who were born to parents who had migrated to that region from New England shortly after the American Revolution. These people were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s.
Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal as well as the end of the Black Hawk War. When they arrived in what is now Waukesha County there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism. They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and some had become Baptists before moving to what is now Waukesha County. Waukesha, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history. By 1846, the area was incorporated as the Town of Prairie Village. On February 8, 1847, the town changed its name to "Waukesha,". On January 10, 1852, the settled area once known as Prairieville was separated from the town of Waukesha, incorporated as a village and in 1896, incorporated as a city.
The first appointed mayor of the newly incorporated city of Waukesha was John Brehm, who served from January to April 1896. Over the years, many believed, that the origin of the name of the city was an Algonquian word meaning "fox" or "little foxes," when in fact "Waukesha" is an Anglicization of the Ojibwe proper name Waagoshag or the Potawatomi name Wau-tsha. Wau-tsha was the leader of the local tribe at the time of the first European settlement of the area; this is confirmed by accounts of an early settler and historian of the region. According to Lapham, the word for "fox" was pishtaka. Cutler told visitors about Wau-tsha, described as "tall and athletic, proud in his bearing and friendly." Matthew Laflin, an early pioneer of Chicago, provided the capital and enterprise that laid the foundation for Waukesha as a famous Wisconsin watering resort and was the proprietor of the grand resort, the Fountain Spring House. Waukesha was once known for its clean and good-tasting spring water and was called a "spa town."
This earned the city the nicknames "Spring City" and "Saratoga of the West."According to author Kristine Adams Wendt, in 1868, Colonel Richard Dunbar, a sufferer of diabetes, chanced upon the medicinal properties of what he named the Bethesda Spring while viewing a parcel of land purchased by his sister. Testimonials found in a Dunbar brochure of 1873 proclaimed. Wendt reports that by 1872, "area newspapers carried accounts of a community ill equipped to handle its new popularity among the suffering multitudes; the semi-weekly Wisconsin of July 31, 1872, reported'that 500 visitors are quartered in hotels and scattered in private families here, seeking benefit from the marvelous waters…'" The "healing waters" were so valued that a controversial attempt was made to build a pipeline between the city and Chicago so that they could be enjoyed by visitors to the 1893 Columbian Exposition. According to Time magazine, "he scheme had been conceived by one Charles Welsh, given the springs by his uncle, but after several miles of pipe were laid, it was discovered that the cost was too great."Richard W. Sears, founder of Sears and Roebuck, may have been attracted to Waukesha by the waters.
In failing health, Sears retired from business in 1908 and, according to The New York Times, "spent his time on his great farm near Waukesha." In 1914, Sears died in Waukesha of Bright's disease. In 1956, Helen Moore, who ran a mud bath spa in Waukesha, appeared as a guest on. Over the years, the natural springs have been spoiled by pollution and a number have gone dry. Water drawn from an aquifer reached radium levels exceeding federal standards. In 2013, Waukesha applied for permission to withdraw water from Lake Michigan; because Waukesha is outside the lake's basin, the 2008 Great Lakes Compact makes the city ineligible to withdraw water from the lake without approval from the governors of Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ohio and Wisconsin. In June, 2016, the governors approved Waukesha's application. One of the most important "firsts" in American sports history occurred in Waukesha on September 5, 1906, when Carroll College hosted the football team from St. Louis University. SLU halfback Bradbury Robinson threw the first legal forward pass in football history in that game.
The Carroll pl
Elias Boudinot was a lawyer and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey, a delegate to the Continental Congress and served as President of Congress from 1782 to 1783. He was elected as a U. S. Congressman for New Jersey following the American Revolutionary War, he was appointed by President George Washington as Director of the United States Mint, serving from 1795 until 1805. Elias Boudinot was born in Philadelphia on May 2, 1740, his father, Elias Boudinot III, was a silversmith. His mother, Mary Catherine Williams, was born in the British West Indies. Elias' paternal grandfather, Elie Boudinot, was the son of Jean Boudinot and Marie Suire of Marans, France, they were a Huguenot family who fled to New York about 1687 to avoid the religious persecutions of King Louis XIV. Mary Catherine Williams and Elias Boudinot Sr. were married on August 8, 1729. Over the next twenty years, they had nine children; the first, was born in the British West Indies-Antigua. Of the others, only the younger Elias and his siblings Annis and Elisha reached adulthood.
