The Cincinnati Reds are an American professional baseball team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Reds compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division, they were a charter member of the American Association in 1882 and joined the NL in 1890. The Reds played in the NL West division from 1969 to 1993, before joining the Central division in 1994, they have won five World Series titles, nine NL pennants, one AA pennant, 10 division titles. The team plays its home games at Great American Ball Park, which opened in 2003 replacing Riverfront Stadium. Bob Castellini has been chief executive officer since 2006. For 1882-2018, the Reds' overall win-loss record is 10524-10306; the origins of the modern Cincinnati Reds can be traced to the expulsion of an earlier team bearing that name. In 1876, Cincinnati became one of the charter members of the new National League, but the club ran afoul of league organizer and long-time president William Hulbert for selling beer during games and renting out their ballpark on Sundays.
Both were important activities to entice the city's large German population. While Hulbert made clear his distaste for both beer and Sunday baseball at the founding of the league, neither practice was against league rules in those early years. On October 6, 1880, seven of the eight team owners pledged at a special league meeting to formally ban both beer and Sunday baseball at the regular league meeting that December. Only Cincinnati president W. H. Kennett refused to sign the pledge, so the other owners formally expelled Cincinnati for violating a rule that would not go into effect for two more months. Cincinnati's expulsion from the National League incensed Cincinnati Enquirer sports editor O. P. Caylor, who made two attempts to form a new league on behalf of the receivers for the now bankrupt Reds franchise; when these attempts failed, he formed a new independent ballclub known as the Red Stockings in the Spring of 1881, brought the team to St. Louis for a weekend exhibition; the Reds' first game was a 12–3 victory over the St. Louis club.
After the 1881 series proved a success, Caylor and a former president of the old Reds named Justus Thorner received an invitation from Philadelphia businessman Horace Phillips to attend a meeting of several clubs in Pittsburgh with the intent of establishing a rival to the National League. Upon arriving in the city, however and Thorner discovered that no other owners had decided to accept the invitation, with Phillips not bothering to attend his own meeting. By chance, the duo met a former pitcher named Al Pratt, who hooked them up with former Pittsburgh Alleghenys president H. Denny McKnight. Together, the three men hatched a scheme to form a new league by sending a telegram to each of the other owners who were supposed to attend the meeting stating that he was the only person who did not attend and that everyone else was enthusiastic about the new venture and eager to attend a second meeting in Cincinnati; the ploy worked, the American Association was formed at the Hotel Gibson in Cincinnati with the new Reds a charter member with Thorner as president.
Led by the hitting of third baseman Hick Carpenter, the defense of future Hall of Fame second baseman Bid McPhee, the pitching of 40-game-winner Will White, the Reds won the inaugural AA pennant in 1882. With the establishment of the Union Association Justus Thorner left the club to finance the Cincinnati Outlaw Reds and managed to acquire the lease on the Reds Bank Street Grounds playing field, forcing new president Aaron Stern to relocate three blocks away at the hastily built League Park; the club never placed higher than second or lower than fifth for the rest of its tenure in the American Association. The Cincinnati Red Stockings left the American Association on November 14, 1889 and joined the National League along with the Brooklyn Bridegrooms after a dispute with St. Louis Browns owner Chris Von Der Ahe over the selection of a new league president; the National League was happy to accept the teams in part due to the emergence of the new Player's League. This new league, an early failed attempt to break the reserve clause in baseball, threatened both existing leagues.
Because the National League decided to expand while the American Association was weakening, the team accepted an invitation to join the National League. It was at this time that the team first shortened their name from "Red Stockings" to "Reds"; the Reds wandered through the 1890s signing aging veterans. During this time, the team never finished above never closer than 10 1⁄2 games. At the start of the 20th century, the Reds had hitting Cy Seymour. Seymour's.377 average in 1905 was the first individual batting crown won by a Red. In 1911, Bob Bescher stole 81 bases, still a team record. Like the previous decade, the 1900s were not kind to the Reds, as much of the decade was spent in the league's second division. In 1912, the club opened Redland Field; the Reds had been playing baseball on that same site, the corner of Findlay and Western Avenues on the city's west side, for 28 years, in wooden structures, damaged by fires. By the late 1910s the Reds began to come out of the second division; the 1918 team finished fourth, new manager Pat Moran led the Reds to an NL pennant in 1919, in what the club advertised as its "Golden Anniversary".
