Estelle Morris, Baroness Morris of Yardley, PC is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for Birmingham Yardley from 1992 to 2005, served in the Cabinet as Education Secretary. Morris was born in Manchester into a political family, her uncle, Alf Morris, was Labour MP for Manchester Wythenshawe and her father, was Labour MP for Manchester Openshaw and a Post Office union official who married Pauline Dunn. She attended Rack House primary school in Wythenshawe and Whalley Range High School in Whalley Range where she failed her English and French A-levels, she is a graduate of the Coventry College of Education, where she gained a BEd in 1974. Morris remembered the long-serving Principal, Joan Dillon Browne, as "a pioneer in showing what women could achieve, long before it was fashionable to do so." Morris was a PE and Humanities teacher at the inner-city Sidney Stringer School in Coventry from 1974–92, becoming Head of Sixth Form Studies, was a member of Warwick District Council from 1979 to 1991.
Morris was elected to Parliament in 1992 for Birmingham Yardley, gaining the seat from the Conservatives with only a wafer-thin majority of 162. She became a minister in the Department for Education and Employment in 1997 and was promoted to Secretary of State for Education and Skills in 2001, she was the first former comprehensive school teacher. She resigned her post in October 2002, explaining that she did not feel up to the job, she had made a commitment to the Conservative Shadow Education Secretary, David Willetts to resign if the literacy and numeracy targets were not met. In interviews following her resignation she stated that she had felt happier and more effective as a junior Education minister, she rejoined the Government in 2003 as Minister for the Arts in the Department for Culture and Sport, caused further comment when she admitted that she did not know much about contemporary art. She stepped down as a Member of Parliament at the 2005 general election, her constituency was gained by the Liberal Democrats at that election.
On 13 May 2005 it was announced that she would be created a life peer, she was conferred as Baroness Morris of Yardley, of Yardley in the County of West Midlands, on 14 June 2005. Between 2005 and 2009 she was Pro Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sunderland. In May 2005, she was appointed chair of the Children’s Workforce Development Council. In September 2005, it was announced that she would succeed Lady Kennedy of The Shaws as President of the National Children's Bureau. Since September 2005 she has been a member of the council of Goldsmiths, University of London and she is Chair of Council. Since 2007 she has been chair of the Executive Group of the Institute for Effective Education at the University of York. Morris is the Chair of the medical charity, APS Support UK, for Antiphospholipid syndrome and was patron of Hanover Foundations. In 2004, Morris was awarded Honorary Doctorates in Arts from Leeds Metropolitan University and in Education from the University of Wolverhampton, she received an Honorary Doctor of Letters from the University of Bradford on 21 July 2005, the University of Chester on 18 March 2011, on 18 July 2007 she was awarded an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Education by Manchester Metropolitan University in recognition of her contribution to education throughout a lifelong career as a dedicated teacher and politician with an education portfolio that has spanned ten years.
She was awarded an Honorary Fellowship in 2007 from the University of Cumbria. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Estelle Morris TheyWorkForYou.com – Estelle Morris profile, theyworkforyou.com. NCB President webpage, ncb.org.uk. Manchester Metropolitan University's Honorands. BBC Estelle Morris profile, news.bbc.co.uk. Independent article, June 2001.
Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, is a Welsh Labour Party politician. He served as a Member of Parliament from 1970 until 1995, first for Bedwellty and for Islwyn, he was the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition from 1983 until 1992. Kinnock led the Labour Party to a surprise fourth consecutive defeat at the 1992 general election, despite the party being ahead in most opinion polls, which had predicted either a narrow Labour victory or a hung parliament. Afterwards, he resigned as Leader of the Labour Party after nine years, he resigned from the House of Commons in 1995 to become a European Commissioner. He went on to become the Vice-President of the European Commission under Romano Prodi from 1999-2004; until the summer of 2009, he was the Chairman of the British Council and the President of Cardiff University. Kinnock, an only child, was born in Wales, his father, Gordon Herbert Kinnock was a former coal miner who suffered from dermatitis and worked as a labourer. Gordon died of a heart attack in November 1971 aged 64.
In 1953, at eleven years old, Kinnock began his secondary education at Lewis School, which he criticised for its record on caning. He went on to the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire in Cardiff, where he graduated with a degree in Industrial Relations and History in 1965; the following year, Kinnock obtained a postgraduate diploma in education. Between August 1966 and May 1970, he worked as a tutor for a Workers' Educational Association, he has been married to Glenys Kinnock since 1967. They have two children – son Stephen Kinnock, daughter Rachel Kinnock. In June 1969, he won the Labour Party nomination for Bedwellty in South Wales, which became Islwyn for the 1983 general election, he was first elected to the House of Commons on 18 June 1970, became a member of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party in October 1978. On his becoming an MP for the first time, his father said "Remember Neil, MP stands not just for Member of Parliament, but for Man of Principle." The Labour government policy at that time was in favour of devolution for Wales, but the wider party was split.
