GCompris is a software suite comprising educational entertainment software for children aged 2 to 10. GCompris was written in C and Python using the GTK+ widget toolkit, but a rewrite in C++ and QML using the Qt widget toolkit is since early 2014 in process. GCompris is free and open-source software subject to the requirements of the GNU General Public License version 3 and has been part of the GNU project; the name GCompris is a pun, in the French language is pronounced the same as the phrase "I have understood", J'ai compris. It is available for macOS and Windows. Binaries compiled for Microsoft Windows and macOS are distributed with a restricted number of activities. At the time of writing GCompris comprised more than 130 games, called "activities"; these are bundled into the following groups: Computer discovery: keyboard, different mouse gestures Numeracy: table memory, double entry table, mirror images Science: the canal lock, the water cycle, the submarine, electric simulations Geography: place the country on the map Games: chess, connect 4, sudoku Reading: reading practice Other: learn to tell time, puzzle of famous paintings, vector drawing, cartoon making The first version of the game was made in 2000 by Bruno Coudoin, a French software engineer.
Sugar is a free and open-source desktop environment designed for interactive learning by children. Copyright by SugarLabs. Developed as part of the One Laptop per Child project, Sugar was the default interface on OLPC XO-1 laptop computers; the OLPC XO-1.5 and provided the option of either the Gnome or Sugar interfaces. Sugar is available as a Live CD, as Live USB, a package installable through several Linux distributions, it can run in a Linux virtual machine under Windows and Mac OS. Unlike most other desktop environments, Sugar does not use the "desktop", "folder" and "window" metaphors. Instead, Sugar's default full-screen activities require users to focus on only one program at a time. Sugar implements a journal which automatically saves the user's running program session and allows them to use an interface to pull up their past works by date, activity used, or file type. Sugar has the objective of being suitable for inexperienced users, but provides more advanced facilities for the more experienced.
The project's stated goal is to "avoid bloated interfaces", "limit the controls to those relevant to the task at hand.". Applications run full screen, double-clicking is not used, menus show icons. Sugar is written in Python, an interpreted language, can be modified by users with programming experience. Desktop environments used by many operating systems are written in compiled languages such as C. Applications developed by Sugar are pragmatic which offers number of opportunity to avail which enhances the skills and make them dexterous in their field. Sugar Activities include Turle Blocks 3D, Ruler and many more. Hundreds of learning activities for Sugar can be downloaded from the Sugar Activity Library. Additional activities are available from third parties, such as the Project Ceibal portal in Uruguay. In May 2006 Sugar's developers described it as a "tool for expression," and plans were in place to include multimedia and social networking features. Since May 2008 Sugar has been developed under the umbrella of Sugar Labs, a member project of the Software Freedom Conservancy.
Some contributors are employed by One Laptop per Child and other related organizations, others are volunteers, in many cases associated with the free software community. Contributors to the original Sugar platform included Marco Pesenti Gritti, Walter Bender, Christopher Blizzard, Eben Eliason, Simon Schampijer, Christian Schmidt, Lisa Strausfeld, Takaaki Okada, Tomeu Vizoso, Dan Williams. By early 2007 Sugar could be installed, with some difficulty, on several Linux distributions, in virtual machines on other operating systems. By mid-2008 Sugar was available on the Debian and Fedora distributions of Linux. By mid-2009 Sugar was available on openSUSE and other Linux distributions. Sugar 0.82.1 was included in the OLPC system software release 8.2.0 for XO-1 laptops. Sugar 0.86 was released on September 30, 2009. Sugar 0.88 was released on March 31, 2010. Sugar 0.90.0 was released in October, 2010. There were three releases in 2011 and one in June 2012, which included support for the ARM architecture on the XO 1.75.
Sugar Labs announced the availability of Sugar on a Stick v3 Mirabelle, which incorporates Sugar Release 0.88 and Fedora 13. Since Mirabelle, Sugar on a Stick has been a semi-annual, Fedora Spin; the OLPC XO-1 has 256 MB of memory. Because the flash-based hard drive is small, swap can only be added by using an SD card or a network block device. If too many activities are loaded at the same time there may be performance problems due to low memory or processor load. Sugar has had many XO releases. Sugar can be run on a Raspberry Pi, it is recommended to use SOAS to run Sugar on one. You can learn; the Sugar on a Stick Strawberry release is based on Fedora 11 with the latest updates as of June 22, 2009. It features a Sugar learning environment, namely version 0.84, including 40 Activities to enrich the learning experience. Hundreds of Activities are available for download from the Sugar activity library; this release includes Fedora updates, Sugar features like View Source and file transfer, supplementary sample content, available in the Journal, usability improvements.