The 1919 team had hitting stars Edd Roush and Heinie Groh while the pitching staff was led by Hod Eller and left-hander Harry "Slim" Sallee. The Reds finished ahead of John McGraw's New York Giants, won the world championship in eight games over the
Run batted in
A run batted in, plural runs batted in, is a statistic in baseball and softball that credits a batter for making a play that allows a run to be scored. For example, if the batter bats a base hit another player on a higher base can head home to score a run, the batter gets credited with batting in that run. Before the 1920 Major League Baseball season, runs batted in were not an official baseball statistic; the RBI statistic was tabulated—unofficially—from 1907 through 1919 by baseball writer Ernie Lanigan, according to the Society for American Baseball Research. Common nicknames for an RBI include "ribby", "rib", "ribeye"; the plural of RBI is "RBIs", although some commentators use "RBI" as both singular and plural, as it can stand for "runs batted in". The 2018 edition of the Official Baseball Rules of Major League Baseball, Rule 9.04 Runs Batted In, reads A run batted in is a statistic credited to a batter whose action at bat causes one or more runs to score, as set forth in this Rule 9.04.
The official scorer shall credit the batter with a run batted in for every run that scores unaided by an error and as part of a play begun by the batter's safe hit, sacrifice bunt, sacrifice fly, infield out or fielder's choice, unless Rule 9.04 applies. The official scorer shall not credit a run batted in when the batter grounds into a force double play or a reverse-force double play; the official scorer's judgment must determine whether a run batted in shall be credited for a run that scores when a fielder holds the ball or throws to a wrong base. Ordinarily, if the runner keeps going, the official scorer should credit a run batted in; the perceived significance of the RBI is displayed by the fact that it is one of the three categories that compose the triple crown. In addition, career RBIs are cited in debates over who should be elected to the Hall of Fame. However, critics within the field of sabermetrics, argue that RBIs measure the quality of the lineup more than it does the player himself since an RBI can only be credited to a player if one or more batters preceding him in the batting order reached base.
This implies that better offensive teams—and therefore, the teams in which the most players get on base—tend to produce hitters with higher RBI totals than equivalent hitters on lesser-hitting teams. Totals are current through June 24, 2018. Active players are in bold. Hank Aaron – 2,297 Babe Ruth – 2,214 Cap Anson - 2,075 Alex Rodríguez – 2,055 Barry Bonds – 1,996 Lou Gehrig – 1,993 Albert Pujols – 1,981 Stan Musial – 1,951 Ty Cobb – 1,944 Jimmie Foxx – 1,922 Eddie Murray – 1,917 Willie Mays - 1,903 Hack Wilson – 191 Lou Gehrig – 185 Hank Greenberg – 183 Jimmie Foxx – 175 Lou Gehrig – 173 12 RBIsJim Bottomley Mark Whiten 11 RBIsWilbert Robinson Tony Lazzeri Phil Weintraub 10 RBIsBy 11 MLB players, most Mark Reynolds on July 7, 2018 Fernando Tatís – 8 Ed Cartwright – 7 Alex Rodriguez – 7 David Freese – 21 Scott Spiezio – 19 Sandy Alomar – 19 David Ortiz – 19 List of Major League Baseball runs batted in records
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
Orlando Manuel "Peruchin" Cepeda Pennes is a Puerto Rican former Major League Baseball first baseman and a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York. The 1958 National League Rookie of the Year, Cepeda was voted the National League Most Valuable Player in 1967, the year his team, the St. Louis Cardinals, won the World Series. Overall, he appeared in three World Series and was the first winner of the American League's Outstanding Designated Hitter Award in 1973, he batted.300 or better 9 times in the 14 seasons he appeared in over 100 games, much of it played in what is now called the "Second Deadball Era."Cepeda was born to a poor family. His father, Pedro "Perucho" Cepeda, was a baseball player in Puerto Rico, which influenced Cepeda's interest in the sport from a young age, his first contact with professional baseball was as a bat boy for the Santurce Crabbers of Puerto Rico. Pedro Zorilla, the team's owner, persuaded Cepeda's family to let him attend a New York Giants tryout.
