Academia Mexicana de la Lengua
The Academia Mexicana de la Lengua is the correspondent academy in Mexico of the Royal Spanish Academy. It was founded in Mexico City on 11 September 1875 and, like the other academies, has the principal function of working to ensure the purity of the Spanish language. Academy members have included many of the leading figures in Mexican letters, including philologists, philosophers, poets and humanists; the Academia Mexicana organized the first Congress of the Spanish Language Academies, celebrated at Mexico City in April 1951. This gave birth, through its Permanent Commission, to the Association of Spanish Language Academies, confirmed in the second Congress, celebrated in Madrid five years later. According to its statutes, approved in the plenary session of 2 December 1931, what is disposed in the text of constitution as a civil association, from 1952, the objectives of the Academy are as follows: To watch over the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Spanish language. To keep constant communication of scientific or literary nature with the similar academies and institutions.
To form and increase its library with those scientific and literary works that best favor the achievements of the purposes of the Academia. To promote and propagate the study of the Spanish language though periodic private sessions. To attend consultations by public institutions and private individuals. To promote before the authorities or institutions or private individuals all that favors the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Castilian language. To achieve its objectives, the Academy takes abroad several studies and activities related to its competence, in plenary form as well as though its assigned especialized commissions; the Academy was created with 12 members, but now has 36 full members and 35 correspondent members based outside Mexico City. It may have up to an additional five honorary members, who may be either Mexican citizens or foreigners, it has a Board made up by a Director, a Secretary, a Censor, a Librarian-Archivist and a Treasurer, all chosen among the académicos de número by absolute majority of votes from the academics that attend the session in which they are to be elected, in secret voting.
The labour of the Academy is performed in a meeting, that celebrates its sessions twice or more monthly. The sessions are private or public, the first ones can be ordinary or extraordinary, the public ones have the characteristic of solemnity when the Academy agrees it; the nature of the jobs that are analyzed and discussed in the heart of the meeting are of lexicographic and literary importance. The Academy owns a wide library, its initial fund comes from the acquisition of the former library of the academic Don Alejandro Quijano. With the years the number of works with relevant contributions has been growing, such as the one of the prestigious jurist and intellectual Alberto Vázquez del Mercado, who bestowed the institution with a huge and valuable collection of historic and literary works. In addition the books published donated by the academics, there are to be found those sent by the Real Academia Española, the other Spanish-language academies, some publishing companies and book stores, as well as those sent by official and private cultural organizations.
From its creation, the work of the academy has been documented with the publication of the Memories and a Yearbook. In the Memories appear the works read by the members of the Academy in the meetings and others that, according to their judgement, are worth of publishing; each volume starts with a review of the most relevant happenings that have occurred since the publication of the previous one and the indication of the number of attendance to the meetings of each academic, concludes with general and alphabetic indexes. The Academy publishes a Yearbook where it communicates the changes in academics and all sort of works related to the institute, it is concerned with the research of the use of the Spanish language in Mexico, which has crystallized in the publication of different works of reference. Among them, the most important are: The Universal Dictionary of Geography, that contains the names in Spanish of several geographical entities from around the world and their demonyms, it includes, for information purposes, the names in the language or languages of the country they are talking about, if they are written in Latin alphabet, or Latinized if in their region it is used a different writing system.
The Mexican Book of Sayings, that has its origins in an extensive project that the Academy started to commemorate its 125th anniversary. After some hard work, they published the Index of Mexicanisms, a wide collection of sayings used in Mexico from the beginnings of the 19th century until nowadays and that has become a fundamental reference book to the study of the Spanish spoken in the country; this Index, generated two works: the Short Dictionary of Mexicanisms, with 6,200 lexicographical articles that include words and certain lexical elements, by Guido Gómez de Silva, the Mexican Book of Sayings, product of the work of several Academic researches. Because of its vocation of adaptation with the new technologies and in harmony with the new communications society, the Academia Mexicana de la Lengua has in
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
Martin Heidegger was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification". Heidegger's membership in and public support for the Nazi Party has been the subject of widespread controversy regarding the extent to which his Nazism influenced his philosophy, his first and best known book and Time, though unfinished, is one of the central philosophical works of the 20th century. In its first part, Heidegger attempted to turn away from "ontic" questions about beings to ontological questions about Being, recover the most fundamental philosophical question: the question of Being, of what it means for something to be.
Heidegger approached the question through an inquiry into the being that has an understanding of Being, asks the question about it, Human being, which he called Dasein. Heidegger argued that Dasein is defined by Care, its engaged and concernful mode of being-in-the-world, in opposition to such Rationalist thinkers as René Descartes who located the essence of man in his thinking abilities. For Heidegger thinking is thinking about things discovered in our everyday practical engagements; the consequence of this is that our capacity to think cannot be the most central quality of our being because thinking is a reflecting upon this more original way of discovering the world. In the second part of his book, Heidegger argues that human being is more fundamentally structured by its Temporality, or its concern with, relationship to time, existing as a structurally open "possibility-for-being", he emphasized the importance of Authenticity in human existence, involving a truthful relationship to our thrownness into a world which we are "always already" concerned with, to our being-towards-death, the Finitude of the time and being we are given, the closing down of our various possibilities for being through time.