Annis became one of the first published women poets in the Thirteen Colonies, her work appeared in leading newspapers and magazines. Elisha Boudinot became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After studying and being tutored at home, Elias Boudinot went to Princeton, New Jersey to read the law as a legal apprentice to Richard Stockton. An attorney, he had married Elias' older sister Annis Boudinot. Richard Stockton was a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. In 1760, Boudinot was admitted to the bar, began his practice in Elizabeth, New Jersey, he owned land adjacent to the road from Elizabethtown to New Jersey. After getting established, on April 21, 1762, Boudinot married Hannah Stockton, Richard's younger sister, they had two children, Maria Boudinot, who died at age two, Susan Vergereau Boudinot. Susan married William Bradford, who became Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and Attorney General under George Washington. After her husband's death in 1795, Susan Boudinot Bradford returned to her parents' home to live.
The young widow edited her father's papers. Now held by Princeton University, these provide significant insight into the events of the Revolutionary era. In 1805, Elias and Susan moved to a new home in Burlington, New Jersey. Hannah died a few years after their move, Elias lived there for the remainder of his years. In his years, Boudinot invested and speculated in land, he owned large tracts in Ohio including most of Green Township in what is now the western suburbs of Cincinnati, where there is a street bearing his surname. At his death, he willed 13,000 acres to the city of Philadelphia for parks and city needs, he was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary's Church, New Jersey. Boudinot became his practice prospered; as the revolution drew near, he aligned with the Whigs, was elected to the New Jersey provincial assembly in 1775. In the early stages of the Revolutionary War, he was active in promoting enlistment. Boudinot helped support the activities of rebel spies. After the British occupation of New York City, spies were sent to Staten Island and Long Island, New York to observe and report on movements of specific British garrisons and regiments.
On May 5, 1777, General George Washington asked Boudinot to be appointed as commissary general for prisoners. Congress through the board of war concurred. Boudinot was commissioned as a colonel in the Continental Army for this work, he served until July 1778. The commissary managed enemy prisoners, was responsible for supplying American prisoners who were held by the British. In November 1777, the New Jersey legislature named Boudinot as one of their delegates to the Second Continental Congress, his duties as Commissary prevented his attendance, so in May 1778 he resigned. By early July he had been replaced and attended his first meeting of the Congress on July 7, 1778; as a delegate, he still continued his concerns for the welfare of prisoners of war. His first term ended that year. In 1781, Boudinot returned to the Congress, for a term lasting through 1783. In November 1782, he was elected as President of the Continental Congress for a one-year term; the President of Congress was a ceremonial position with no real authority, but the office did require him to handle a good deal of correspondence and sign official documents.
On April 15, 1783 he signed the Preliminary Articles of Peace. When the United States government was formed in 1789, Boudinot was elected from New Jersey to the US House of Representatives, he was elected to the second and third congresses as well, where he supported the administration. He refused to join the expansion of affiliated groups. In 1794, he declined to serve another term, left Congress in early 1795. In October 1795, President George Washington appointed him as Director of the United States Mint, a position he held through succeeding administrations until he retired in 1805. In addition to serving in political office, Elias supported many civic and educational causes during his life. Boudinot served as one of the trustees of the College of New Jersey for nearly half a century, from 1772 until 1821; when the Continental Congress was forced to leave Philadelphia in 1783 while he was president, he moved the meetings
A. Piatt Andrew
Abram Piatt Andrew Jr. was an economist, an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, the founder and director of the American Ambulance Field Service during World War I, a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts, he was born in La Porte, Indiana, on February 12, 1873. He attended the Lawrenceville School, he graduated from Princeton College in 1893, studied at the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences from 1893 to 1898, graduating with a master's degree in 1895 and a doctorate in 1900. He pursued postgraduate studies in the Universities of Halle and Paris, he moved to Gloucester and was instructor and assistant professor of economics at Harvard University from 1900 to 1909. In January 1907, Andrew published a paper that anticipated the economic panic that hit in the fall of that year. On the strength of this paper as well as on his strong economics education, Andrew was selected to serve on the National Monetary Commission tasked with reforming the American banking system.