He played for several Minor League Baseball teams before attracting the interest of the Giants, who had just moved to San Francisco. During a 17-year career, he played with the San Francisco Giants, St. Louis Cardinals, Atlanta Braves, Oakland Athletics, Boston Red Sox, Kansas City Royals. Cepeda was selected to play in seven Major League Baseball All-Star Games during his career, becoming the first player from Puerto Rico to start one. In 1978, Cepeda was sentenced to five years in prison on drug possession charges, of which he served ten months in prison and the rest on probation. In 1987, Cepeda was contracted by the San Francisco Giants to work as a scout and "goodwill ambassador." In 1999, Cepeda was inducted into the Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. Orlando Cepeda was born to Pedro Aníbal Cepeda and Carmen Pennes; the family was poor, lived in wood houses without a telephone or refrigerator. His father was a professional baseball player in Puerto Rico, where he was known as "Perucho" and "The Bull", was considered one of the best players of his generation.
Orlando was thus known as "The Baby Bull." Cepeda saw his father play baseball for the first time in 1946, was interested in the game. Because he was black and the bulk of his career was played before Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color bar, Perucho Cepeda could not play in the major leagues. Several players from the Negro leagues visited their house, he became a fan of Minnie Miñoso, following his career in the Cuban League, Negro leagues, Major League Baseball, the Caribbean. When he was ten years old, Cepeda began to sell newspapers in order to participate in a baseball tournament organized for the paper boys, his first tryout came three years later. He did not make the roster. Cepeda began playing basketball, but he tore a knee cartilage and underwent surgery; the injury kept him inactive for nearly a year, the doctor recommended that he avoid practicing basketball. He began practicing again, noticing that his physical strength had improved in two years. One day, an amateur baseball player saw him recruited him to play with his team.
The organization won Puerto Rico's amateur championship and went on to play against an All-Star team from the Dominican Republic. Pedro Zorilla owner of the Santurce Crabbers, attended this game to scout another player, but after seeing Cepeda play, he became interested in him. In 1953, Zorilla brought him onto the team to work as a bat boy. After retiring, Pedro Cepeda worked for the government, checking the water of rivers in the municipality, he contracted malaria, which precipitated his death at age 49. This illness worsened the family's living conditions, they moved from Guayama to Juncos. They moved again. After her father's death, there was not sufficient income in the household to pay for college. In 1955, Zorilla persuaded Cepeda's family to purchase an airplane ticket so that he could participate in a New York Giants tryout. After passing the tryout, he was assigned by the Giants to a Class D team. Cepeda was subsequently transferred to a team in Virginia, he had trouble adapting. He encountered discrimination due to the racial segregation under the Jim Crow laws.
Shortly after this move, Zorilla called to inform him. Pedro Cepeda died a few days later. Orlando returned to Salem. Cepeda was depressed, he wanted to quit and return to Puerto Rico, but Zorilla convinced him to play for the Kokomo Giants, a team in the Mississippi–Ohio Valley League. Walt Dixon, the team's manager, assigned him to the third baseman position. Cepeda batted in the "cleanup spot", finishing with a.393 average, hitting 21 home runs and 91 runs batted in. Jim Tobin, who owned his contract noticed his potential and sold his player's rights back to the New York Giants. After a visit to Puerto Rico, Cepeda returned to New York, before being sent to play with St. Cloud in Class C; the team reassigned him to play first base. Cepeda adapted to the change quickly; that year, he won the Northern League Triple Crown, finishing with an average of.355 with 112 RBIs and 26 home runs. Jack Schwarz promoted him to Class B, a decision that he protested, noting that players with worse performance were being sent to Double A.