Heidegger made critical contributions to philosophical conceptions of truth, arguing that its original meaning was unconcealment, to philosophical analyses of art as a site of the revelation of truth, to philosophical understanding of language as the "house of being." Heidegger's work includes criticisms of technology's instrumentalist understanding in the Western tradition as "enframing", treating all of Nature as a "standing reserve" on call for human purposes. Heidegger is a controversial figure for his affiliation with Nazism, as Rector of the University of Freiburg for 11 months, before his resignation in April 1934, for which he neither apologized nor publicly expressed regret. Heidegger was born in Baden-Württemberg, the son of Johanna and Friedrich Heidegger. Raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church that adhered to the First Vatican Council of 1870, observed by the poorer class of Meßkirch, his family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuit seminary, though he was turned away within weeks because of the health requirement and what the director and doctor of the seminary described as a psychosomatic heart condition.
Heidegger was sinewy, with dark piercing eyes. He enjoyed outdoor pursuits, being proficient at skiing. Studying theology at the University of Freiburg while supported by the church he switched his field of study to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in 1914, influenced by Neo-Thomism and Neo-Kantianism, directed by Arthur Schneider. In 1916, he finished his venia legendi with a habilitation thesis on Duns Scotus directed by Heinrich Rickert and influenced by Edmund Husserl's phenomenology. In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent served as a soldier during the final year of World War I. In 1923, Heidegger was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the University of Marburg, his colleagues there included Rudolf Bultmann, Nicolai Hartmann, Paul Natorp. Heidegger's students at Marburg included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Jacob Klein, Gunther Anders, Hans Jonas. Following on from Aristotle, he began to develop in his lectures the main theme of his philosophy: the question of the sense of being.
He extended the concept of subject to the dimension of history and concrete existence, which he found prefigured in such Christian thinkers as Saint Paul, Augustine of Hippo and Kierkegaard. He read the works of Wilhelm Dilthey, Max Scheler, Friedrich Nietzsche. In 1927, Heidegger published his main work Sein und Zeit; when Husserl retired as Professor of Philosophy in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg's election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg im Breisgau for the rest of his life, declining a number of offers, including one from Humboldt University of Berlin, his students at Freiburg included Arendt, Günther Anders, Hans Jonas, Karl Löwith, Charles Malik, Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Nolte. Emmanuel Levinas attended his lecture courses during his stay in Freiburg in 1928. Heidegger was elected rector of the University on 21 April 1933, joined the National Socialist German Workers' Part
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
José Ortega y Gasset
José Ortega y Gasset was a Spanish philosopher and essayist. He worked during the first half of the 20th century, while Spain oscillated between monarchy and dictatorship, his philosophy has been characterized as a "philosophy of life" that "comprised a long-hidden beginning in a pragmatist metaphysics inspired by William James, with a general method from a realist phenomenology imitating Edmund Husserl, which served both his proto-existentialism and his realist historicism, compared to both Wilhelm Dilthey and Benedetto Croce." José Ortega y Gasset was born 9 May 1883 in Madrid. His father was director of the newspaper El Imparcial, which belonged to the family of his mother, Dolores Gasset; the family was definitively of Spain's end-of-the-century educated bourgeoisie. The liberal tradition and journalistic engagement of his family had a profound influence in Ortega y Gasset's activism in politics. Ortega was first schooled by the Jesuit priests of San Estanislao in Miraflores del Málaga, he attended the University of Deusto and the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, receiving a doctorate in Philosophy.
From 1905 to 1907, he continued his studies in Germany at Leipzig, Cologne, Berlin and, above all Marburg. At Marburg, he was influenced among others. On his return to Spain in 1908, he was appointed professor of Psychology and Ethics at the Escuela Superior del Magisterio de Madrid and in October 1910 he was named full professor of Metaphysics at Complutense University of Madrid, a vacant seat held by Nicolás Salmerón. In 1917 he became a contributor to the newspaper El Sol, where he published, as a series of essays, his two principal works: España invertebrada and La rebelión de las masas; the latter made him internationally famous. He founded the Revista de Occidente in 1923, remaining its director until 1936; this publication promoted translation of the most important figures and tendencies in philosophy, including Oswald Spengler, Johan Huizinga, Edmund Husserl, Georg Simmel, Jakob von Uexküll, Heinz Heimsoeth, Franz Brentano, Hans Driesch, Ernst Müller, Alexander Pfänder, Bertrand Russell.
Elected deputy for the Province of León in the constituent assembly of the Second Spanish Republic, he was the leader of a parliamentary group of intellectuals known as Agrupación al Servicio de la República, which supported the platform of Socialist Republican candidates, but he soon abandoned politics, disappointed. Leaving Spain at the outbreak of the Civil War, he spent years of exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina until moving back to Europe in 1942, he settled in Portugal by mid-1945 and began to make short visits to Spain. In 1948 he returned to Madrid. Upon his return to Spain, he privately expressed his hostility to the Franco regime, stating that the government did not deserve anyone's confidence and that his beliefs were "incompatible with Franco." The Revolt of the Masses is Ortega's best known work. In this book he defends the values of meritocratic liberalism reminiscent of John Stuart Mill against attacks from both communists and right-wing populists. Ortega shares Mill's fears of the "tyranny of the majority" and the "collective mediocrity" of the masses, which threaten individuality, free thought, protections for minorities.
Ortega characterized liberalism as a politics of "magnanimity."Ortega's rejection of the Spanish Conservative Party under Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and his successors was unequivocal, as was his distrust of the Spanish monarchy and Catholic Church. However, again in a manner similar to Mill, Ortega was open-minded toward certain socialists and non-Marxist forms of socialism, complimented Pablo Iglesias Posse as a "lay saint." Under the influence of German social democrats such as Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen, he adopted a communitarian ontology and could be critical of capitalism the laissez-faire variant, declaring that "nineteenth-century capitalism has demoralized humanity" and that it had "impoverished the ethical consciousness of man." For Ortega y Gasset, philosophy has a critical duty to lay siege to beliefs in order to promote new ideas and to explain reality. To accomplish such tasks, the philosopher must—as Husserl proposed—leave behind prejudices and existing beliefs, investigate the essential reality of the universe.
Ortega y Gasset proposes that philosophy must overcome the limitations of both idealism and ancient-medieval realism to focus on the only truthful reality: "my life"—the life of each individual. He suggests that there is no "me" without things, things are nothing without me: "I" cannot be detached from "my circumstance"; this led Ortega y Gasset to pronounce his famous maxim "Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia" which he always put at the core of his philosophy. For Ortega y Gasset, as for Husserl, the Cartesian'cogito ergo sum' is insufficient to explain reality. Therefore, the Spanish philosopher proposes a system wherein the basic or "radical" reality is "my life", which consists of "I" and "my circumstance"; this circunstancia is oppressive.
A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law. Such degrees are preparation for legal careers. A legal license is exercised locally; the first academic degrees were all law degrees-and. The foundations of the first universities in Europe were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law; the first European university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. It is from this history that it is said that the first academic title of doctor applied to scholars of law; the degree and title were not applied to scholars of other disciplines until the 13th century. And at the University of Bologna from its founding in the 12th century until the end of the 20th century the only degree conferred was the doctorate earned after five years of intensive study after secondary school; the rising of the doctor of philosophy to its present level is a modern novelty. At its origins, a doctorate was a qualification for a guild—that of teaching law.
The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age. While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law and although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions. In the medieval Islamic madrasahs, there was a doctorate in the Islamic law of the Sharia, called the ijazat attadris wa'l-ifta'; the type of law degree conferred differs according to the jurisdiction. Some examples include; the abbreviation for Bachelor is Bel.. To be a Lawyer and be admitted at the Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil, the Bachelor must be approved at the Brazilian Bar Exam, if the Selection and Registration Committee accept the new member he/she will be consider an Advogado. Bachelor of Laws referred to as a B. A. in Law or an LL. B. in the United Kingdom and various current or former Commonwealth countries.
It is an undergraduate degree. A Bachelor of Civil Law degree is similar in nature distinguished from canon law. Master of Laws in the United Kingdom and various current or former Commonwealth countries. Referred to as an LL. M. from its Latin name, Legum Magister. It is an advanced academic degree pursued by those holding a professional law degree or a degree in a relevant field. Laurea di Dottore in Giurisprudenza for graduates before the Bologna Process reforms, or Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza after the Bologna Process reforms, in Italy, it is a masters level degree, however all graduates of Italian universities of the undergraduate degree, are authorized to use the title of "dottore". Erstes Juristisches Staatsexamen is the equivalent to the law degree, since the second part is the German equivalent to the Bar exam in the U. S. At some universities you either become a "Lizentiat des Rechts", a Magister iuris or a Diplom-Jurist, it is a master's-level degree. Juris Doctor in the United States and Japan.
It is a professional doctorate degree. Legum Doctor is in some jurisdictions the highest academic degree in law and is equivalent to a Ph. D. and in others is an honorary degree only. Doctor of Juridical Science is a research doctorate in law awarded in the United States and Canada. Licenciado en Derecho in Spain. Licenciatura en Derecho in Mexico. Lizentiat der Rechtswissenschaften / Licence en droit until 2004 and Master of Law since 2004 in Switzerland, it is a masters level degree. Magister iuris in Croatia, it is the first academic title within both systems. After three years of practice you can take the "Anwaltsprüfung" or "Pravosudni ispit", an equivalent of the bar exam. Specialist in law or Jurist in Ukraine and Russia, it is a graduate degree which allows doing a PhD research after admission to the PhD department, though formally it is not at the masters level. The Finnish title of varatuomari is the basic qualification for the legal profession, it is obtained by an one-year externship at a district court after completing a Master's degree in law in a university.
Legal education Admission to practice law Magister Juris
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris