Kings Langley is a historic village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, England,21 miles northwest of central London to the south of the Chiltern Hills and now part of the London commuter belt. It was once the location of Kings Langley Palace, a palace of the Plantagenet kings of England. The 12th century parish church of All Saints houses the tomb of Edmund of Langley and it is 2 miles south of Hemel Hempstead and 2 miles north of Watford. The place-name Langley is first attested here in a Saxon charter of circa 1050 and it is spelt Langelai in the Domesday Book of 1086, and is recorded as Langel Regis in 1254. The name means wood or clearing. A Roman villa has been excavated just south of the village, the town was probably part of the lands of the Abbey of St. Albans, although actual records have been lost. At the Norman conquest the manor was given to Williams half brother Robert and it is around the manor that the present village developed as a linear village lying on the old road from London to Berkhamsted and the Midlands of England.
In the Domesday Book of 1086, Langley was in the hundred of Danish, around 1276 the manor was purchased by Queen Eleanor and a palace was built on the hill above the village to its west with a deer park extending to its south. This gave the village its link to royalty, first being renamed Langley Regina after its sponsoring queen, and later changed to Langley Regis or still by the added epithet Kings. The village remained the location of Kings Langley Palace, a palace of the Plantagenet kings of England. The palace and the church that accompanied the priory fell into disrepair at the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Church of All Saints was built during the 14th century on the site of an earlier church, the body of King Richard II was buried here for a time after his probable murder at Pontefract Castle in 1400. It was removed to Westminster Abbey, the body of Edmund of Langley, died 1402, the fifth son of Edward III and the first Duke of York, still rests in the memorial chapel. The 18th century Sparrows Herne turnpike road traversed the Chilterns via the valley of the River Gade, the 16th century Saracens Head public house is a coaching inn which flourished in this period.
The Grand Union Canal dating from 1797 and the 1838 London and Birmingham Railway which became the West Coast Main Line, there are many businesses located near the station in Home Park Industrial Estate which is the site of the Construction and Engineering Centre of West Herts College. 20th century housing developments have led to the spreading out on either side of the main road. The A41 has now been diverted west of the leaving the high street to local traffic for the first time in centuries. During the Second World War, the village was home to the headquarters in Britain of the Polish Underground army based at Barnes Lodge just off the Hempstead Road near Rucklers Lane
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany in northwestern France. The city is located on the edge of continental Europe. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper, during the Middle Ages, the history of Brest was the history of its castle. Then Richelieu made it a military harbour, Brest grew around its arsenal, until the second part of the 20th century. Heavily damaged by the Allies bombing raids during World War II, at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the deindustrialization of the city was followed by the development of the service sector. Nowadays, Brest is an important university town with 23,000 students, Brest is an important research centre, mainly focused on the sea, with among others the largest Ifremer centre, le Cedre and the French Polar Institute. Brest’s history has always been linked to the sea, the Académie de Marine was founded in 1752 in this city, the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle was built there.
Every four years, Brest hosts the festival of the sea and sailors. Nothing definite is known of Brest before about 1240, when a count of Léon ceded it to John I, in 1342, John IV, Duke of Brittany, surrendered Brest to the English, in whose possession it was to remain until 1397. The importance of Brest in medieval times was great enough to rise to the saying. With the marriage of Francis I of France to Claude, the daughter of Anne of Brittany, the advantages of Brests situation as a seaport town were first recognized by Cardinal Richelieu, who in 1631 constructed a harbor with wooden wharves. This soon became a base for the French Navy, jean-Baptiste Colbert, finance minister under Louis XIV, rebuilt the wharves in masonry and otherwise improved the harbour. Fortifications by Vauban followed in 1680–1688 and these fortifications, and with them the naval importance of the town, were to continue to develop throughout the 18th century. In 1694, an English squadron under Lord Berkeley, was defeated in its attack on Brest.
In 1917, during the First World War, Brest was used as the port for many of the troops coming from the United States. Thousands of such men came through the port on their way to the front lines, the United States Navy established a naval air station on 13 February 1918 to operate seaplanes. The base closed shortly after the Armistice of 11 November 1918, in the Second World War, the Germans maintained a large U-boat submarine base at Brest. In 1944, after the Allied invasion of Normandy, the city was almost totally destroyed during the Battle for Brest, with only a tiny number of buildings left standing
John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, KG, was an English nobleman and soldier who held the title Baron Abergavenny. He was born in Sutton Valence, the son of Laurence Hastings, 1st Earl of Pembroke. He was married on 19 May 1359 in Reading to Margaret and he afterwards married, in July 1368, Anne Manny, daughter of Sir Walter Manny. Anne gave birth to a son by Hastings, in 1372, he was made Lieutenant of Aquitaine. Pembroke fought in the Castilian campaign of his former brother-in-law, Edward the Black Prince and he was created a Knight of the Garter in 1369. He was almost captured on a raid into Poitou that year, having refused to command with Sir John Chandos. In 1370, he fought with distinction at the sack of Limoges by the Black Prince and he was surprised by a Castilian fleet and sharply defeated at the Battle of La Rochelle, his fleet being sunk or captured. He was taken prisoner and carried to Santander, and died in captivity in Picardy and he was buried in the choir of the Friars Preachers, in Hereford.
He was succeeded by his son, John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, leigh Rayments Peerage Pages The Chronicles of Froissart
The Gypsey Race river runs through the town and emerges into the North Sea in the town harbour. In the 2011 Census the population of the parish was 35,369, Bridlington is a minor sea fishing port with a working harbour and is well known for its shellfish. It has a mix of businesses across the manufacturing, retail. The origins of the town are uncertain, but archaeological evidence shows habitation in the Bronze Age and in Roman times. The settlement at the Norman conquest was called Bretlinton, but has gone by the names of Berlington and Britlington. The town is twinned with Millau in France and Bad Salzuflen in Germany, one of the UKs coastal weather stations is located at Bridlington. The Priory Church of St Mary and the associated Bayle Gate are Grade I listed buildings, the church stands on the site of the original Augustine Priory. The first mention of the town is in the Domesday Book as Bretlinton and it has gone by the names of Berlington and Britlington, before settling on its modern name in the 19th century.
There are several suggestions about the origin of the name, all suggest that it followed the Anglo-Saxon custom of referring to a person and the type of settlement. In this case there are different personal names put forward such as Bretel, a Roman road from York, now known as Woldgate, can be traced across the Yorkshire Wolds into the town, and Roman coins have been found in the town. Two Roman coin hoards were found in the area, along with two Greek coins dating from the 2nd century BC – suggesting that the port was in use long before the Roman invasion. It has been suggested that the Roman maritime station of Gabrantovicorum was located in the vicinity of the modern town, in the early 2nd century Ptolemy described Bridlington Bay in his Geography as Gabranticorum Sinus, with many harbours. In the 4th century Count Theodosius established signal stations on the North Yorkshire coast to warn of Saxon raids and it is believed that Flamborough Head would have had one of these stations. From the Headland an observer can see Filey, Scarborough Castle, a fort at Bridlington would have been well placed to act as centre of operations for these forts.
A network of signal stations stretching south around the broad Bridlington Bay has been suggested and this counterpart to the northern chain would guard this huge and accessible anchorage from barbarian piracy. Near Dukes Park are two bowl barrows known as Butt Hills and they have been designated as Ancient Monuments designated and is now recorded in the National Heritage List for England, maintained by Historic England. Also nearby are the remains of an Anglo-Saxon cemetery on a farm outside of Sewerby, the earliest written evidence of Bridlington is in the Domesday Book. It records that Bretlinton was the head of the Hunthow Hundred and was held by Earl Morcar before it passed into the hands of William the Conqueror by the forfeiture, the land was given to Gilbert de Gant, uncle of King Stephen, in 1072
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Due to its size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory, Yorkshire has sometimes been nicknamed Gods Own County or Gods Own Country. Yorkshire Day, held on 1 August, is a celebration of the culture of Yorkshire. Yorkshire is now divided between different official regions, most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber. The extreme northern part of the county falls within North East England, Small areas in the west of the historic county now form part of North West England, following boundary changes in 1974. Yorkshire or the County of York was so named as it is the shire of the city of York local /ˈjɔːk/ or Yorks Shire, York comes from the Viking name for the city, Jórvík. Shire is from Old English, scir meaning care or official charge, the shire suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ shuh, or occasionally /-ʃiə/, a homophone of sheer.
Early inhabitants of Yorkshire were Celts, who formed two tribes, the Brigantes and the Parisi. The Brigantes controlled territory which became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire, the tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England. That they had the Yorkshire area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum was the town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county, the Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia Parisiorum, Gaul. Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber estuary, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain. Queen Cartimandua left her husband Venutius for his bearer, Vellocatus. Cartimandua, due to her relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom.
At the second attempt, Venutius seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, the fortified city of Eboracum was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint-capital of all Roman Britain. During the two years before the death of Emperor Septimius Severus, the Roman Empire was run from Eboracum by him, another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Yorkshire during a visit in 306 AD. This saw his son Constantine the Great proclaimed emperor in the city, in the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops
Duke of York
The Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually given to the second son of English monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany, initially granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times. Additionally, the title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times and these occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm. The double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew currently has no heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce. In medieval times, York was the city of the North of England. Yorkshire was Englands largest shire in area, York under its Viking name Jorvik was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period.
In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik, and the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York. The title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the surviving son of Edward III. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the title passed to Edwards nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge. The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, when Henry ultimately became King Henry VIII, his titles merged into the crown.
The title was created for the time for Charles Stuart. When his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612 and he was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and eventually became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown. The fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the son of Charles I
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence
He was named for his birthplace, at Antwerp in the Duchy of Brabant. Prince Lionel was born of a Flemish mother and was a grandson of William I and he grew to be nearly seven feet in height and had an athletic build. He was called Earl of Ulster from 1347, having been named as his fathers representative in England in 1345 and again in 1346, Lionel joined an expedition into France in 1355, but his chief energies were reserved for the affairs of Ireland. His efforts to secure an effective authority over his Irish lands were only moderately successful, after holding a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed the celebrated Statute of Kilkenny in 1366, he dropped the task in disgust and returned to England. The poet Geoffrey Chaucer was at one time a page in Lionels household, after Lionels first wife Elizabeth died in 1363, a second marriage was arranged with Violante Visconti, daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Pavia. Journeying to fetch his bride, Lionel was received in great state both in France and Italy and was married to Violante at Milan in June 1368.
Some months were spent in festivities, during which Lionel was taken ill at Alba. There was strong speculation at the time that he had been poisoned by his father-in-law, Lionel had only one child, daughter of his first wife Elizabeth. In 1368 she married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March and their granddaughter and eventual heir, Anne Mortimer, married into the Yorkist branch of the English royal family and was the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York. The House of York based its claim to the English throne on this line of descent from Lionel, Lionel was the ancestor of Kings Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III and all British monarchs beginning with Henry VIII. Ormrod, W. M. Lionel, duke of Clarence, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Clarence, Dukes of s. v
Anne de Mortimer
Anne de Mortimer, Countess of Cambridge, was the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and the grandmother of King Edward IV and King Richard III. Anne Mortimer was born at New Forest, one of her familys Irish estates, on 27 December 1390, the eldest of the four children of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Lady Eleanor Holland. She had two brothers, Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, and Roger, and a sister Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay, thomas Holland was the grandson and senior heir to Joan of Kent. On 30 September 1399, the fortunes of Anne Mortimer and her brothers and sister changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by the House of Lancaster led by Henry Bolingbroke, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the marriage took place without parental consent and was validated on 23 May 1408 by papal dispensation. Anne Mortimer died soon after the birth of her son Richard on 22 September 1411, the Complete Peerage, edited by H. A. The Complete Peerage, edited by H.
A, Edmund, fifth earl of March and seventh earl of Ulster. Harriss, G. L. Richard, earl of Cambridge, pugh, T. B. Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. Magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, magna Carta Ancestry, A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, ed. Kimball G. Everingham. The Cambridge conspiracy in The History of Sir John Oldcastle
Limoges is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and the administrative capital of the Limousin in west-central France. Limoges is known for its medieval and Renaissance enamels on copper, for its 19th-century porcelain and for its oak barrels which are used for Cognac, some are even exported to wineries in California. Scarce remains of settlements have been found in the area of Limoges. The city proper was founded as Augustoritum by the Romans, around 10 BC, the foundation was part of the reorganization of the province by the emperor Augustus, hence the new name. The Roman city included an amphitheatre measuring 136 x 115 metres, a theatre, according to tradition, a temple consecrated to Venus, Diana and Jupiter was located near the modern cathedral. The city was on the typical Roman square plan, with two main crossing in the centre. It had a Senate and a currency of its own, a sign of its importance in the imperial age, Limoges was evangelized by Saint Martial, who came to the city around 250 with two companions and Austriclinienus.
However, in the late 3rd century it was increasingly abandoned, the population was concentrated instead in a more easily fortifiable site, the modern Puy Saint-Étienne, which is the centre of the modern Limoges. Starting from the 11th century, thanks to the presence of the Abbey of St. Martial and its large library, Limoges became a flourishing artistic centre. It was home to an important school of music composition. In the 13th century, at the peak of its splendour, the town proper, with a new line of walls encompassing the Vienne River, inhabited mainly by clerks and workers. It has a bridge on the Vienne river named after Saint-Étienne, built by the bishops, sacked in 1370, it never recovered entirely. The castle, with 12 meter-high walls, including the abbey and controlled by the abbot, traces of the walls can still be seen in the city centre. Outside the lines of walls were the popular quarters, in 1370, Limoges was occupied by Edward, the Black Prince, who massacred some 300 residents, perhaps a sixth of the normal population, with another 60 members of the garrison of 140 dead as well.
The city and castle were united in 1792 to form the city of Limoges. During the French Revolution several religious edifices, considered symbols of the Ancien Régime, were destroyed by the population, some years the porcelain industry started to develop, favoured by the presence of kaolinite which was discovered near Limoges in 1768. Factories in Limoges and St Junien still produce luxury leather shoes, gloves, in the 19th century Limoges saw strong construction activity, which included the destruction and rebuilding of much of the city centre. The unsafe conditions of the population is highlighted by the outbreak of several riots, including that of July–November 1830
Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March
Edmund de Mortimer, 5th Earl of March and 7th Earl of Ulster was an English nobleman. A great-great-grandson of King Edward III of England, he was heir presumptive to King Richard II of England, his first cousin twice removed, Edmund Mortimer was the last Earl of March of the Mortimer family. Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, was born at New Forest, one of his familys Irish estates, on 6 November 1391, the son of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, and Eleanor Holland. He had a brother and two sisters, who married Richard, Earl of Cambridge, younger son of the Duke of York, and Eleanor, who married Sir Edward de Courtenay. Edmund Mortimers mother was the daughter of Thomas Holland, 2nd Earl of Kent, thus in terms of male primogeniture Edmund was heir to the crown over and above the house of Lancaster, the children of Edward IIIs third son John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. However, on 30 September 1399, when Edmund Mortimer was not yet eight years of age, his fortunes changed entirely. Richard II was deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, the new Duke of Lancaster, who became King Henry IV and had his own son, the future King Henry V, recognized as heir apparent at his first Parliament.
On 22 June 1402, Edmunds uncle, Sir Edmund Mortimer, son of the 3rd Earl, was captured by the Welsh rebel leader, Owain Glyndŵr, Henry IV accused Sir Edmund of deserting to Glyndŵr, refused to ransom him, and confiscated his property. Sir Edmund married Glyndŵrs daughter, and on 13 December 1402 proclaimed in writing that his nephew Edmund was the heir to King Richard II. Sir Edmunds sister, Edmunds aunt, was married to Henry Hotspur Percy, in 1403, the Percys rose in rebellion in collusion with Glyndŵr and Sir Edmund. Hotspur was defeated and slain at Shrewsbury, the alliance of Glyndŵr, Sir Edmund, and the Percys survived this setback. In February 1405, they agreed to a division of the kingdom. This agreement was apparently connected to a plot to free Edmund and his brother Roger from King Henrys custody, on 13 February 1405 the boys were abducted from Windsor Castle, but they were quickly recaptured near Cheltenham. Constance of York was held responsible and arrested, She implicated her brother, the Duke of York, who was imprisoned at Pevensey Castle for seventeen weeks.
As a result of the abduction, on 1 February 1406 Edmund and Roger were put under stricter supervision at Pevensey Castle under Sir John Pelham. On 1 February 1409 Edmund and Roger were given in charge to the Kings son, the Prince of Wales and they remained in custody for the remainder of Henry IVs reign. Edmund Mortimers sisters and Eleanor, who were in the care of their mother until her death in 1405, were not well treated by Henry IV, and were described as destitute after her death. On his accession in 1413 Henry V set Edmund Mortimer at liberty, and on 8 April 1413, nothing further is heard of Roger Mortimer, and it seems likely he died in or shortly after 1413
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG was a member of the House of Plantagenet, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called John of Gaunt because he was born in Ghent, when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, perhaps because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury, due to some generous land grants, John was one of the richest men in his era. John of Gaunts legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, include Kings Henry IV, Henry V and his other legitimate descendants include his daughters Queen Philippa of Portugal and Elizabeth, Duchess of Exeter, and Queen Catherine of Castile. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, the children of Katherine Swynford, surnamed Beaufort, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396.
Through his daughter Philippa, he was grandfather of King Edward of Portugal, through John II of Castiles great-granddaughter Joanna the Mad, John of Gaunt is an ancestor of the Habsburg rulers who would reign in Spain and much of central Europe. When John of Gaunt died in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown, since King Richard II had named Henry a traitor, Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Bolingbroke reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England, John was the fourth son of King Edward III of England. His first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin and they married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. He became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland, John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanches sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title Duke of Lancaster from his father on 13 November 1362, by well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch. He owned land in almost every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year, Johns ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, when Edward III died in 1377 and Johns ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, Johns influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, and some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself, John took pains to ensure that he never became associated with the opposition to Richards kingship. As de facto ruler during Richards minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace.
Unlike some of Richards unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in Jure uxoris by right of his wife, Constance of Castile. However, crisis ensued almost immediately in his absence, and in 1387 King Richards misrule brought England to the brink of civil war