Following a solid season in Class B, Cepeda played for the Crabbers in the Puerto
College World Series
The College World Series is an annual June baseball tournament held in Omaha, Nebraska. The CWS is the culmination of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Baseball Championship tournament—featuring 64 teams in the first round—which determines the NCAA Division I college baseball champion; the eight participating teams are split into two, four-team, double-elimination brackets, with the winners of each bracket playing in a best-of-three championship series. Since 1950, the College World Series has been held in Nebraska, it was held at Rosenblatt Stadium from 1950 through 2010. Earlier tournaments were held at Hyames Field in Kalamazoo and Lawrence Stadium in Wichita, Kansas; the name "College World Series" is derived from that of the Major League Baseball World Series championship. On June 10, 2009, the NCAA and College World Series of Omaha, Inc., the non-profit group that organizes the event, announced a new 25-year contract extension, keeping the CWS in Omaha through 2035.
A memorandum of understanding had been reached by all parties on April 30. The binding contract began in 2011, the same year the tournament moved from Johnny Rosenblatt Stadium to TD Ameritrade Park Omaha, a new ballpark across from CenturyLink Center Omaha. See also: NCAA Division I Baseball Championship § Past formats 1947 – Eight teams were divided into two, four-team, single-elimination playoffs; the two winners met in a best-of-three final in Kalamazoo, Michigan. 1948 – Similar to 1947, but the two, four-team playoffs were changed to double-elimination tournaments. Again in the finals, the two winners met in a best-of-three format in Kalamazoo. 1949 – The final was expanded to a four-team, double-elimination format and the site changed to Wichita, Kansas. Eight teams began the playoffs with the four finalists decided by a best-of-three district format. 1950–1987 – An eight-team, double-elimination format for the College World Series coincided with the move to Omaha, Nebraska in 1950. From 1950 to 1953, a baseball committee chose one team from each of the eight NCAA districts to compete at the CWS, which constituted the entire Division I tournament, as there were no preliminary rounds.
Through 1987 the College World Series was a pure double-elimination event. That ended with the 1987 College World Series. In 1954, the Division I tournament began having preliminary rounds to determine the eight CWS teams. From 1954 to 1975, the number of teams in the first round of the overall tournament ranged from 21 to 32; the number of first-round teams was increased to 34 in 1976, 36 in 1982, 38 in 1985, 40 in 1986, 48 in 1987. 1988–1998 – The format was changed beginning with the 1988 College World Series, when the tournament was divided into 2 four-team double-elimination brackets, with the survivors of each bracket playing in a single championship game. The single-game championship was designed for network television, with the final game on CBS on a Saturday afternoon. Before expanding to 64 teams in 1999, the 1998 Division I tournament began with 48 teams, split into 8 six-team regionals; the 8 regional winners advanced to the College World Series. The regionals were a test of endurance, as teams had to win at least four games over four days, sometimes five if a team dropped into the loser's bracket, placing a premium on pitching.
In the last two years of the six-team regional format, the eventual CWS champion – LSU in 1997 and Southern California in 1998 – had to battle back from the loser's bracket in the regional to advance to Omaha.1999–2002 – With some 293 Division I teams playing, the NCAA expanded the overall tournament to a 64-team Regional field in 1999—with 8 National Seed teams —divided into 16 four-team regionals. The winners of the 16 "Regionals" advance to a second round, consisting of 8 two-team, best-of-three-format "Super Regionals"; the 8 Super Regional winners advance to the CWS in Omaha. While the CWS format remained the same, the expanded field meant that the eight CWS teams now are determined by the second-round Super Regionals; the 64-team bracket is set at the beginning of the championship and teams are not reseeded for the CWS. Since the 1999 College World Series, the four-team brackets in the CWS have been determined by the results of super-regional play, much like the NCAA basketball tournament.
Prior to 1999, the four-team brackets were determined by the regional tournaments. 2003–present – The championship final became a best-of-three series between the 2 four-team bracket winners, with games scheduled for Saturday and Monday evenings. In the results shown below, Score indicates the score of the championship game only. In 2008, the start of the CWS was moved back one day, an extra day of rest was added in between bracket play and the championship series. Bold indicates team won the CWS that year Bold indicates team won the CWS that year Regular indicates team was Runner-up that year CIBA was California Intercollegiate Baseball Association that competed as a division under the Pacific Coast Conference which operated under its own Charter. Independents = Miami Hurricanes and Holy Cross Crusaders SCBA was Southern California Baseball Association; the Big 12 do
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca