Topanga is a census-designated place in western Los Angeles County, United States. Located in the Santa Monica Mountains, the community lies in Topanga Canyon; the narrow southern portion of Topanga at the coast is in between the city of Malibu and the city of Los Angeles neighborhood of Pacific Palisades. Topanga had a population of 11,101 as of 2019; the ZIP code is 90290 and the area code is 310, with 818 only at the north end of the canyon. It is in the 3rd County Supervisorial district. Topanga is the name given to the area by the Native American indigenous Tongva tribe, may mean "a place above", it was the western border of their territory, abutting the Chumash tribe that occupied the coast from Malibu northwards. Bedrock mortars can be found carved into rock outcroppings in many locations. Topanga was first settled by Europeans in 1839. In the 1920s, Topanga Canyon became a weekend getaway for Hollywood stars with several cottages built for that purpose; the rolling hills and ample vegetation served to provide both privacy and attractive surroundings for the rich and famous.
During the 1960s, Topanga Canyon became a magnet to many new artists. In 1965 Wallace Berman settled in the area. For a time, Neil Young lived in Topanga, first living with producer David Briggs later buying his own house, he recorded most of his After the Gold Rush album in his basement studio in 1970. Charles Manson had been living in Topanga, where he had befriended both Neil Young and Dennis Wilson of The Beach Boys. Members of the Manson Family began their campaign of murder on July 31, 1969 with the murder of Topanga resident Gary Hinman, a music teacher who had opened his home to anyone needing shelter. Topanga Creek drains Topanga Canyon and is the third largest watershed entering the Santa Monica Bay; the creek is one of the few remaining undammed waterways in the area, is a spawning ground for steelhead trout. The area receives about 22" of rain annually. Topanga Beach lies on the coast at the outlet of Topanga Creek. Topanga Canyon Boulevard, State Route 27, is the principal thoroughfare, connecting the Ventura Freeway with Pacific Coast Highway.
The southern portion of the boulevard follows Topanga Creek. North of the Old Topanga Canyon Road intersection, the boulevard traverses the Santa Monica Mountains. Topanga Canyon contains lands of Topanga State Park, the largest park in the Santa Monica Mountains and one of the largest open space preserves surrounded by a city in the world, as well as the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, it is part of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. It represents a California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion, with large areas of the California oak woodland plant community, a wide variety of native plants; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Topanga has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Topanga had a population of 8,289. The population density was 433.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Topanga was 7,313 White, 117 African American, 35 Native American, 353 Asian, 3 Pacific Islander, 125 from other races, 343 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 534 persons. The Census reported that 8,289 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 3,442 households, out of which 996 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,772 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 262 had a female householder with no husband present, 140 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 239 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 49 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 903 households were made up of individuals and 256 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41. There were 2,174 families; the population was 1,682 people under the age of 18, 333 people aged 18 to 24, 1,917 people aged 25 to 44, 3,188 people aged 45 to 64, 1,169 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.
There were 3,750 housing units at an average density of 196.0 per square mile, of which 2,589 were owner-occupied, 853 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. 6,597 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,692 people lived in rental housing units. The bottom of Topanga Canyon, where it meets Pacific Coast Highway and the ocean, was owned for many years by the Los Angeles Athletic Club, a wealthy private club in downtown Los Angeles; the 1,659 acre parcel was rented out to a variety of businesses and residents for decades at remarkably low rents, considering that it borders the city of Malibu. Thus Lower Topanga became unique as one of the last outposts of the classic Topanga Canyon bohemian hippie lifestyle; the Chumash considered Lower Topanga a sacred and cultural meeting place for tribes all along the coast. One of the main neighborhoods, the "Rodeo Grounds," takes its name from an actual rodeo arena that existed there on a Mexican Ranch in the 1800s. (Another neighborhood, "The Snake Pit," was named both
National Labor Relations Board
The National Labor Relations Board is an independent agency of the Federal government of the United States with responsibilities for enforcing U. S. labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices. Under the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 it supervises elections for labor union representation and can investigate and remedy unfair labor practices. Unfair labor practices may involve union-related situations or instances of protected concerted activity; the NLRB is governed by a five-person board and a General Counsel, all of whom are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. Board members are appointed to five-year terms and the General Counsel is appointed to a four-year term; the General Counsel acts as a prosecutor and the Board acts as an appellate quasi-judicial body from decisions of administrative law judges. The NLRB is headquartered at 1015 Half St. SE, Washington, D. C. with over 30 regional, sub-regional and residential offices throughout the United States.
The history of the National Labor Relations Board can be traced to enactment of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933. Section 7 of the act protected collective bargaining rights for unions, but was difficult to enforce. A massive wave of union organizing was punctuated by employer and union violence, general strikes, recognition strikes; the National Industrial Recovery Act was administered by the National Recovery Administration. At the outset, NRA Administrator Hugh S. Johnson believed that Section 7 would be self-enforcing, but the tremendous labor unrest proved him wrong. On August 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the establishment of the National Labor Board, under the auspices of the NRA, to implement the collective bargaining provisions of Section 7; the National Labor Board established a system of 20 regional boards to handle the immense caseload. Each regional board had a representative designated by local labor unions, local employers, a "public" representative.
All were unpaid. The public representative acted as the chair; the regional boards could propose settlements to disputes. They lacked authority to order representation elections, but this changed after Roosevelt issued additional executive orders on February 1 and February 23, 1934; the NLB, proved ineffective. Congress passed Public Resolution No. 44 on June 19, 1934, which empowered the president to appoint a new labor board with authority to issue subpoenas, hold elections, mediate labor disputes. On June 29, President Roosevelt abolished the NLB and in Executive Order 6763 established a new, three-member National Labor Relations Board. Lloyd K. Garrison was the first Chairman of the National Labor Relations Board; the "First NLRB" established organizational structures which continue at the NLRB in the 21st century. This includes the regional structure of the board. Formally, Garrison established the: Executive Office, which handled administrative activities of the national and regionalsit boards, field staff, Legal Division.
It was overseen by an Executive Secretary. Examining Division, national staff which conducted field investigations and assisted the regional boards with adjudications and representative elections. Information Division, which provided the press and public with news. Legal Division, which assisted the Department of Justice in seeking compliance with board decisions in the courts, or in responding to suits brought about by board decisions. Research Division, which studied decisions of the regional boards so that a comprehensive labor law might be developed, studied the economics of each case. Within a year, most of the jurisdiction of the "First NLRB" was stripped away, its decisions in the automobile, newspaper and steel industries proved so volatile that Roosevelt himself removed these cases from the board's jurisdiction. Several federal court decisions further limited the board's power. Senator Robert F. Wagner subsequently pushed legislation through Congress to give a statutory basis to federal labor policy that survived court scrutiny.
On July 5, 1935, a new law—the National Labor Relations Act —superseded the NIRA and established a new, long-lasting federal labor policy. The NLRA designated the National Labor Relations Board as the implementing agency; the first Chairman of the "new" NLRB was J. Warren Madden, professor of the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Madden confirmed the previous structure of the "first NLRB" by formally establishing five divisions within the agency: The Administrative Division, which oversaw all administrative activities of the national and regional boards, as well as their finances, it was led by a Secretary. The Economic Division, which analzyed economic evidence in cases and made studies of the economics of labor relations for use by the board and the courts, it was supervised by a Chief Industrial Economist. The Legal Division, which handled NLRB decisions which were appealed to the courts, or cases where the NLRB sought enforcement of its decisions; the position of General Counsel was created to oversee this division.
There were two subdivisions: The Litigation Section, which advised the national and regional boards, prepared briefs, worked with the Justice Department.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors
The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five-member governing body of Los Angeles County, United States. The people of Los Angeles County on April 1, 1850 asserted their newly won right of self-government and elected a three-man Court of Sessions as their first governing body. A total of 377 votes were cast in this election. In 1852, the Legislature dissolved the Court of Sessions and created a five-member Board of Supervisors. In 1913 the citizens of Los Angeles County approved a charter recommended by a board of freeholders which gave the County greater freedom to govern itself within the framework of state law; as the population expanded throughout the twentieth century, Los Angeles County did not subdivide into separate counties or increase the number of supervisors as its population soared. As a result, the concentration of local administrative power in each county supervisor is high with the population of the county at ten million residents; each supervisor represents more than two million people.
A local nickname some use for the Board is the "five little kings." Supervisors are elected to four-year terms by a vote of Los Angeles County citizens who reside in the supervisorial district. Supervisors must be voters in the district they represent. Elections for the 1st and 3rd districts coincide with California's gubernatorial elections, while those for the 2nd, 4th and 5th districts coincide with the United States presidential election. Supervisorial terms begin the first Monday in December after the election. Unseating an incumbent supervisor is extraordinarily difficult, due to the prohibitive cost of mounting a successful challenge in districts of such enormous geographical and population size. To curb the powers of the five supervisors, Los Angeles County voters passed Measure B in March 2002 with a majority of 64%, to limit the supervisors to three consecutive four-year terms. If a supervisor fills a vacancy, the unexpired term counts towards the term limit if there are more than two years left to serve.
The provisions of the measure were not retroactive, meaning that the term limit clock for supervisors who were serving at the time the measure passed would start with the next election. Don Knabe, Mike Antonovich, Yvonne Brathwaite Burke could continue to serve until 2016, while Gloria Molina and Zev Yaroslavsky could continue to serve until 2014; the chair of the Board of Supervisors has the option of calling herself mayor. The title has drawn criticism. However, those who support the use of the title say that all five members of the Board of Supervisors act as "mayors" or chief executives for the millions of people who live in unincorporated areas. Only Mike Antonovich used the "mayor" title when chairing the Board to represent and promote Los Angeles County when dealing with international diplomacy and trade. Otherwise, all other chairs have used the title chair, chairman, or chairwoman, depending on their preference; until the chief executive officer was the appointed individual heading the county but had little power as supervisors retained the right to fire and hire department heads and directly admonished department heads in public.
Based on an ordinance authored by Supervisors Knabe and Yaroslavsky that took effect in April 2007, the CEO directly oversees departments on behalf of the supervisors, although the Los Angeles County Fire Department, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, District Attorney, Auditor-Controller, Executive Office of the Board of Supervisors continue to be under the direct purview of the Board of Supervisors. The change was made in response to several candidates either dropping out or declining to accept the position to replace former Chief Administrative Officer David Janssen. Antonovich was the lone supervisor to oppose the change, stating that such a move would lead to a more autocratic form of government and disenfranchise the 1.3 million who live in unincorporated areas. However, this was rescinded in 2015 and the CEO has returned to a facilitation and coordination role between departments. Departments continue to submit recommendations and agenda items to the Board to be adopted and ratified, the Board directly manages relations with the department heads instead of going through the CEO, as would be the case in a council-manager system prevalent in most of the county's cities.
In 2016, the CEO further recommended, the Board approved, transferring positions considered "transactional" and focusing the CEO on "strategic" initiatives and long-term, structural issues. The Board meets every Tuesday at 9:30 a.m. at the Board Hearing Room at the Kenneth Hahn Hall of Administration in Downtown Los Angeles. On Tuesdays following a Monday holiday, Board meetings begin after lunch, at 1:00 p.m. Board meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order, the Brown Act, the Rules of the Board; the Chief Executive Officer, the County Counsel and the Executive Officer, or their deputies, attend each Board meeting. The regular agendas for the first, second and fifth Tuesdays of the month are a consent calendar, that is, all items are automatically approved without discussion, unless a Supervisor or member of the public requests discussion of a specific item; the fourth Tuesday of the month is reserved for the purpose of conducting required public hearings, Board of Supervisors motions and department items continued from a previous meeting, have time constraints, or are critical in nature.
Since Board meetings are considered Brown Act bodies, a Board agenda is published 72 hours before the Board meeting is convened
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (United States)
The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service is an independent agency of the United States government, founded in 1947, which provides mediation services to industry and government agencies worldwide. One of its most common tasks is to help to mediate labor disputes around the country. FMCS headquarters is located in Washington, D. C, its employees include certified mediators. The Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service was created under the terms of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 to replace the United States Conciliation Service operating within the Department of Labor; the chair of the FMCS received $12,000, placing the position at par with the National Labor Relations Board. The FMCS offered its services upon request or in disputes affecting interstate commerce, was required to be notified within 30 days of the expiration of a contract where either side proposes modification or termination of the existing contract. On August 7, 1947, President of the United States Harry S. Truman appointed Cyrus S. Ching as the first director of the FMCS.
Ching had been a member of the National War Labor Board until 1943, had been an employee of the United States Rubber Company since 1919, serving as the firm's director of industrial and public relations in 1929. Ching would take office as of August 22, 1947, the date established in the Taft–Hartley Act for the creation of the FMCS as an independent agency, would assume the role of the nation's top labor mediator from Edgar L. Warren, who had filled the senior mediation role within the Labor Department. After conferring with the President in August, Ching stated that he would assume his role as director in early September upon the completion of his duties at U. S. Rubber. Ching stated that his role was to settle labor disputes at the level where they develop. Ching was sworn into office on September 5, 1947, with an oath administered by Judge Henry White Edgerton at ceremonies attended by Howard T. Colvin, who served as acting head from the August 22 creation of the FMCS, as well as other representatives of labor and government.
Representatives of the FMCS played a role in negotiations between Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation and the Marine and Shipbuilding Workers in a strike that started in June 1947. Representatives of the FMCS played a role in negotiations between the National Football League and the National Football League Players Association in contract talks in February 2011. In November 2012, the National Hockey League and National Hockey League Players Association agreed to submit their negotiations to the FMCS in an effort to resolve the 2012 NHL lockout. In 2013, The Washington Examiner alleged in a series of articles that employees at the agency had made improper purchases such as auto leases and spouses' cellular phones using government credit cards. In response, the FMCS issued the following statement: "These items which the Examiner is inquiring about appear to have been the subject of a now-settled employment dispute involving a disgruntled FMCS employee; these purchasing issues were addressed in the settlement, but must remain confidential under federal personnel rules, as noted, in the absence of a release from the employee.
"When FMCS became aware of this employee’s concerns about the Agency’s procurement practices, we took immediate actions. These actions included taking steps to ensure that the Agency’s internal processes meet federal regulations. Additionally, we obtained a review by an outside, independent authority regarding FMCS procurements made over a period of years. We conducted a review of our own internal processes. With the settlement of the employment dispute, the conclusion of our own investigation and reviews by outside authorities, the allegations were dropped and outside authorities indicated they would take no further action."Subsequently, Congressional committee staff in both the House and Senate looked into the allegations that prompted the articles in the Examiner and concluded their inquiries without making any findings against the agency or its employees. Then-FMCS Director George H. Cohen announced his retirement from the agency, effective December 31, 2013, to coincide with his 80th birthday.
He was succeeded by then-Deputy-Director Allison Beck, who served as Acting Director, was nominated by President Obama in September 2014 and confirmed by the U. S. Senate as Director in July 2015. Directors of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, are as follows: Cyrus S. Ching David L. Cole Whitney P. McCoy Joseph F. Finnegan William E. Simkin, the longest-serving Director, departing office in 1969 J. Curtis Counts William Usery, Jr. James F. Scearce Wayne L. Horvitz Kenneth Moffett, served for seven months. Kay McMurray Bernard E. DeLury John Calhoun Wells C. Richard Barnes Peter J. Hurtgen Arthur F. Rosenfeld George H. Cohen Allison Beck, the first woman to serve as director Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Official website Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service in the Federal Register Records available on-line through the National Archives Catalog:Digital Photographs of Officials and Staff, c. 1913 - c. 2009 Director's Speeches and Presentations, 1960 - 2004 History Files, 1947 - 2007 Official Publications, 1947 - 1990