Hans Hass was an Austrian biologist and underwater diving pioneer. He was known for being among the first scientists to popularise coral reefs and sharks, he pioneered the making of documentaries filmed underwater. He led development of a type of rebreather, he is known, for his energon theory and his commitment to protecting the environment. Hass was born in Vienna. However, Hass had a formative encounter with the American diver Guy Gilpatric while on a Riviera holiday in 1938 which included underwater hunting and photography. After making expeditions to the Caribbean Sea 1938-39 and writing his first professional articles, in 1940 Hass switched from reading law to zoology studies and graduated with a Ph. D. from the University of Berlin in 1943 at the Faculty of Biology. His thesis was the first scientific research using an autonomous rebreather diving equipment. In his early diving he used rebreathers, which he had made for him by the German diving gear makers Dräger: he had these sets made with the breathing bag on his back, as he did not like the bag-on-chest "frogman look".
Hass and his team of researchers logged over 2000 dives utilising oxygen rebreathers from 1942 to 1953. Although, in a book by Callum Roberts, Don Stewart, one of the first scuba operators on the Caribbean island of Bonaire, blames Hass for single-handedly hunting the Atlantic goliath grouper to local extinction, the author refutes that claim in the same paragraph. Hass published "Diving to Adventure," his first book of underwater photographs, in 1939, some credit him with developing one of the first underwater cameras. Hass completed his first underwater video called Pirsch unter Wasser in 1940, it was published by the Universum Film AG, lasted only 16 minutes and was shown in cinemas before the main film, but would be extended by additional filming done in the Adriatic Sea close to Dubrovnik. Hass moved from Vienna to Berlin in 1941, where he founded the tax privileged society Expedition für biologische Meereskunde. Hass was excused from serving in the German military during the Second World War because of poor circulation in his feet caused by Raynaud's disease.
On the proceeds of his hundreds of lectures, Hass was able to buy in 1942 the sailing ship Seeteufel. But he was not able to use the ship for his planned expedition because the ship was in the harbour of Stettin and it was not possible to bring it during the war to the Mediterranean Sea. Hass rented therefore in 1942 a ship in Piraeus and sailed for several months in the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Crete. Before the war this ship had been owned by the University of Vienna. During this expedition he took film and photos underwater. Hass had read the book Die Raubfischer in Hellas written in 1939 by Werner Helwig. Hass was able to film their dynamite fishing under water. In spring and summer 1943 Hass stayed for several months at the Stazione Zoologica in Naples and Capri to study and collect Bryozoa, aquatic invertebrate animals, for his doctoral thesis in zoology. In February 1944 he completed the thesis; until the end of the war Hass lived and worked in the film studios of Universum Film AG in Babelsberg near Berlin to cut and finish his film about the expedition in the Aegean Sea.
This 84 minute underwater film, Menschen unter Haien, was released in 1947. It shows marine life including wrasse, sponges, sea anemones and rays. Highlights are the dynamite interaction of divers with sharks. In Babelsberg he met a famous German actress. Hans and Hannelore married in 1945. In 1945 the Seeteufel was lost. In 1947 his film Menschen unter Haien had its world premiere in Zurich, his most popular book with a similar title was released in 1948; as a consequence, he got contracts with Sascha-Film. He went on his first "Xarifa" expeditions; the new research ship, named'Xarifa', was financed through photo safaris in the Red Sea and by the BBC. Hass's marriage to Hannelore Schroth produced Hans Hass, Jr.. The marriage ended in 1950, he married Lotte Baierl, the same year. Hass produced 105 commercial films, many featuring himself and his second wife, an expert diver. In 1951, Hass's film Under the Red Sea was awarded first prize at the Venice Film Festival. After expeditions in East Africa and South Asia his first TV series were developed in 1959, in 1961 for the first time about creatures outside the water.
This was followed by behavioural research and the'energon theory' from 1963 to 1966. From his behavioural research, Hass formed his energon hypothesis, the focus of his work in years, it posits that the behaviours of all life-forms — human, nonhuman animal and plant — have common origins. Combined with management strategies, in 1969 Hass published about commonalities with evolution. In the 1970s he addressed environmental and commercial themes and was appointed to a professorship by the University of Vienna. In 1983 he started long term tutorials about predatory instincts in profession. Hass consolidated marine behaviour research and management theories under one umbrella. From his point of view his energon theory cannot be disproved. In 1989 he addressed himself to environmental themes. Following the disappearance of the Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in the waters of Cheviot Beach at Portsea, Victoria on 17 December 1967, Hass visited Australia and explored the area where Holt disappeared for his 1971 film documentary Das Geheimnis der Chevi
Jacques-Yves Cousteau was a French naval officer, conservationist, innovator, photographer and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the Aqua-lung, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française. Cousteau described his underwater world research in a series of books the most successful being his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, published in 1953. Cousteau directed films, most notably the documentary adaptation of the book, The Silent World, which won a Palme d'or at the 1956 Cannes Film Festival, he remained the only person to win a Palme d'Or for a documentary film, until Michael Moore won the award in 2004 for Fahrenheit 9/11. Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac, France, to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau, he had Pierre-Antoine. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the Collège Stanislas in Paris. In 1930, he graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea.
The accident caused him to break both his arms and could have killed him. This caused Cousteau to have to change his plans in becoming a naval pilot, but it worked out because of his passion for the ocean. In Toulon, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwater goggles, predecessors of modern swimming goggles. Cousteau belonged to the information service of the French Navy, was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan and in the USSR. On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior, with whom he had Jean-Michel and Philippe, his sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet, they had a daughter Diane Cousteau and a son, Pierre-Yves Cousteau, born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife. The years of World War II were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who lived there.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequo prize of the Congress of Documentary Film in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond, made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands with Philippe Tailliez and Frédéric Dumas, using a depth-pressure-proof camera case developed by mechanical engineer Léon Vèche. In 1943, they made the film Épaves, in which they used two of the first Aqua-Lung prototypes; these prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt by the Air Liquide company, following instructions from Cousteau and Émile Gagnan. When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, cemented them together to make long reels.
Having kept bonds with the English speakers and with French soldiers in North Africa, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, helped the French Navy to join again with the Allies. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout and who received the death sentence in 1946. However, this was commuted to a life sentence, Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954. During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure, Cousteau started diving with Fernez goggles in 1936, in 1939 used the self-contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur. Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan.
In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung which made extended underwater exploration possible. In 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film Épaves to Admiral Lemonnier, who gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines of the French Navy in Toulon. A little it became the GERS the COMISMER, more the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer Maurice Fargues became the first diver to die using an aqualung, while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon. In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first ca
The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S. A. is the state-owned public corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public radio and television service called Ente Público Radiotelevisión Española in 2007. RTVE is the largest audiovisual group in Spain broadcasting in the Spanish language. Since January 2010 it is financed by public subsidies. In the exercise of its public service function, among the obligations of the RTVE Corporation are: Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and civic values. Guarantee the objectivity and truthfulness of the information provided, while ensuring that a broad range of views is presented. Facilitate democratic debate and the free expression of opinion. Promote the territorial cohesion and linguistic and cultural diversity of Spain. Offer access to different genres of programming and to the institutional, social and sporting events that are of interest to all sectors of the audience, paying attention to those topics that are of special interest to the public.
To serve the widest audience, ensuring maximum continuity and geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality, diversity and high ethical standards. RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and reorganisations, has assumed numerous identities; the history of RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de España from the city of Salamanca. In these early years, RNE served as a propaganda tool for the Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War. Television was introduced in Spain in October 1956, in October 1973 the two broadcasting networks, RNE and Televisión Española were consolidated into the Servicio Público Centralizado RadioTelevisión Española. Further consolidations followed in 1977. In 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old radio service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980, RTVE was configured, as a legal public entity with its own jurisdiction. According to RTVE's annual report: "This law arose from the Spanish Constitution and the political pluralism which the constitution asserts as a fundamental value of the rule of law.
The former cinema newsreels service NO-DO was merged into RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since the NO-DO archives are property of RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca Nacional's. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its radio service was merged into RNE. In accordance with the Law of State Radio and Television of 5 June 2006, in the face of an enormous deficit, the RTVE Public Body and the companies TVE, S. A. and RNE, S. A were dissolved, on 1 January 2007 the Corporación RTVE came into existence; this change in the law put Corporación RTVE in control of Spain's public radio and television service. As part of the 2007 restructuring, a controversial plan was put into action to reduce the workforce by 4,855 through attrition and retirement incentives, in spite of the fact that RTVE is the European public broadcasting service with the smallest workforce. In 2012 political tensions associated with the austerity program of the conservative ruling party, Partido Popular resulted in personnel changes which displaced journalists interviewed by the centre-left The Guardian interpreted as an effort to remove critical political comment from RTVE's content.
In 2012 the PP began staffing RTVE with party veterans. Considerable controversy was caused. On 11 June 2013, RTVE was one of the few known European broadcasters to condemn and criticise the closure of Greece's state broadcaster ERT. In December 2018, RTVE launched Filmoteca Española, available via Internet with more than 4000 videos of Spanish films and documentaries. Pursuant to the 2006 Law of State Radio and television, management of the national public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE; the Administrative Council of the RTVE is the main body of RTVE, appoints the executive officers of RTVE and its companies, approves its organisation, approves most major activities. The Administrative Council is composed of 12 members; the President has operational control of day-to-day operations, in order to execute the decisions and guidance of the Administrative Council. The President is appointed by, may be dismissed by, Congress. Before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of RTVE.