Andrew took a leave from Harvard and spent two years studying the central banks of Germany and France. He served as Director of the U. S. Mint in 1909 and 1910, as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury during 1910-1912, he attended the historic meeting at Jekyll Island in 1910 with commission chairman Nelson W. Aldrich, Henry P. Davison, Benjamin Strong, Paul Warburg, Frank A. Vanderlip; the commission's report recommended the creation of a Federal Reserve System. The Republicans lost the White House in 1912, he worked informally after the election with Democratic Senator Robert Latham Owen to draft Owen's version of a Federal Reserve Bill, which in the event came closest of several competing drafts to the Act passed and signed into law in December 1913. Despite American neutrality, Andrew went to France when war broke out in the summer of 1914, he wrote to his parents about his compulsion to respond to "the possibility of having an infinitesimal part in one of the greatest events in all history--...and above all the chance of doing the little all that one can for France."
Andrew drove an ambulance in the Dunkirk sector for a few weeks, but his supervisor at the American Military Hospital recognized his exceptional energy and organizing ability. Robert Bacon created a new position for him to fill: Inspector General of the American Ambulance Field Service. In his official capacity, Andrew toured the ambulance sections of Northern France and learned that the American volunteers were bored with so called "jitney work," transporting wounded soldiers from railheads to hospitals, far back from the front lines. French army policy prohibited foreign nationals from traveling into battle zones. In March 1915, Andrew met with Captain Aime Doumenc, head of the French Army Automobile Service and pleaded his case for the American volunteers, they desired above all, he said, "To pick up the wounded from the front lines…, to look danger squarely in the face. Doumenc agreed to a trial; the success of Andrew's Section Z was overwhelming. By April 15, 1915, the French created American Ambulance Field Service operating under French Army command.
Andrew headed the organization, soon shortened to American Field Service, throughout the war, though his role changed when its ambulance sections were taken over by the United States Army in late summer 1917. Andrew established a domestic organization based in Boston to recruit young American drivers and to raise funds from wealthy donors; the stateside office was headed by Henry Davis Sleeper and assisted by Henry Hays Hammond and former ambulance driver, Leslie Buswell. The French office was located at Paris. At the time of militarization, the American Field Service had formed thirty-four ambulance sections manned by 1,200 American volunteers. In addition the AFS had created fourteen camion sections with 800 additional American volunteers trucking supplies and soldiers up the Voie Sacree from Bar-le-Duc to Verdun and other routes to the Front; the AFS motto was "Tous et tout pour France," everything for France. At an AFS reunion a few years after the war, Andrew said, "The opportunity of living in France, as we Americans lived during the first years of the war...meant glimpses of human nature shorn of self, exalted by love of country and jesting in the midst of hardships, smiling at pain, unmindful of death."
Andrew was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-seventh United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Willfred W. Lufkin, he was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1924 and 1928. In 1924, he proposed a bonus for World War I veterans, he was a member of the board of trustees of Princeton University from 1932 to 1936. He was made an officer in the Legion of Honor in 1927, he received the Army Distinguished Service Medal for his World War I service. He was named an Officer in Belgium's Order of Leopold, he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and named a Chevalier de la Legion of Honour in 1917 by the French government. Some sources state that Andrew, a lifelong bachelor, was in a relationship with his neighbor, interior designer Henry Davis Sleeper. Others state, he died on June 3, 1936, in Gloucester, Massachusetts, at his home "Red Roof" from influenza, which he had been suffering from for several weeks. The following day the United States House of Representatives adjourned at
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, CIA director; until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was known as George Bush. Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, became one of its youngest aviators, he served until September 1945, attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district in 1966, he was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970.
