Harry Woodburn Chase
Harry Woodburn Chase was the 12th President of the University of North Carolina, the 7th President of the University of Illinois, the 8th President of New York University. Works by Harry Woodburn Chase at LibriVox
Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman
Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman, was an American economist who spent his entire academic career at Columbia University in New York City. Seligman is best remembered for his pioneering work involving public finance. Edwin Seligman was born April 1861 in New York City, the son of banker Joseph Seligman. Seligman attended Columbia University, from which he graduated in 1879 with a A. B.. Seligman continued his studies in Europe, attending courses for three years at the universities of Berlin, Heidelberg and Paris, he earned his M. A. and LL. B. degrees in 1885 and defended a Ph. D. in 1885. He was awarded a LL. D. in 1904. Seligman spent his entire academic career at Columbia University, first joining as a lecturer in 1885, he was made an adjunct professor of political economy in 1888. He became the first McVickar Professor of Political Economy at the same university in 1904, a position which he occupied until 1931. Seligman's academic work dealt with matters of taxation and public finance, he was regarded as a leading proponent of the progressive income tax.
He taught courses at Columbia in the field of economic history. From 1886 Seligman was one of the editors of the Political Science Quarterly, he edited Columbia's series in history and public law from 1890. Seligman was a founder of the American Economic Association and served as president of that organization from 1902 to 1904, he was a key figure behind the formation of the American Association of University Professors, serving as that group's president from 1919 to 1920. Seligman dedicated a great deal of effort to the question of public finance during World War I and was a prominent advocate of the establishment of a progressive income tax as a basis for the funding of government operations. Although a proponent of the economic interpretation of history associated with Marxism, Seligman was an opponent of socialism and appeared in public debates opposing prominent radical figures during the early 1920s, including such figures as Scott Nearing and Harry Waton. Seligman's academic work revolved around questions of tax policy and consumer finance.
Among his students was B. R. Ambedkar, the principal architect of the Constitution of India. Edwin Seligman died July 18, 1939, his beliefs were influential with Charles A. Beard, an academic colleague at Columbia. In particular, Seligman's economic viewpoints to history helped inform Beard's work An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States. Railway Tariffs and the Interstate Commerce Act. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1887; the General Property Tax. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1890. Progressive Taxation in Theory and Practice. Second Edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1908; the Shifting and Incidence of Taxation. Second Edition. New York: Macmillan, 1902. Report of the Committee of Economists on the dismissal of Professor Ross from Leland Stanford Junior University. Detroit?: The Committee?, 1901. The Economic Interpretation of History. New York: Macmillan, 1902. Essays in Taxation. New York: Macmillan, 1905. Principles of Economics: With Special Reference to American Conditions.
New York: Longmans, Green and Co. 1905. The Income Tax: A Study of the History and Practice of Income Taxation at Home and Abroad. New York: Macmillan, 1911; the Social Evil: With Special Reference to Conditions Existing in the City of New York. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912. An Economic Interpretation of the War. New York: D. Appleton and Co. 1915. The Next Step in Tax Reform: Presidential Address of Edwin R. A. Seligman, LL. D. Delivered at the Ninth Annual Conference of the National Tax Association, San Francisco, August 11, 1915. New York: National Tax Association, 1915. A University School of Business. New York: Columbia University Press, 1916. How to Finance the War. With Robert Murray Haig. New York: Division of Intelligence and Publicity of Columbia University, 1917. Financial Mobilization for War: Papers Presented at a Joint Conference of the Western Economic Society and the City Club of Chicago, June 21 and 22, 1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1917; the House Revenue Bill: A Constructive Criticism.
New York: Division of Intelligence and Publicity of Columbia University, 1917. Currency Inflation and Public Debts: An Historical Sketch. New York: Equitable Trust Company of New York, 1921. A Public Debate: Capitalism vs. Socialism: Professor Edwin R. A. Seligman, Columbia University, vs. Professor Scott Nearing, Rand School of Social Science. New York: The Fine Arts Guild, 1922. Stenographer's Report of the Waton Debate. New York: Marx-Engels Institute, 1922. Studies in Public Finance. New York: Macmillan, 1925. Essays in Economics. New York: Macmillan, 1925; the Economics of Instalment Selling: A Study in Consumers' Credit, with Special Reference to the Automobile. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1927; the Economics of Farm Relief: A Survey of the Agricultural Problem. New York: Columbia University Press, 1929. Price Cutting and Price Maintenance: A Study in Economics. With Robert Alonzo Love. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1932. A Report on the Revenue System of Cuba. With Carl S. Shoup. Havana: Talleres tipográficos de Carasa y cía. 1932 "Economists," in Cambridge History of English and American Literature, 1907.