In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the Government for their political profile. Corporación RTVE is described as a "state mercantile society" with special autonomy and independence from the government and the general state administration, it performs its functions through TVE and RNE. Most staff are civil servants; the News Council is an internal supervisory body composed of RTVE journalists with the aim of safeguarding RTVE's independence. RTVE's own television service comes under the Televisión Española division of RTVE. All of TVE's channels broadcast in Spanish, with the exception of TVE Catalonia, principally in Spanish with certain programming in Catalan. RTVE's radio stations come under th
The Catalans are an iberian/european ethnic group of mediterranean and pyrenean descent, having its roots in the Pyrenees mountains. The only official category of "catalans" is that of the citizens of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain and the inhabitants of the Roussillon historical region in southeast France, today the Pyrénées Orientales departments called Catalonia Nord and Pays Catalan in French; some authors extend the word "Catalans" to encompass the inhabitants of all the regions where Catalan language is spoken, namely those from Andorra, the Balearic islands, eastern Aragon and the city of Alghero in Sardinia. These territories are known as the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries". In 1500 BCE the area, now known as Catalonia was, along with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, inhabited by Proto-Celtic Urnfield people who brought with them the rite of burning the dead; these Indo-European people were absorbed by the Iberians beginning in 600 BCE in a process that would not be complete until the fourth century BCE.
These groups came under the rule of various invading groups starting with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who set up colonies along the coast, including Barcino itself. Following the Punic Wars, the Romans replaced the Carthaginians as the dominant power in the Iberian eastern coast, including parts of Catalonia, by 206 BCE. Rome established Latin as the official language and imparted a distinctly Roman culture upon the local population, which merged with Roman colonists from the Italian peninsula. An early precursor to the Catalan language began to develop from a local form of popular Latin before and during the collapse of the Roman Empire. Various Germanic tribes arrived following nearly six centuries of Roman rule, which had transformed the area into the Roman province of Tarraconensis; the Visigoths established themselves in the fifth century, making their first capital in the Iberian peninsula Barcelona, they would move to Toledo. This continued until 718 when Muslim Arabs conquered the region in order to pass through the Pyrenees into French territory.
With the help of the Frankish, a land border was created known nowadays as Old Catalonia which faced Muslim raids but resisted any kind of settlement from them. "New Catalonia" and its native peoples were in control of the Arab invaders for around a century. The Franks on the other side of the Pyrenees held back the main Muslim raiding army which had penetrated unchallenged as far as central France at the Battle of Tours in 732. Frankish suzerainty was extended over much of present-day Catalonia. Larger wars with the Muslims began in the March of Barcelona which led to the beginnings of the Reconquista by Catalan forces over most of Catalonia by the year 801. Barcelona would become an important center for Christian forces in the Iberian Peninsula. Catalonia emerged from the conflicts in Muslim Spain as a regional power, as Christian rulers entrenched themselves in the region during the Carolingian period. Rulers such as Wilfred the Hairy became masters of a larger territory encompassing Catalonia.
The Crown of Aragón included the Principality of Catalonia and the kingdoms of Aragon and Majorca. The marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon was a dynastic union in which the Kingdom of Castille and the Kingdom of Aragon were under the same crown but kept their own laws, power structures and monetary systems. Regional unrest led to conflicts such as the Revolt of the Germanies in Valencia and Majorca, the 1640 revolt in Catalonia known as the Reapers' War; this latter conflict embroiled Spain in a larger war with France as many Catalan nobles allied themselves with Louis XIII. The war continued until 1659 and ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees, which partitioned Catalonia as the northern strip of the March came under French rule, while the rest remained under Spanish hegemony; the Catalan government took sides with the Habsburg pretender against the Bourbon one during the War of the Spanish Succession that started in 1705 and ended in 1714. The Catalan failure to defend the continuation of Habsburg rule in Spain culminated in the surrender of Barcelona on 11 September 1714 which came to be commemorated as Catalonia's National Day.
During the Napoleonic Wars, much of Catalonia was seized by French forces by 1808, as France ruled the entire country of Spain until Napoleon's surrender to Allied Armies. In France, strong assimilationist policies integrated many Catalans into French society, while in Spain a Catalan identity was suppressed in favor of a Spanish national identity; the Catalans regained autonomy during the Spanish Second Republic from 1932 until Francisco Franco's nationalist forces retook Catalonia by 1939. It was not until 1975 and the death of Franco that the Catalans as well as other Spaniards began to regain their right to cultural expression, restarted by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Since this period, a balance between a sense of local identity versus the broader Spanish one has emerged as the dominant political force in Catalonia; the former tends to advocate for greater autonomy and independence. As a result, there tends to be much fluctuation depending on regional and national politics during a given election cycle.
Given the stronge