Lunenburg County, Virginia
Lunenburg County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,914, its county seat is Lunenburg. Lunenburg County was established on May 1746, from Brunswick County; the county is named for the former Duchy of Brunswick-Lünenburg in Germany, because one of the titles carried by Britain's Hanoverian kings was Duke of Brunswick-Lünenburg. It is nicknamed "The Old Free State" because during the buildup of the Civil War, it let Virginia know the county would break off if the state did not join The Confederacy. Among the earliest settlers of the county was William Taylor, born in King William County, Virginia, he was the son of Rev. Daniel Taylor, a Virginia native and Anglican priest educated at Trinity College, Cambridge University in England, his wife Alice Taylor. William Taylor married a daughter of Benjamin Waller of Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1760 Taylor purchased three adjoining tracts of land in Lunenburg County totaling 827 acres. Taylor soon became one of the county's leading citizens, representing Lunenburg in the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1765 until 1768.
In that capacity, Taylor voted in 1765 to support statesman Patrick Henry's Virginia Resolves in 1765. Taylor served as County Clerk for 51 years. Taylor was succeeded as County Clerk by his son William Henry Taylor, who held the office for another 32 years—from 1814 until 1846. Another son, General Waller Taylor, represented Lunenburg in the Virginia legislature moved to Vincennes, Indiana. There he became a judge and subsequently Adjutant General of the United States Army under General William Henry Harrison in the War of 1812. General Waller Taylor served as one of the first United States Senators from the newly created state of Indiana from 1816 to 1825, he died on a visit home to see his relatives in Lunenburg County in 1826. During much of the American Civil War, the family of Missionary Bishop Henry C. Lay lived in Lunenberg County. Both of Bishop Lay's brothers served as Confederate colonels, Mrs. Lay's uncle, Thomas Atkinson was bishop of North Carolina. Cases surrounding an 1895 Lunenburg County murder are the subject of historian Suzanne Lebsock's book, A Murder in Virginia: Southern Justice on Trial.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 432 square miles, of which 432 square miles is land and 1 square mile is water. Brunswick County Charlotte County (west Mecklenburg County Nottoway County Prince Edward County US 360 SR 40 SR 49 SR 137 SR 138 As of the census of 2000, there were 13,146 people, 4,998 households, 3,383 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 5,736 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.12% White, 38.58% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 1.79% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,998 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.50% were married couples living together, 13.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 28.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 16.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 113.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,899, the median income for a family was $34,302. Males had a median income of $26,496 versus $20,237 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,951. About 14.90% of families and 20.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.30% of those under age 18 and 22.80% of those age 65 or over. Lunenburg County Public Schools operates the following schools: Kenbridge Elementary School- Kenbridge, VA Victoria Elementary School- Victoria, VA Lunenburg Middle School- Victoria, VA Central High School- Victoria, VAThere are no private or independent schools in Lunenburg County, no colleges or universities are located there.
Kenston Forest School in Nottoway County 20 minutes away, offers the closest K-12 private education available to Lunenburg County residents. Kenbridge Victoria Lunenburg Dundas Fort Mitchell Meherrin Lewis Archer Boswell, experimented with flying aircraft. Local legends claim he achieved heavier-than-air flight before the Wright Brothers, though there is no historical evidence. Justice Paul Carrington, second member appointed of the Virginia Supreme Court. Roy Clark, born in Meherrin, he became a acclaimed country musician and a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador. Henry W. Collier, born in the county, was elected fourteenth Governor of Alabama, from 1849 to 1853. Alfred L. Cralle, born in the county, became an inventor and businessman in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he is best remembered for inventing the lever-operated ice cream scoop in 1897. Anthony Davis, an NFL football player for the New Orleans Saints. From Lunenburg County, he attended Central High School in Virginia. Richard Ellis and raised in Lunenburg County, settled in Alabama where he was a member of Alabama’s Constitutional Convention in 1818 and an Associate Justice of the Ala
Black Hawk War
The Black Hawk War was a brief conflict between the United States and Native Americans led by Black Hawk, a Sauk leader. The war erupted soon after Black Hawk and a group of Sauks and Kickapoos, known as the "British Band", crossed the Mississippi River, into the U. S. state of Illinois, from Iowa Indian Territory in April 1832. Black Hawk's motives were ambiguous, but he was hoping to avoid bloodshed while resettling on tribal land, ceded to the United States in the disputed 1804 Treaty of St. Louis. U. S. officials, convinced that the British Band was hostile, mobilized a frontier militia and opened fire on a delegation from the Native Americans on May 14, 1832. Black Hawk responded by attacking the militia at the Battle of Stillman's Run, he led his band to a secure location in what is now southern Wisconsin and was pursued by U. S. forces. Meanwhile, other Native Americans conducted raids against forts and settlements unprotected with the absence of U. S. troops. Some Ho-Chunk and Potawatomi warriors with grievances against European-Americans took part in these raids, although most tribe members tried to avoid the conflict.