Calling himself a "unionist", Kinnock was one of six south Wales Labour MPs to campaign against devolution. He dismissed the idea of a Welsh identity, saying that "between the mid-sixteenth century and the mid-eighteenth century Wales had no history at all, before that it was the history of rural brigands who have been ennobled by being called princes". In the Welsh referendum of 1979, the proposal for devolution was rejected. Following Labour's defeat at the 1979 general election, James Callaghan appointed Neil Kinnock to the Shadow Cabinet as Education spokesman, his ambition was noted by other MPs, David Owen's opposition to the changes to the electoral college was thought to be motivated by the realisation that they would favour Kinnock's succession. He remained as Education spokesman following the resignation of Callaghan as Leader of the Labour Party and the election of Michael Foot as his successor in late 1980. In 1981, when still serving as Labour's Education spokesman, Kinnock was alleged to have scuppered Tony Benn's attempt to replace Denis Healey as Labour's Deputy Leader by first supporting the candidacy of the more traditionalist Tribunite John Silkin and urging Silkin supporters to abstain on the second, run-off, ballot.
He was known as a left-winger, gained prominence for his attacks on Margaret Thatcher's handling of the Falklands War in 1982, although it was in fact this conflict which saw support for the Conservative government increase, contribute to its landslide re-election the following year. After Labour's landslide defeat in June 1983, Michael Foot resigned as leader aged sixty nine, from the outset it was expected that the much younger Kinnock would succeed him, he was elected as Labour Party leader on 2 October 1983, with 71% of the vote, Roy Hattersley was elected as his deputy. His first period as party leader – between the 1983 and 1987 general elections – was dominated by his struggle with the hard-left Militant tendency still strong in the party. Kinnock was determined to move the party's political standing to a centrist position, in order to improve its chances of winning a future general election. Although Kinnock had come from the Tribune left of the party, he parted company with many of his former allies after his appointment to the Shadow Cabinet.
The Labour Party was threatened by the rise of the Social Democratic Party/Liberal Alliance, which pulled out more centrist adherents. On a broader perspective, the traditional Labour voter was disappearing in the face of growing education and social mobility that the Conservative government had promoted since 1979. Kinnock focused on modernising the party, upgrading its technical skills such as use of the media and keeping track of voters, while at the same time battling the Militants. Under his leadership, the Labour Party abandoned unpopular old positions the nationalisation of certain industries, although this process was not completed until future Labour leader Tony Blair abandoned Clause IV from the party's manifesto in 1995, he stressed economic growth, which had a much broader appeal to the middle-class than the idea of redistributing wealth to benefit the poor. He accepted membership in the European Economic Community, whereas the party had pledged immediate withdrawal from it under Michael Foot.
He discarded the rhetoric of class warfare. All
KPMG is a professional service company and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young, PricewaterhouseCoopers. Seated in Amstelveen, the Netherlands, KPMG employs 207,050 people and has three lines of services: financial audit and advisory, its tax and advisory services are further divided into various service groups. The name "KPMG" stands for "Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler." It was chosen when KMG merged with Peat Marwick in 1987. The organization's history has spanned three centuries. In 1818 John Moxham opened a company in Bristol. James Grace and James Grace Jr. bought John Moxham & Co. and renamed it James Grace & Son in 1857. In 1861 Henry Grace joined the company was renamed James & Henry Grace. William Barclay Peat joined Robert Fletcher & Co. in London at 17 and became head of the firm in 1891, renamed William Barclay Peat & Co. by then. In 1877 Thomson McLintock founded Thomson Co in Glasgow. In 1897 Marwick Mitchell & Co. was founded by Roger Mitchell in New York City.
In 1899 Ferdinand William LaFrentz founded the American Audit Co. in New York. In 1923 The American Audit Company was renamed FW Co.. In about 1913, Frank Wilber Main founded Co. in Pittsburgh. In March 1917 Piet Klijnveld and Jaap Kraayenhof opened an accounting firm called Klynveld Kraayenhof & Co. in Amsterdam. In 1925 William Barclay Peat & Co. and Marwick Mitchell & Co. merged to form Peat Marwick Mitchell. In 1963 Main LaFrentz & Co was formed by the merger of FW LaFrentz & Co.. In 1969 Thomson McLintock and Main LaFrentz merged forming McLintock Main LaFrentz International and McLintock Main LaFrentz International absorbed the general practice of Grace, Ryland & Co. In 1979 Klynveld Kraayenhof & Co. McLintock Main LaFrentz and Deutsche Treuhandgesellschaft formed KMG as a grouping of independent national practices to create a strong European-based international firm. Deutsche Treuhandgesellschaft CEO Reinhard Goerdeler became the first CEO of KMG. In the United States, Main Lafrentz & Co. merged with Hurdman and Cranstoun to form Main Hurdman & Cranstoun.