"The Crisis of 1907 in the Light of History," in Edwin R. A. Seligman, The Currency Problem and the Present Financial Situation: A Series of Addresses Delivered at Columbia University 1907-1908. New York: Columbia University Press, 1908. "Recent Reports on State and Local Taxation," American Economic Review, 1911. "The Crisis in Social Evolution," in Albert Bushnell Hart, et al. Problems of Readjustment After the War. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1915. "Tax Exemption Thro
Wu Tingfang was a Straits Settlements-born Chinese diplomat and politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as Acting Premier during the early years of the Republic of China. Wu was born in the Straits Settlement, now modern day Malacca in 1842 and was sent to China in 1846 to be schooled, he studied at the Anglican St. Paul's College, in Hong Kong where he learned to read and write in English. After serving as an interpreter in the Magistrate's Court from 1861 to 1874, marrying Ho Miu-ling in 1864, he studied law in the United Kingdom at University College London and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. Wu became the first ethnic Chinese barrister in history. After being called to the bar in England, he returned to Hong Kong in 1877 to practise law, he was admitted as a barrister in Hong Kong in a ceremony that May before Chief Justice John Smale who observed: I am glad to see a Chinaman running in the race the most intellectual in the world. I am glad to see. In England every office becomes open to talent without affection.
A distinguished American statesman has become, now is an ornament of the English bar, all the Bar will gladly hail the time when a Chinaman shall distinguish himself as much as the eminent counsel to whom I refer. I have seen stranger things happen. In 1880, Wu became the first ethnic Chinese Unofficial member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong and was appointed acting Police Magistrate, he served under the Qing dynasty as Minister to the United States and Peru from 1896 to 1902 and from 1907 to 1909, having started out as legal adviser and interpreter to powerful diplomat and viceroy Li Hongzhang. As the minister, he lectured about Chinese culture and history, in part working to counter discrimination against Chinese emigrants by increasing foreign appreciation of their background. To further this end, he wrote America, Through the Spectacles of an Oriental Diplomat in English in 1914. Wu is mentioned several times in the diaries of Sir Ernest Satow, British Envoy in China, 1900–06. For example, on 21 November 1903: "Wu Tingfang came in the afternoon, stopped talking for an hour and a half about his commercial code and connected subjects.
His idea is to draft a new criminal code, put both into force at the outset in the open ports."Wu had an opportunity to implement his ideas about Chinese law reform between 1903-1906, when he were put in charge of reforming the Qing imperial code. His efforts included modernising the criminal code and abolish inhumane methods of capital punishment such as death by a thousand cuts and posthumous execution, use of torture in interrogations, he reformed the governmental structure for the administration of justice, ending the traditional combined approach. Sun Yat-sen praised Wu's contributions, he supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and negotiated on the revolutionaries' behalf in Shanghai. He served in early 1912 as Minister of Justice for the Nanjing Provisional Government, where he argued for an independent judiciary, based on his experience studying law and travelling overseas. After this brief posting, Wu became Minister of Foreign Affairs for the ROC, he served in 1917 as Acting Premier of the Republic of China.
He joined Sun Yat-sen's Constitutional Protection Movement and became a member of its governing committee. He stuck with Sun after the election, he served as Sun's foreign minister and as acting president when Sun was absent. He died shortly after Chen Jiongming rebelled against Sun in 1922. Pomerantz-Zhang, Linda. Wu Tingfang: reform and modernisation in modern Chinese history. ISBN 962-209-287-X. Works by Wu Tingfang at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Wu Tingfang at Internet Archive America, through the spectacles of an Oriental diplomat, by Wu Tingfang at Project Gutenberg
Richard T. Ely
Richard Theodore Ely was an American economist and leader of the Progressive movement who called for more government intervention in order to reform what they perceived as the injustices of capitalism regarding factory conditions, compulsory education, child labor, labor unions. Ely is best remembered as a founder and the first Secretary of the American Economic Association, as a founder and secretary of the Christian Social Union, as the author of a series of read books on the organized labor movement and other social questions. Richard Theodore Ely was born on April 13, 1854, in Ripley, New York, the eldest of three children of Ezra Sterling and Harriet Gardner Ely. Soon after Ely's birth, his father moved the family to a 90-acre farm near Fredonia, New York, where Ely would spend the next 16 years; the elder Ely was a self-taught engineer and lacked the skills and knowledge to farm relying too on popular, sometimes erroneous, information he obtained from farm magazines. Although harsh weather and fluctuating market prices provided further hardship to the family, Ely credited his early farm life with instilling in him many valuable qualities.
From a young age he had numerous responsibilities in maintaining the farm, including carrying wood, churning butter, picking up rocks out of the fields, milking the cows. His parents were Presbyterian but Ely transferred his affiliation to the Episcopal Church when in college. Ely attended Columbia University in New York City, from which he received a bachelor's degree in 1876 and a master's degree in 1879, he received a Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from the University of Heidelberg in that same year, where he had studied with Karl Knies, who belonged to the historical school of economics, Johann Kaspar Bluntschli. He received a Doctorate of Laws from Hobart College, receiving the degree in 1892. Ely was a professor and head of the Department of Political Economy at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland from 1881 to 1892. In 1885, Ely was a founder of the American Economic Association, serving until 1892 as the group's Secretary, he served a term as President of the organization, holding that position from 1899 to 1901.
AEA still entitles the keynote address at its annual meeting the Richard T. Ely Lecture and honored him in the association's annual Economists' Calendar. Ely founded Lambda Alpha International in 1930, its purposes included the encouragement of the study of land economics in universities. Richard T. Ely is known as the "Father of Land Economics". In April 1891, Ely was a founder and the first Secretary of the Christian Social Union, a membership organization advocating the application of Christian principles to the social problems of the world. From 1892 until 1925, he was professor of Political Economy and director of the School of Economics, Political Science, History at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. In 1894 an unsuccessful attempt was made to depose him from his chair at Wisconsin for purportedly teaching socialistic doctrines; this effort failed, with the Wisconsin state Board of Regents issuing a ringing proclamation in favor of academic freedom, acknowledging the necessity for "sifting and winnowing" among competing claims of truth.
In 1925, Ely moved to Northwestern University in Chicago, where he accepted a position as professor of Economics. He remained at Northwestern until his retirement in 1933. Although regarded as a radical by his detractors on the political right, Ely was in fact opposed to socialism. "I condemn alike," he declared, "that individualism that would allow the state no room for industrial activity, that socialism which would absorb in the state the functions of the individual." He argued that socialism was not needed, "the alternative of socialism is our complex socio-economic order, based, in the main, upon private property." He warned that the proper "balance between private and public enterprise" is "menaced by socialism, on the one hand, by plutocracy, on the other."Ely's critique of socialism made him a political target of the socialists themselves. In his 1910 book, Ten Blind Leaders of the Blind, Arthur Morrow Lewis acknowledged that Ely was a "fair opponent" who had "done much to obtain a hearing for among the unreasonable," but charged he was one of those "bourgeois intellectuals" who were "not sufficiently intellectual to grasp the nature of our position."Ely was a product of the German historical school with an emphasis on evolution to new forms, never accepted the marginalist revolution, transforming economic theory in Britain and the U.
S. He was influenced by Herbert Spencer and favored competition over monopoly or state ownership, with regulation to "secure its benefits" and "mitigate its evils." What was needed was "to raise its moral and ethical level." However, whereas Herbert Spencer believed that free competition was best served by deregulation and a smaller state, Richard Ely believed that more regulation and a more interventionist state was the policy to follow. On social Darwinism, Herbert Spencer believed that the state should not get involved in supporting one ethnic group over another — whereas Richard Ely believed that the state should support white "Nordic" people against people of other races. Ely did support labor unions and opposed child labor, as did many leaders of the Progressive Movement
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Phyllis M. Wise is a biomedical researcher. Most she served as the chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Wise received a bachelor's degree in biology from Swarthmore College in 1967, an M. A. and a doctorate in zoology from the University of Michigan. She was a postdoctoral fellow there from 1972–74, she was awarded honorary degrees from the University of Birmingham. In 1976, Wise was appointed assistant professor of physiology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In 1993, she was appointed professor of physiology and chair of the department at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, Kentucky. In 2002, she became dean of the College of Biological Sciences at University of California-Davis, holding the rank of distinguished professor of neurobiology and behavior in its College of Biological Sciences, professor of physiology and membrane biology in its School of Medicine. Wise's principal area of research has been the effect of hormones on the female brain during development and aging.
Her research uncovered the diverse actions of estrogens on the brain, including its protective effects after stroke injury. She was funded by the NIH for 32 consecutive years during which she received two 10-year MERIT awards, led center and program project grants. In 2014, she admitted to omitting citations of her publications in one of her review articles. Starting in 2005, Wise served as provost and vice president for academic affairs at the University of Washington. Held the position of interim president there in 2010–2011. During her service at the University of Washington, she led the establishment of the College of the Environment. In 2011, Wise was appointed chancellor of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, she led the establishment of a unique engineering-driven college of medicine aimed toward training the next generation of doctors to use technology and big data to develop new materials, new devices, new imaging, new robotics to provide better medical care to more people at lower cost.
She created partnerships between the university and community leaders to encourage economic development, leading to greater vibrancy of the Urbana-Champaign region and the university. In August 2015, Wise resigned the chancellorship at Urbana-Champaign, shortly after, university administrators released emails Wise had hidden from FOIA requests regarding the controversial firings of Steven Salaita, she is a member of the National Academy of Medicine, of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Physiological Society. She was a member of the board of directors of Nike, she is a member of the board of directors for the First Busey Corporation, the RAND Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. University press release Academic CV