In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs. Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency. Bush signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States and Mexico. Domestically, Bush signed a bill to increase taxes, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.
After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U. S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019. George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush; the Bush family moved from Milton to Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, known as "Pop", young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake. Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.
Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U. S. Navy after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday, he became a naval aviator. After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy. In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 as the photographic officer; the following year, his squadron was based in USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin". During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II. Bush was promoted to lieutenant on August 1, 1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, he piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima on September 2, 1944.
His crew included Lt. William White, his aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine USS Finback came to his rescue, he participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, their livers were eaten by their captors; this experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, the Presiden
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibres called axons, in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system; each axon within the nerve is an extension of an individual neuron, along with other supportive cells such as Schwann cells that coat the axons in myelin. Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the endoneurium; the axons are bundled together into groups called fascicles, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the perineurium. The entire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the epineurium. In the central nervous system, the analogous structures are known as tracts; each nerve is covered on the outside by a dense sheath of the epineurium. Beneath this is a layer of flat cells, the perineurium, which forms a complete sleeve around a bundle of axons.
Perineurial septae subdivide it into several bundles of fibres. Surrounding each such fibre is the endoneurium; this forms an unbroken tube from the surface of the spinal cord to the level where the axon synapses with its muscle fibres, or ends in sensory receptors. The endoneurium consists of an inner sleeve of material called the glycocalyx and an outer, meshwork of collagen fibres. Nerves are bundled and travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have high energy requirements. Within the endoneurium, the individual nerve fibres are surrounded by a low-protein liquid called endoneurial fluid; this acts in a similar way to the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier. Molecules are thereby prevented from crossing the blood into the endoneurial fluid. During the development of nerve edema from nerve irritation, the amount of endoneurial fluid may increase at the site of irritation; this increase in fluid can be visualized using magnetic resonance neurography, thus MR neurography can identify nerve irritation and/or injury.
Nerves are categorized into three groups based on the direction that signals are conducted: Afferent nerves conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system, for example from the mechanoreceptors in skin. Efferent nerves conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target muscles and glands. Mixed nerves contain both afferent and efferent axons, thus conduct both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on where they connect to the central nervous system: Spinal nerves innervate much of the body, connect through the vertebral column to the spinal cord and thus to the central nervous system, they are given letter-number designations according to the vertebra through which they connect to the spinal column. Cranial nerves innervate parts of the head, connect directly to the brain, they are assigned Roman numerals from 1 to 12, although cranial nerve zero is sometimes included.
In addition, cranial nerves have descriptive names. Specific terms are used to describe their actions. A nerve that supplies information to the brain from an area of the body, or controls an action of the body is said to "innervate" that section of the body or organ. Other terms relate to whether the nerve affects the same side or opposite side of the body, to the part of the brain that supplies it. Nerve growth ends in adolescence, but can be re-stimulated with a molecular mechanism known as "Notch signaling". If the axons of a neuron are damaged, as long as the cell body of the neuron is not damaged, the axons would regenerate and remake the synaptic connections with neurons with the help of guidepost cells; this is referred to as neuroregeneration. The nerve begins the process by destroying the nerve distal to the site of injury allowing Schwann cells, basal lamina, the neurilemma near the injury to begin producing a regeneration tube. Nerve growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud.
When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration tube, it begins to grow towards its original destination guided the entire time by the regeneration tube. Nerve regeneration is slow and can take up to several months to complete. While this process does repair some nerves, there will still be some functional deficit as the repairs are not perfect. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve; these impulses are fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s. The impulses travel from one neuron to another by crossing a synapse, the message is converted from electrical to chemical and back to electrical. Nerves can be categorized into two groups based on function: An afferent nerve fiber conducts sensory information from a sensory neuron to the central nervous system, where the information is processed. Bundles of fibres or axons, in the peripheral nervous system are called nerves, bundles of afferent fibers are known as sensory nerves.
An efferent nerve fiber conducts signals from a motor neuron in the central nervous system to muscles. Bundles of these fibres are known as efferent nerves; the nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. In vertebrates it consists of two main par