Sugar on a Stick v2 Blueberry was released on 8 December 2009. It is based on F12 version of the Fedora operating system, it contains a number of features that learning experience. Here is an overview of the most notable
A live CD is a complete bootable computer installation including operating system which runs directly from a CD-ROM or similar storage device into a computer's memory, rather than loading from a hard disk drive. A Live CD allows users to run an operating system for any purpose without installing it or making any changes to the computer's configuration. Live CDs can run on a computer without secondary storage, such as a hard disk drive, or with a corrupted hard disk drive or file system, allowing data recovery; as CD and DVD drives have been phased-out, live CDs have become less popular, being replaced by live USBs, which are equivalent systems written onto USB flash drives, which have the added benefit of having write-able storage. The functionality of a live CD is available with a bootable live USB flash drive, or an external hard disk drive connected by USB. Many live CDs offer the option of persistence by writing files to USB flash drive. Many Linux distributions make ISO images available for burning to CD or DVD.
While open source Operating Systems can be used for free, some commercial software, such as Windows To Go requires a license to use. Many Live CDs are used for data recovery, computer forensics, disk imaging, system recovery and malware removal; the Tails operating system is aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity of its users, allowing them to work with sensitive documents without leaving a record on a computer's hard drive. All except the earliest digital computers are built with some form of minimal built-in loader, which loads a program or succession of programs from a storage medium, which operate the computer. A read-only medium such as punched tape or punched cards was used for initial program load. With the introduction of inexpensive read-write storage, read-write floppy disks and hard disks were used as boot media. After the introduction of the audio compact disc, it was adapted for use as a medium for storing and distributing large amounts of computer data; this data may include application and operating-system software, sometimes packaged and archived in compressed formats.
It was seen to be convenient and useful to boot the computer directly from compact disc with a minimal working system to install a full system onto a hard drive. While there are read-write optical discs, either mass-produced read-only discs or write-once discs were used for this purpose; the first Compact Disc drives on personal computers were much too slow to run complex operating systems. When operating systems came to be distributed on compact discs, either a boot floppy or the CD itself would boot and only, to install onto a hard drive; the world's first and oldest non-Linux live CD was the FM Towns OS first released in 1989, before the release of Macintosh System 7 in 1991 and Yggdrasil Linux in 1992. Although early developers and users of distributions built on top of the Linux kernel so it could take advantage of cheap optical disks and declining prices of CD drives for personal computers, the Linux distribution CDs or "distros" were treated as a collection of installation packages that must first be permanently installed to hard disks on the target machine.
However, in the case of these distributions built on top of the Linux kernel, the free operating system was meeting resistance in the consumer market because of the perceived difficulty and risk involved in installing an additional partition on the hard disk, in parallel with an existing operating system installation. The term "live CD" was coined because, after typical PC RAM was large enough and 52x speed CD drives and CD burners were widespread among PC owners, it became convenient and practical to boot the kernel and run X11, a window manager and GUI applications directly from a CD without disturbing the OS on the hard disk; this was a new and different situation for Linux than other operating systems, because the updates/upgrades were being released so different distributions and versions were being offered online, because users were burning their own CDs. The first Linux-based'Live CD' was Yggdrasil Linux first released in beta form 1992~1993, though in practice its functionality was hampered due to the low throughput of contemporary CD-ROM drives.
DemoLinux, released in 1998, was the first Linux distribution specially designed as a live CD. The Linuxcare bootable business card, first released in 1999, was the first Live CD to focus on system administration, the first to be distributed in the bootable business card form factor; as of 2015, Finnix is the oldest Live CD still in production. Knoppix, a Debian-derived Linux distribution, was released in 2003, found popularity as both a rescue disk system and as a primary distribution in its own right. Since 2003, the popularity of live CDs has increased partly due to Linux Live scripts and remastersys, which made it easy to build customized live systems. Most of the popular Linux distributions now include a live CD variant, which in some cases is the preferred installation medium. Live CDs are made for many different uses; some are designed to "test drive" a particular operating system. Software can be run for a particular single use, without interfering with system setup. Data on a system, not functioning due to operating system and software issues can be made available.
Ubuntu version history
Ubuntu releases are made semiannually by Canonical Ltd, the developers of the Ubuntu operating system, using the year and month of the release as a version number. The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on 20 October 2004. Version numbers for future versions are provisional. Canonical schedules Ubuntu releases to occur one month after GNOME releases, which in turn come about one month after releases of X. Org, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME and X; every fourth release—occurring in the second quarter of even-numbered years—has been designated as a long-term support release. The desktop version of LTS releases for 10.04 and earlier were supported for three years, with server version support for five years. LTS releases 12.04, 14.04 and 16.04 are supported for five years, while Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is supported for ten years. The support period for non-LTS releases is 9 months. Prior to 13.04, it was 18 months. Ubuntu releases are given code names, using an adjective and an animal with the same first letter - an alliteration.
With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. As of Ubuntu 17.10, the initial letter'rolled over' and returned to'A'. Names are chosen so that animal appearance or habits reflects some new feature. Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name. Ubuntu 4.10, released on 20 October 2004, was Canonical's first release of Ubuntu, building upon Debian, with plans for a new release every six months and eighteen months of support thereafter. Ubuntu 4.10's support ended on 30 April 2006. Ubuntu 4.10 was offered as a free download and, through Canonical's ShipIt service, was mailed to users free of charge in CD format. Ubuntu 5.04, released on 8 April 2005, was Canonical's second release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 5.04's support ended on 31 October 2006. Ubuntu 5.04 added many new features including an Update Manager, upgrade notifier and grepmap, suspend and standby support, dynamic frequency scaling for processors, Ubuntu hardware database, Kickstart installation, APT authentication.
Ubuntu 5.04 was the first version. Beginning with Ubuntu 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding. Ubuntu 5.10, released on 12 October 2005, was Canonical's third release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 5.10's support ended on 13 April 2007. Ubuntu 5.10 added several new features including a graphical bootloader, an Add/Remove Applications tool, a menu editor, an easy language selector, logical volume management support, full Hewlett-Packard printer support, OEM installer support, a new Ubuntu logo in the top-left, Launchpad integration for bug reporting and software development. Ubuntu 6.06, released on 1 June 2006, was Canonical's fourth release, the first long-term support release. Ubuntu 6.06 was released behind schedule, having been intended as 6.04. It is sometimes jokingly described as their first'Late To Ship' release. Development was not complete in April 2006 and Mark Shuttleworth approved slipping the release date to June, making it 6.06 instead. Ubuntu 6.06's support ended in June 2011 for servers.
Ubuntu 6.06 included several new features, including having the Live CD and Install CD merged onto one disc, a graphical installer on Live CD, Usplash on shutdown as well as startup, a network manager for easy switching of multiple wired and wireless connections, Humanlooks theme implemented using Tango guidelines, based on Clearlooks and featuring orange colors instead of brown, GDebi graphical installer for package files. Ubuntu 6.06 did not include a means to install from a USB device, but did for the first time allow installation directly onto removable USB devices. Ubuntu 6.10, released on 26 October 2006, was Canonical's fifth release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 6.10's support ended on 25 April 2008. Ubuntu 6.10 added several new features including a modified Human theme, Upstart init daemon, automated crash reports, Tomboy note taking application, F-Spot photo manager. EasyUbuntu, a third party program designed to make Ubuntu easier to use, was included in Ubuntu 6.10 as a meta-package. Ubuntu 7.04, released on 19 April 2007, was Canonical's sixth release of Ubuntu.
Ubuntu 7.04's support ended on 19 October 2008. Ubuntu 7.04 included several new features, among them a migration assistant to help former Microsoft Windows users transition to Ubuntu, support for Kernel-based Virtual Machine, assisted codec and restricted drivers installation including Adobe Flash, Java, MP3 support, easier installation of Nvidia and ATI drivers, Compiz desktop effects, support for Wi-Fi Protected Access, the addition of Sudoku and chess, a disk usage analyzer, GNOME Control Center, Zeroconf support for many devices. Ubuntu 7.10, released on 18 October 2007, was Canonical's seventh release of Ubuntu. Ubuntu 7.10's support ended on 18 April 2009. Ubuntu 7.10 included several new features, among them AppArmor security framework, fast desktop search, a Firefox plug-in manager, a graphical configuration tool for X. Org, full NTFS support via NTFS-3G, a revamped printing system with PDF printing by default. Compiz Fusion was enabled as default in Ubuntu 7.10 and Fast user switching was added.
Ubuntu 8.04, released on 24
The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, Unix-like operating system kernel. The Linux family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers in the form of Linux distributions, on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, NAS appliances. While the adoption of the Linux kernel in desktop computer operating system is low, Linux-based operating systems dominate nearly every other segment of computing, from mobile devices to mainframes; as of November 2017, all of the world's 500 most powerful supercomputers run Linux. The Android operating system for tablet computers and smartwatches uses the Linux kernel; the Linux kernel was conceived and created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds for his personal computer and with no cross-platform intentions, but has since expanded to support a huge array of computer architectures, many more than other operating systems or kernels.
Linux attracted developers and users who adopted it as the kernel for other free software projects, notably the GNU Operating System, created as a free, non-proprietary operating system, based on UNIX as a by-product of the fallout of the Unix wars. The Linux kernel API, the application programming interface through which user programs interact with the kernel, is meant to be stable and to not break userspace programs; as part of the kernel's functionality, device drivers control the hardware. However, the interface between the kernel and loadable kernel modules, unlike in many other kernels and operating systems, is not meant to be stable by design; the Linux kernel, developed by contributors worldwide, is a prominent example of free and open source software. Day-to-day development discussions take place on the Linux kernel mailing list; the Linux kernel is released under the GNU General Public License version 2, with some firmware images released under various non-free licenses. In April 1991, Linus Torvalds, at the time a 21-year-old computer science student at the University of Helsinki, started working on some simple ideas for an operating system.
He started with a task switcher in a terminal driver. On 25 August 1991, Torvalds posted the following to comp.os.minix, a newsgroup on Usenet: I'm doing a operating system for 386 AT clones. This has been brewing since April, is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix. I've ported bash and gcc, things seem to work; this implies that I'll get something practical within a few months Yes - it's free of any minix code, it has a multi-threaded fs. It is NOT portable, it never will support anything other than AT-harddisks, as that's all I have:-(. It's in C, but most people wouldn't call what I write C, it uses every conceivable feature of the 386 I could find, as it was a project to teach me about the 386. As mentioned, it uses a MMU, for both paging and segmentation. It's the segmentation; some of my "C"-files are as much assembler as C. Unlike minix, I happen to LIKE interrupts, so interrupts are handled without trying to hide the reason behind them. After that, many people contributed code to the project.
Early on, the MINIX community contributed code and ideas to the Linux kernel. At the time, the GNU Project had created many of the components required for a free operating system, but its own kernel, GNU Hurd, was incomplete and unavailable; the Berkeley Software Distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances. Despite the limited functionality of the early versions, Linux gained developers and users. In September 1991, Torvalds released version 0.01 of the Linux kernel on the FTP server of the Finnish University and Research Network. It had 10,239 lines of code. On 5 October 1991, version 0.02 of the Linux kernel was released. Torvalds assigned version 0 to the kernel to indicate that it was for testing and not intended for productive use. In December 1991, Linux kernel 0.11 was released. This version was the first to be self-hosted as Linux kernel 0.11 could be compiled by a computer running the same kernel version. When Torvalds released version 0.12 in February 1992, he adopted the GNU General Public License version 2 over his previous self-drafted license, which had not permitted commercial redistribution.
On 19 January 1992, the first post to the new newsgroup alt.os.linux was submitted. On 31 March 1992, the newsgroup was renamed comp.os.linux. The fact that Linux is a monolithic kernel rather than a microkernel was the topic of a debate between Andrew S. Tanenbaum, the creator of MINIX, Torvalds; this discussion is known as the Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate and started in 1992 on the Usenet discussion group comp.os.minix as a general debate about Linux and kernel architecture. Tanenbaum argued that microkernels were superior to monolithic kernels and that therefore Linux was obsolete. Unlike traditional monolithic kernels, device drivers in Linux are configured as loadable kernel modules and are loaded or unloaded while
Benjamin Mako Hill
Benjamin Mako Hill is a free software activist and author. He is a contributor and free software developer as part of the Debian and Ubuntu projects as well as the co-author of three technical manuals on the subject, Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 Bible, The Official Ubuntu Server Book, The Official Ubuntu Book. Hill is an assistant professor in Communication at the University of Washington, serves as a member of the Free Software Foundation board of directors. Hill has a master's degree from the MIT Media Lab and received a PhD in an interdepartmental program involving the MIT Sloan School of Management and the MIT Media Lab. Since fall 2013, he is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Washington, he is a Fellow at the MIT Center for Civic Media where he coordinates the development of software for civic organizing. He has worked as an contractor for the One Laptop per Child project, he is a speaker for the GNU Project, serves on the board of Software Freedom International.
Since 2006 he is married to Mika Matsuzaki, having used mathematically constrained wedding vows at the marriage ceremony. Since 1999, Hill has been an active member of Debian, he has served as a delegate of the Debian Project Leader, is a founder and coordinator of Debian Non-Profit, a Debian custom distribution designed to fill the needs of small non-profit organizations. In addition he served on the board of Software in the Public Interest from March 2003 until July 2006, serving as the organisation's vice-president from August 2004. Hill is a core developer and founding member of Ubuntu, continues to be an active contributor to the project. In addition to technical responsibilities, he coordinated the construction of a community around the Ubuntu Project as project "community manager" during Ubuntu's first year and a half. During this period, he worked full-time for Canonical Ltd. Within the Project, he served on the "Community Council" governance board that oversees all non-technical aspects of the project, until October 2011.
His work included contributing to a code of diversity statement for the project. In addition to software development, Hill writes extensively, he has been published in academic books and magazines and online journals, Slate Magazine republished one of his blog posts. He is the author of the Free Software Project Management HOWTO, the canonical document on managing FOSS projects, has published academic work on FOSS from anthropological, sociological and software engineering perspectives and has written and spoken about intellectual property and collaboration more generally, he has studied the sociology of community involvement in web communities, been published and cited about projects like Scratch and Wikipedia. He has talked about these topics publicly, as well as giving a keynote address at 2008 OSCON. Hill has worked for several years as a consultant for FOSS projects specializing in coordinating releases of software as free or open software and structuring development efforts to encourage community involvement.
He spends a significant amount of his time traveling and giving talks on FOSS and intellectual property in Europe and North America. Previous to his current positions, Hill pursued research full-time as a graduate researcher at the MIT Media Laboratory. At the lab, he has worked in both the Electronic Publishing and Computing Culture groups on collaborative writing and decision-making software. One project, Selectricity is an award-winning voting tool which received prizes and grants from MTV and Cisco, he was a fellow at the Harvard Berkman Center for Internet & Society and the MIT Center for Civic Media. He serves on the advisory board of the Wikimedia Foundation, the advisory council of the Open Knowledge Foundation and the board of the Free Software Foundation, he was a founding member of the Ubuntu Community Council in 2009. Debian GNU/Linux 3.1 Bible ISBN 978-0-7645-7644-7 The Official Ubuntu Server Book ISBN 978-0133017533 The Official Ubuntu Book ISBN 978-0-13-243594-9 Official website Copyrighteous — personal weblog Biography from the University of Washington revealingerrors.com MIT LabCAST: Selectricity Laboratories of Oligarchy, video recording of a presentation at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society
Jane Silber is a board member of Canonical Ltd. and was its Chief Executive Officer from 2010 to 2017. Silber is the chair of the board of The Sensible Code Company, whose products include QuickCode. Silber joined Canonical in July 2004, where her work has included leading the Ubuntu One project and ensuring that large organizations find Ubuntu "enterprise-ready", she attributes the increasing attention to user research and design in open source since 2009 to Canonical's leadership in this area. Silber announced her transition out of the CEO role in April 2017, with Canonical founder Mark Shuttleworth resuming the position from July 2017. Silber's earlier roles include Vice President of Interactive Television Company and Vice President of General Dynamics C4 Systems, she has worked in Japan for Teijin Ltd conducting artificial intelligence research and product development, in the US at General Health, a health risk assessment firm. She holds an MBA degree from Oxford University's Saïd Business School, an MSc degree in Management of Technology from Vanderbilt University, where she concentrated on machine learning and artificial intelligence work, a BSc degree in Mathematics and Computer Science from Haverford College.
Mark Shuttleworth's blog announcement August 2006 interview with Silber