The Menominee and Dakota tribes at odds with the Sauks and Meskwakis, supported the U. S. Commanded by General Henry Atkinson, the U. S. troops tracked the British Band. Militia under Colonel Henry Dodge caught up with the British Band on July 21 and defeated them at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights. Black Hawk's band was weakened by hunger and desertion and many native survivors retreated towards the Mississippi. On August 2, U. S. soldiers attacked the remnants of the British Band at the Battle of Bad Axe, killing many or capturing most who remained alive. Black Hawk and other leaders escaped, but surrendered and were imprisoned for a year; the Black Hawk War gave the young captain Abraham Lincoln his brief military service, although he never participated in a battle. Other participants who became famous included Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, Jefferson Davis; the war gave impetus to the U. S. policy of Indian removal, in which Native American tribes were pressured to sell their lands and move west of the Mississippi River and stay there.
In the 18th century, the Sauk and Meskwaki Native American tribes lived along the Mississippi River in what are now the U. S. states of Iowa. The two tribes had become connected after having been displaced from the Great Lakes region in conflicts with New France and other Native American tribes after the so-called Fox Wars ended in the 1730s. By the time of the Black Hawk War, the population of the two tribes was about 6,000 people; as the United States expanded westward in the early 19th century, government officials sought to buy as much Native American land as possible. In 1804, territorial governor William Henry Harrison negotiated a treaty in St. Louis in which a group of Sauk and Meskwaki leaders sold their lands east of the Mississippi for more than $2,200, in goods and annual payments of $1,000 in goods; the treaty became controversial because the Native leaders had not been authorized by their tribal councils to cede lands. Historian Robert Owens argued that the chiefs did not intend to give up ownership of the land, that they would not have sold so much valuable territory for such a modest price.
Historian Patrick Jung concluded that the Sauk and Meskwaki chiefs intended to cede a little land, but that the Americans included more territory in the treaty's language than the Natives realized. According to Jung, the Sauks and Meskwakis did not learn the true extent of the cession until years later; the 1804 treaty allowed the tribes to continue using the ceded land until it was sold to American settlers by the U. S. government. For the next two decades, Sauks continued to live at Saukenuk, their primary village, located near the confluence of the Mississippi and Rock Rivers. In 1828, the U. S. government began to have the ceded land surveyed for white settlement. Indian agent Thomas Forsyth informed the Sauks that they should vacate Saukenuk and their other settlements east of the Mississippi; the Sauks were divided about. Most Sauks decided to relocate west of the Mississippi rather than become involved in a confrontation with the United States; the leader of this group was Keokuk, who had helped defend Saukenuk against the Americans during the War of 1812.
Keokuk was not a chief, but as a skilled orator, he spoke on behalf of the Sauk civil chiefs in negotiations with the Americans. Keokuk regarded the 1804 treaty as a fraud, but after having seen the size of American cities on the east coast in 1824, he did not think the Sauks could oppose the United States. Although the majority of the tribe decided to follow Keokuk's lead, about 800 Sauks—roughly one-sixth of the tribe—chose instead to resist American expansion. Black Hawk, a war captain who had fought against the United States in the War of 1812 and was now in his 60s, emerged as the leader of this faction in 1829. Like Keokuk, Black Hawk was not a civil chief, but he became Keokuk's primary rival for influence within the tribe. Black Hawk had signed a treaty in May 1816 that affirmed the disputed 1804 land cession, but he insisted that what had been written down was different from what had been spoken at the treaty conference. According to Black Hawk, the "whites were in the habit of saying one thing to the Indians and putting another thing down on paper."
Black Hawk was determined to hold onto Saukenuk, where he had been born. When the Sauks returned to the village in 1829 after their annual winter hunt in the west, they found that it had been occupied by white squatters who were anticipating the sale of
Illinois General Assembly
The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the U. S. comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate. The General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the State Senate has 59 members while the House has 118 members, all elected from single-member districts. A Senate district is formed by combining two adjacent House districts; the current General Assembly is Illinois's 100th. The General Assembly meets in the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois, its session laws are adopted by majority vote in both houses, upon gaining the assent of the Governor of Illinois. They are published in the official Laws of Illinois; the Illinois General Assembly was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818. The state did not have organized political parties, but the Democratic and Whig parties began to form in the 1830s. Future U. S. President Abraham Lincoln campaigned as a member of the Whig Party to serve in the General Assembly in 1834.
He served four successive terms in the Illinois House of Representatives, supporting expanded suffrage and economic development. The Illinois Republican Party was organized at a conference held in Major's Hall in Bloomington, Illinois on May 29, 1856, its founding members came from the former Whig Party in Illinois after its members joined with several powerful local political factions including, the Independent Democrat movement of Chicago that helped elect James Hutchinson Woodworth as mayor in 1848. During the election of 1860 in which Lincoln was elected president, Illinois elected a Republican governor and legislature, but the trials of war helped return the state legislature to the Democrats in 1861; the Democratic-led legislature investigated the state's war expenditures and the treatment of Illinois troops, but with little political gain. They worked to frame a new state constitution that gave the southern portion of the state increased representation and included provisions to discourage banking and the circulation of paper currency.
Voters rejected each of the constitution's provisions, except the bans on black settlement and office holding. The Democratic Party came to represent skepticism in the war effort, until Illinois' Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas changed his stance and pledged his full support to Lincoln; the Democratic Party swept the 1862 election. They passed resolutions denouncing the federal government's conduct of the war and urging an immediate armistice and peace convention in the Illinois House of Representatives, leading the Republican governor to suspend the legislature for the first time in the state's history. In 1864, Republicans swept the state legislature and at the time of Lincoln's assassination, Illinois stood as a solidly Republican state. In 1922, Lottie Holman O'Neill was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives, becoming the first woman to serve in the Illinois General Assembly. From 1870 to 1980, the state was divided into 59 legislative districts, each of which elected one senator and three representatives.
The representatives were elected by cumulative voting, in which a voter had three votes that could be distributed to either one, two, or three candidates. This system was abolished with the Cutback Amendment in 1980. Since the House has been elected from 118 single-member districts formed by dividing the 59 Senate districts in half; each senator is "associated" with two representatives. Barack Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, he served in the Senate until 2004. In 2002, a Democrat won a gubernatorial election for the first time since 1972. Members of the House of Representatives are elected to a two-year term without term limits. Members of the Illinois Senate serve one two-year term each decade; this ensures that Senate elections reflect changes made when the General Assembly is redistricted following each United States Census. To prevent complete turnovers in membership, not all Senators are elected simultaneously; the term cycles for the Senate are staggered, with the placement of the two-year term varying from one district to another.
Each district's terms are defined as 2-4-4, 4-2-4, or 4-4-2. Like House members, Senators are elected without term limits; the officers of the General Assembly are elected at the beginning of each number year. Representatives of the House elect from its membership a Speaker and Speaker pro tempore, drawn from the majority party in the chamber; the Illinois Secretary of State convenes and supervises the opening House session and leadership vote. State senators elect from the chamber a President of the Senate and under the supervision of the governor. Since the adoption of the current Illinois Constitution in 1970, the Lieutenant Governor of Illinois does not serve in any legislative capacity as Senate President, has had its office's powers transferred to other capacities; the Illinois Auditor General is a legislative officer appointed by the General Assembly that reviews all state spending for legality. The General Assembly's first official working day is the second Monday of January each year, with the Secretary of State convening the House, the governor convening the Senate.
In order to serve as a member in either chamber of the General Assembly, a person must be a U. S. citizen, at least 21 years of age, for the two years preceding his election or appointment a resident of the district which they represent. In the general election following a redistricting, a candidate for any chamber of the General Assembly may be elected from any district which contains a part of the district in which he or she resided at the time of the redistrictin
The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia
Old University of Chicago
The Old University of Chicago was the legal name given in 1890 to the University of Chicago's first incorporation. Between 1856 and 1886 this school, founded by Baptist church leaders, was referred to as the "University of Chicago"; the name change was necessitated when the university's original campus was badly damaged in a fire and it was foreclosed on by its creditors. Rather than continue operations under its existing name, its trustees decided to change the name of the University of Chicago to the "Old University of Chicago" and allow the establishment of a new legal entity that would once again be called the "University of Chicago."Both the Northwestern University School of Law and the University of Chicago Divinity School began as departments of the Old University. While the present-day University of Chicago, established in 1890, is a separate legal entity, it recognized Old University of Chicago alumni as its own and maintained a number of other continuities from its pre-1890 origins.
The lone remaining stone from the older school's building in Bronzeville, destroyed by fire, is preserved on the present school's main quadrangle, where it is set into the wall of the arch between the Classics building and Wieboldt Hall. The land upon which the Old University of Chicago was established was part of a lakefront tract owned by Senator Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas had offered the 10-acre plot, worth $50,000 and located at Cottage Grove Avenue and Thirty-Fifth Street, to the Presbyterian Church for a seminary; when the church group failed to raise the $100,000 Douglas set as a precondition of his donation, he offered the site to a group of Baptists, who accepted. Douglas was not religious but an avid promoter of Chicago; the school's 1856 charter required that most of the members of the Board of Trustees be of the Baptist faith. The school made no such restrictions on students. Despite the title of university, in the early years, the tenor of the instruction was collegiate and vocational in nature.
Two hundred to five hundred students enrolled annually in preparatory, collegiate and medical schools. The new institution began immediately to encounter financial difficulties. Fundraising was hurt by Douglas' support for the Kansas–Nebraska Act, regarded by many northern Baptists and other abolitionists as a betrayal, while the financial Panic of 1857 drained the finances of many of the principal investors, rendering most of their initial subscriptions worthless; the trustees proceeded with plans to build the university, including construction projects that were beyond the school's means because of the volatility of the market. With the university’s debt mounting President John C. Burroughs and the trustees sold a second wave of subscriptions. Key to this effort was James Hutchinson Woodworth, a former Chicago mayor, president of the Treasury Bank of Chicago. Woodworth served as a university trustee from 1857 to 1869, as well as treasurer for some time. Burroughs, who remained in office longer than any of his five successors, established in 1859 the University's Law Department, the city's first law school.
In 1870, Ada Kepley and Richard A. Dawson received bachelor of law degrees the first woman and first African American to receive degrees from the institution. In 1872, the faculty voted to allow women undergraduate students. Alice Robinson Boise Wood became the first woman to graduate from the university with a B. A. in Classics in 1872. In 1873, the Law School became jointly associated with Northwestern University, as the Union College of Law and became today's Northwestern University School of Law. In the early years of the university, some students requested training for the Christian ministry and courses in theology were added. In 1867, this academic department was chartered as a separate institution, the Baptist Theological Union. In the 1890s, this seminary became the University of Chicago Divinity School; the university's finances deteriorated after Woodworth died in 1869. It was rocked by the huge costs of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the Panic of 1873 decreased donations. In 1874, a fire damaged the university’s main physical plant.
Meanwhile, disagreements in the Board of Trustees flared up over fundraising, financial management, faculty appointments, escalating into open conflict. Burroughs and his most vocal opponent, trustee W. W. Everts, left the board. To keep Burroughs affiliated with the university, the trustees created the post of chancellor and appointed him responsible for the school's financial affairs, but the new president and Chancellor Burroughs were at odds. Other administrators departed in rapid succession; the university's fifth president, Galusha Anderson, appealed to philanthropists John D. Rockefeller and Leland Stanford, but was unable to secure substantial donations. Union Mutual Life Insurance Company, the university's chief creditor, brought suit in 1881 to foreclose the mortgage on the university's property. Anderson argued to keep the school open; the university closed in autumn 1886, the main building was razed in 1890. At the final meeting of its Board of Trustees in 1890, the group changed the name of the institution to the Old University of Chicago.
This was to enable a new Rockefeller-financed Baptist school being organized, to have a separate legal entity and take the title of the University of Chicago. Charles Richmond Henderson and sociologist, taught at Univ. of Chicago Tho
Galena and Chicago Union Railroad
The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was a railroad running west from Chicago to Clinton and Freeport, never reaching Galena, Illinois. Incorporated in 1836, the G&CU became the first railroad built to Chicago; the first railroad constructed out of Chicago, the Galena and Chicago Union, was chartered January 16, 1836, to connect Chicago with the lead mines at Galena. "The Pioneer," the first locomotive on the road, arrived at Chicago on October 10, 1848, nearly thirteen years after the charter was granted. In 1850, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was completed as far as Elgin; the railroad and the canal were vital in the development of Chicago and the population of the city tripled in the six years after the opening of the canal. Other railroads were built and Chicago became the largest railroad center in the world. In 1862 the G&CU leased in perpetuity the Cedar Rapids and Missouri Railroad, to be the first railroad to reach Council Bluffs and the First Transcontinental Railroad; the G&CU consolidated with the Chicago and North Western Railway in 1864, which merged with the Union Pacific Railroad over a century in 1996.
Today, the G&CU's main line between Chicago and West Chicago is a busy commuter service, jointly operated by Union Pacific and Metra as the Union Pacific / West Line. The railroad was constructed starting in March 1848, was completed in 1853; the first westbound train out of Chicago departed on October 25, 1848, pulled by a used Baldwin-built locomotive named Pioneer. Cronon, William. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great west. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30873-1. Examines the economic effects of the railroad. A Chronological History of Chicago: 1673- Compiled by Chicago Municipal Reference Library, City of Chicago, updated by Municipal Reference Collection, Chicago Public Library
Oak Ridge Cemetery
Oak Ridge Cemetery is a cemetery located in Springfield, Illinois, in the United States. The Lincoln Tomb, which serves as the final resting place of Abraham Lincoln, his wife and all but one of his children, is located at Oak Ridge. A number of other prominent politicians and persons from Illinois are buried at the cemetery; as a result of Lincoln's Tomb, Oak Ridge is the second-most visited cemetery in the United States, after Arlington National Cemetery. Oak Ridge is the 3rd and now only public cemetery in Springfield, the other two cemeteries were the City Cemetery and Hutchinson. Oak Ridge was designed by William Saunders as part of the Rural Cemetery Landscape Lawn Style; the location of the cemetery was selected because of the topography, which included rolling hills, key in the Rural Cemetery Landscape Lawn Style. The many oak trees in the cemetery is; the ridge borders low-lying Spring Creek, creating landscaped topography unusual in central Illinois. The newest section, in the southwest, of Oak Ridge opened after 1945.
The design follows the Memorial Park style cemetery in which roadways are wider to accommodate vehicles. The Cemetery has memorials for the Korean War, World War II and the Illinois Vietnam Veterans Memorial. A museum of Central Illinois African-American history is located adjacent to the cemetery. William Henry Bissell Jacob Bunn John Whitfield Bunn Daniel Pope Cook John Cook Shelby Moore Cullom Jesse K. Dubois Ninian Edwards William Lee D. Ewing Nellie Grant – daughter of President Ulysses S. Grant William Herndon Elijah Iles William Jayne John L. Lewis Abraham Lincoln – sixteenth President of the United States during the Civil War Mary Todd Lincoln – Abraham's wife Fleetwood Lindley – the last person to have looked upon Lincoln's face in September 1901 Vachel Lindsay John Alexander McClernand Alfred Orendorff John Carroll Power – first custodian of Lincoln's Tomb Alexander Starne – Illinois Secretary of State and Illinois Treasurer John T. Stuart – U. S. Congressman, law partner of Abraham Lincoln John Riley Tanner Arthur Harrison Wilson Illinois Ancestors - Oak Ridge Cemetery Oak Ridge Cemetery - City of Springfield Graveyards.com - photos Find a Grave - Oak Ridge Cemetery