The Evening Standard is a local, free daily newspaper, published Monday to Friday in tabloid format in London. It is owned by Russian businessman Alexander Lebedev, it is the dominant local/regional evening paper for London and the surrounding area, with coverage of national and international news and City of London finance. Its current editor is former UK Conservative Member of Parliament and Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne. In October 2009, the paper ended a 180-year history of paid circulation and became a free newspaper, doubling its circulation as part of a change in its business plan; the newspaper was founded by barrister Stanley Lees Giffard on 21 May 1827, as the Standard. The early owner of the paper was Charles Baldwin. Under the ownership of James Johnstone, The Standard became a morning paper from 29 June 1857; the Evening Standard was published from 11 June 1859. The Standard gained eminence for its detailed foreign news, notably its reporting of events of the American Civil War, the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, all contributing to a rise in circulation.
By the end of the 19th century, the evening edition eclipsed its morning counterpart. Both The Standard and the Evening Standard were acquired by C. Arthur Pearson in 1904. In May 1915, Edward Hulton purchased the Evening Standard from Davison Dalziel. Dalziel had purchased both papers in 1910, closed The Standard, the morning paper, in 1916. Hulton introduced the gossip column Londoner's Diary billed as "a column written by gentlemen for gentlemen". In 1923, Lord Beaverbrook, owner of the Daily Express, bought Hulton's newspapers, although he sold them shortly thereafter to the Daily Mail's owner Lord Rothermere, with the exception of the Standard, it became a staunchly Conservative paper, harshly attacking Labour in 1945 in a high-profile campaign that backfired. In the 1960s, the paper was upstaged by The Evening News. During the decade, the paper began to publish the comic strip Modesty Blaise, which bolstered its sales throughout the 1970s; the Evening Standard ceased publishing on Saturdays on 30 Nov 1974, when it still produced six editions daily.
In 1980, Express Newspapers merged the Standard with Associated Newspapers' Evening News in a Joint Operating Agreement. The new paper was known as the New Standard until 1985, when Associated Newspapers bought out the remaining stake, turning it into The Standard. In 1987 the Evening News was revived to compete with Robert Maxwell's London Daily News, but was reabsorbed into The Standard that year, after the collapse of Maxwell's paper. In 1988 the Evening Standard included the by-line "Incorporating the'Evening News'", which remained until the paper's sale in 2009. On 21 January 2009, the Russian businessman and former KGB agent Alexander Lebedev and his son Evgeny Lebedev, owners of The Independent, agreed to purchase control of the newspaper at £1 for 64 percent ownership. A few years earlier, 12 percent of the paper was sold to Geordie Greig. Associated News keeps the remaining 24 percent. In November 2009, it was announced that the London Evening Standard would drop its midday "News Extra" edition from 4 January 2010 with the first edition being the West End Final, available from 2 pm.
One edition of 600,000 copies would be printed starting at 12:30 pm, ending 3 am starts for journalists and the previous deadline of 9 am for the first edition. There were three editions each weekday, excluding Bank holidays; the first, "News Extra", went to print at 10:00 am and was available around 11 am in central London later in more outlying areas. A second edition, "West End Final", went to print at 3 pm, the "Late Night Final" went to print at 5 pm and was available in the central area from about 6 pm. There was considerable variation between the editions with the front-page lead and following few pages, including the Londoner's Diary, though features and reviews stayed the same. In January 2010, circulation was increased to 900,000. In May 2009, the newspaper launched a series of poster ads, each of which prominently featured the word "Sorry" in the paper's then-masthead font; these ads offered various apologies for past editorial approaches, such as "Sorry for losing touch". None of the posters mentioned the Evening Standard by name, although they featured the paper's Eros logo.
Ex-editor Veronica Wadley criticised the "Pravda-style" campaign saying it humiliated the paper's staff and insulted its readers. The campaign was designed by McCann Erickson. In May 2009 the paper relaunched as the London Evening Standard with a new layout and masthead, marking the occasion by giving away 650,000 free copies on the day, refreshed its sports coverage. After a long history of paid circulation, on 12 October 2009 the Standard became a free newspaper, with free circulation of 700,000, limited to central London. In February 2010, a paid-for circulation version became available in suburban areas of London for 20p; the newspaper won the Media Brand of the Year and the Grand Prix Gold awards at the Media Week awards in October 2010. The judges" quite simply... stunned the market. Not just for the act of going free, but because editorial quality has been maintained, circulation has trebled and advertisers have responded favourably. Here is a media brand restored to health." The Standard won the daily newspaper of the year award at the London Press Club Press Awards in May 2011.
The Evening Standard launched a mobile app with US app developer Handmark in May 2010. The range of apps was updated in 2015. In Mar
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks". It is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books; the project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on any computer. As of 23 June 2018, Project Gutenberg reached 57,000 items in its collection of free eBooks; the releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, Plucker. Most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence.
Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the university's Materials Research Lab. Through friendly operators, he received an account with a unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to "give back" this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value, his initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge, to do so by the end of the 20th century. This particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and decided to make works of literature available in electronic form for free, he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution.
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When users are unable to download the CD, they can request to have a copy sent to them, free of charge. In December 2003, a DVD was created containing nearly 10,000 items. At the time, this represented the entire collection. In early 2004, the DVD became available by mail. In July 2007, a new edition of the DVD was released containing over 17,000 books, in April 2010, a dual-layer DVD was released, containing nearly 30,000 items; the majority of the DVDs, all of the CDs mailed by the project, were recorded on recordable media by volunteers. However, the new dual layer DVDs were manufactured, as it proved more economical than having volunteers burn them; as of October 2010, the project has mailed 40,000 discs. As of 2017, the delivery of free CDs has been discontinued, though the ISO image is still available for download; as of August 2015, Project Gutenberg claimed over 57,000 items in its collection, with an average of over 50 new e-books being added each week. These are works of literature from the Western cultural tradition.
In addition to literature such as novels, short stories and drama, Project Gutenberg has cookbooks, reference works and issues of periodicals. The Project Gutenberg collection has a few non-text items such as audio files and music-notation files. Most releases are in English, but there are significant numbers in many other languages; as of April 2016, the non-English languages most represented are: Fren
James Louis Garvin
James Louis Garvin was a British journalist and author. In 1908 Garvin agreed to take over the editorship of the Sunday newspaper The Observer, revolutionising Sunday journalism and restoring the paper, facing financial troubles at the time, to profitability in the process; the youngest of two children, Garvin was born in Birkenhead. His father, Michael Garvin, was an impoverished Irish labourer who died at sea when Garvin was two, leaving him to be raised by his mother Catherine. Though a voracious reader, he left school at the age of thirteen and worked first as a messenger as a clerk, his elder brother, became a teacher. Despite undergoing examination to join the civil service, from an early age Garvin yearned to become an editor; as a teenager he contributed letters and articles to the Eastern Morning News and the Dublin Weekly Freeman, much of which reflected his early advocacy for Home Rule. In 1891, Garvin applied to Joseph Cowen for a position at the Newcastle Evening Chronicle. Given a position as a proof-reader and occasional contributor, Garvin spent the next eight years honing his skills as a journalist, with Cowen serving as his mentor and father-figure.
Yet Garvin yearned for a larger stage, by the end of the decade he became a regular contributor to the Fortnightly Review edited by W. L. Courtney. Garvin's ambition extended beyond Newcastle, however. Through his association with Courtney, Garvin gained a position as a leader-writer for the Daily Telegraph in 1899. Moving to London, his writings on politics and literature soon earned him renown. By now his politics had changed, as he became a follower of Joseph Chamberlain. In 1904, Garvin accepted the editorship of The Outlook, a weekly publication, being turned into a platform for the promotion of Chamberlain's scheme of tariff reform. Though The Outlook saw a rise in circulation and influence, its failure to turn a profit led to the paper's sale and Garvin's exit two years later. Soon after his departure from The Outlook, Garvin was approached by newspaper magnate Lord Northcliffe. Though he turned down a financially lucrative offer to write for Northcliffe's flagship publication, the Daily Mail, in 1908 Garvin agreed to take over the editorship of the historic Sunday newspaper The Observer.
First published in 1791, the paper had faced financial troubles that led to its acquisition by Northcliffe. Within eighteen months, Garvin had reshaped The Observer, revolutionising Sunday journalism and restoring the paper to profitability in the process. With the Unionist Party still recovering from its massive defeat in the general election of 1906, Garvin soon emerged as a dominant figure in Unionist politics. Using The Observer as a platform, he denounced the budget introduced by Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George in 1909, he encouraged the Unionist-dominated House of Lords to veto it; as the question of Home Rule for Ireland overshadowed British politics, Garvin advocated a federalist solution to the problem. By 1911, a rift had emerged between Northcliffe over the critical issue of tariff reform; when their dispute became public, the press baron agreed to sell the paper to William Waldorf Astor, who accepted Garvin's proposal to assume ownership on condition that Garvin edit the Astor-owned Pall Mall Gazette as well.
In 1915, Astor gave the two papers to his son, Waldorf as a birthday gift. Despite being an admirer of German culture, Garvin was alarmed by the growing challenge the country posed to Britain in international politics. Through his friendship with First Sea Lord Admiral John Fisher, he gained access to inside information on naval matters which he used to inform editorials calling for a greater naval construction program; when war broke out in 1914, Garvin embraced Britain's involvement in the conflict. He was close to many people in power, most notably Fisher, Lloyd George, Winston Churchill, he enjoyed considerable influence during this period, yet the conflict brought great personal tragedy to Garvin. At the start of the war his only son Roland Gerard Garvin enlisted with the South Lancashire Regiment and was shipped to France. Though subsequently assigned a staff position, Ged transferred back to a combat posting soon after the start of the Somme campaign and was killed in a night assault on German line in late July.
Heartbroken at the loss, Garvin never recovered from Ged's death, it shaped many of his attitudes to subsequent events. Despite his bitterness towards the Germans, Garvin believed in the need for a just settlement of the war. Soon after the armistice he published his first book, The Economic Foundations of Peace, in which he called for a lenient treaty and Anglo-American co-operation as the cornerstone for an effective League of Nations; when the punitive terms of the Treaty of Versailles were published, he denounced it in an editorial as leaving the Germans "no real hope except in revenge." In 1921, Garvin moved from London to Beaconsfield. From there, in a home once owned by Edmund Burke's agent he continued to edit The Observer, he began work on a biography of his hero Joseph Chamberlain. Though three volumes of the Chamberlain biography were published in the early 1930s, Garvin never wrote the final fourth volume, the project was completed after his death by Julian Amery. During this period Garvin s
Constable & Robinson
Constable & Robinson Ltd. is an imprint of Little, Brown which publishes fiction and non-fiction books and ebooks. Founded in Edinburgh in 1795 by Archibald Constable as Constable & Co. and by Nick Robinson as Robinson Publishing Ltd in 1983, is an imprint of Little, owned by Hachette. Constable & Co. was founded in 1795 by Archibald Constable, became Sir Walter Scott's publisher. In 1897 Constable published the most famous horror novel published, Bram Stoker's The Un-Dead, albeit with a last minute title change to Dracula. In 1813, it was the first to give an author advance against royalties. In 1821, it introduced the standard three-decker novel, in 1826, with the launch of the book series Constable's Miscellany, it became the first publisher to produce mass-market literary editions. By 1921, it advertised books on another first for a publishing house. In 1993 Constable & Robinson pioneered the series-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy self-help publishing, in 2000, they became the first ad-supported, online book publisher.
Lastly, in 2013, Constable & Robinson were a key partner in Digital Innovation Contest 2013. Robinson Publishing Ltd was founded in 1983 by Nick Robinson; the two companies merged in December 1999. Constable & Robinson continue to publish non-fiction books under the Constable imprint and is therefore the oldest independent publishing house in the English-speaking world still trading under the name of its founder. In June 2007 Elliot Right Way Books, a successful small publisher of "how-to" titles, came under the umbrella of Constable & Robinson Ltd. A new fiction imprint, was launched in October 2009, dedicated to publishing groundbreaking debut fiction alongside established authors. On the back of its success, the company launched the Canvas imprint in December 2011 to focus on commercial fiction. A bijou imprint of Corsair, Much-in-Little, was launched in April 2012 and will become home to quirky and imaginative new children's and YA fiction. Constable & Robinson publishes a non-fiction list including current affairs and biography, humour and psychology, as well as crime fiction, a growing list of literary fiction in both hardback and paperback.
Best known are the popular and longstanding Mammoth paperback list of anthologies and collections, the hugely successful and well-respected Overcoming CBT self-help titles, the history series of Brief Guides and Brief Histories. Constable & Robinson is the UK publisher of the hugely popular and Hamish Macbeth crime fiction titles by M. C. Beaton. In 2013 Constable & Robinson created controversy when it responded to a manuscript submission by JK Rowling by suggesting that she attend a writing course; the novel, The Cuckoo's Calling, was published by a competitor, was reprinted three times, adapted for television. In 2014 Constable & Robinson was purchased by Brown Book Group. In 2011, A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan, published under the Corsair imprint in the UK, won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. In 2012 Constable & Robinson was named the IPG Independent Publisher of the Year, calling it'a publisher on a roll — a rising star in a difficult market.' The same year, the company was named Independent Publisher of the Year at The Bookseller Industry Awards.
Constable & Robinson won the IPG Trade Publisher of the Year in 2013. Www.constablerobinson.com Archived website Little, Brown Book Group C&R Crime Agatha Raisin
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
British Newspaper Archive
The British Newspaper Archive web site provides access to searchable digitized archives of British and Irish newspapers. It was launched in November 2011; the British Library Newspapers section was based in Colindale in North London, until 2013, is now divided between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The Library has an complete collection of British and Irish newspapers since 1840; this is because of the legal deposit legislation of 1869, which required newspapers to supply a copy of each edition of a newspaper to the library. London editions of national daily and Sunday newspapers are complete back to 1801. In total the collection consists of 660,000 bound volumes and 370,000 reels of microfilm containing tens of millions of newspapers with 52,000 titles on 45 km of shelves. After the closure of Colindale in November 2013, access to the 750 million original printed pages was maintained via an automated and climate-controlled storage facility in Boston Spa; this opened in April 2014. In May 2010 a ten-year programme of digitization of the newspaper archives with commercial partner DC Thomson subsidiary Brightsolid began.
In November 2011, BBC News announced the launch of the British Newspaper Archive, an initiative to facilitate online access to over one million pages of pre-20th century newspapers. The same newspapers from this partnership have been made available to view on Findmypast and Genes Reunited; the digitisation project established an online search facility which people could consult without having to visit the British Library newspaper depository in person. Among the collections are the Thomason Tracts, containing 7,200 17th-century newspapers, the Burney Collection, featuring nearly 1 million pages of newspapers from the late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century; the Thomason Tracts and Burney collections are held at St Pancras, are available in digital facsimile. The section has extensive records of non-British newspapers in languages that use the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets; the Library's substantial holdings of newspapers in the languages of Asia and the Middle East may be accessed at the Library's reading rooms at St. Pancras.
While access within the British Library is free, online access is via a subscription system based on daily or item charges, £12.95 monthly or yearly fees of up to £79.95 as of February 2016. As part of The Wikipedia Library, Brightsolid provided free one-year subscriptions to a limited number of experienced Wikipedia editors from July 2014; the agreement was terminated in 2016 because "structural changes at their parent organisation mean that there is no longer interest in continuing the partnership with The Wikipedia Library". Reviews of the service have been mixed, with some early responses complimentary about the ability to access and search the large data sets. However, there have been complaints of the excessive cost and the general policy of the British Library allowing a private company the rights to the newspapers. One writer noted that: "The BNA demonstrates what happens to our cultural heritage when there is no political will for public investment; the nineteenth-century newspaper press was one of the period’s greatest achievements but, rather than celebrate it, opening it up and giving it back to the nation, the British Library have been forced to sell it off."
The search Interface has been criticised for problems in identifying where the searched terms are on the retrieved pages, in the unreliability of the web interface, with bugs preventing images loading and regular crashes. Official website