In 1987 KMG and Peat Marwick joined forces in the first mega-merger of large accounting firms and formed a firm called KPMG in the US, most of the rest of the world, Peat Marwick McLintock in the UK. In the Netherlands, as a consequence of the merger between PMI and KMG in 1988, PMI tax advisors joined Meijburg & Co.. Today, the Netherlands is the only country with two members of KPMG International: KPMG Audit and Meijburg & Co. In 1991 the firm was renamed KPMG Peat Marwick, in 1999 the name was reduced again to KPMG. In October 1997, KPMG and Ernst & Young announced. However, while the merger to form PricewaterhouseCoopers was granted regulatory approval, the KPMG/Ernst & Young tie-up was abandoned. In 2001 KPMG divested its U. S. consulting firm through an initial public offering of KPMG Consulting Inc, now called BearingPoint, Inc. In early 2009, BearingPoint filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection; the UK and Dutch consulting arms were sold to Atos Origin in 2002. In 2003 KPMG divested itself of its legal arm, Klegal and KPMG LLP sold its Dispute Advisory Services to FTI Consulting.
KPMG's member firms in the United Kingdom, Germany and Liechtenstein merged to form KPMG Europe LLP in October 2007. These member firms were followed by Spain, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, CIS, Turkey and Saudi Arabia, they appointed John Griffith-Jones and Ralf Nonnenmacher. Each national KPMG firm is an independent legal entity and is a member of KPMG International Cooperative, a Swiss entity registered in the Swiss Canton of Zug. KPMG International changed its legal structure from a Swiss Verein to a co-operative under Swiss law in 2003; this structure in which the Cooperative provides support services only to the member firms is similar to other professional services networks. The member firms provide the services to client; the purpose is to limit the liability of each independent member. Bill Thomas is KPMG's Global Chairman, he was Senior Partner and CEO of KPMG LLP, the KPMG member firm in Canada. Some KPMG member firms are registered as multidisciplinary entities which provide legal services in certain jurisdictions.
In India, regulations do not permit foreign auditing firms to operate. Hence KPMG carries out audits in India under the name of BSR & Co, an auditing firm that it bought off. B. S. R & Co was an auditing firm founded by B. S. Raut in Mumbai. In 1992, after India was forced to liberalise as one of the conditions of the world bank and IMF bail out, KPMG was granted a license to operate in India as an investment bank, it subsequently purchased B. S. R & Co and conducts audits in India under the name of this firm. KPMG is organised into the following three service lines: Audit Advisory Tax Tax arrangements relating to tax avoidance and multinational corporations and Luxembourg which were negotiated by KPMG became public in 2014 in the so-called Luxembourg Leaks. In March 2017 KPMG launched a campaign designed to encourage more women to pursue careers in technology-based professions; the US branch of KPMG was rated one of the top 10 companies for working mothers. It was also
Secretary of State for Education
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Education is the chief minister of the Department for Education in the United Kingdom government. The position was re-established on 12 May 2010. Under the provisions for devolved government in the UK its remit applies only to England. A committee of the Privy Council was appointed in 1839 to supervise the distribution of certain government grants in the education field; the members of the committee were the Lord President of the Council, the Secretaries of State, the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer. From 1857 a vice-president was appointed. On 1 April 1900, the Board of Education Act 1899 abolished the committee and instituted a new board, headed by a president; the members were very similar to the old committee and the president of the board was the Lord President of the Council. The Education Act 1944 replaced the Board of Education with a new Ministry of Education; the Department of Education and Science was created in 1964 with the merger of the offices of Minister of Education and the Minister of Science.
In 1992, the responsibility for science was transferred to Cabinet Office's Office of Public Service, the department was renamed Department of Education. In 1995 the department merged with the Department of Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment and in 2001 the employment functions were transferred to a newly created Department for Work and Pensions, with the DfEE becoming the Department for Education and Skills. In 2007 under Gordon Brown's new premiership, the DfES was split into two new departments; the ministerial office of the Secretary of State for Innovation and Skills was, in late 2009, amalgamated into the new ministerial office of the resurgent politician Peter Mandelson, made a peer and given the title Lord Mandelson as the newly created Secretary of State for Business and Skills – itself an amalgamation of the responsibilities of the Secretaries of State for Business and Regulatory Reform and Innovation and Skills. The Secretary of State has remit over higher education policy as well as British business and enterprise.
From 14 July 2016 to January 8, 2018 the post was held by Justine Greening, as her predecessor, Nicky Morgan, was sacked by Theresa May. Greening resigned after rejecting a reshuffle to the Department for Pensions. Colour key: Whig Conservative Liberal Colour key: Liberal Unionist Conservative Liberal Labour National Labour Colour key: Conservative Labour Colour key: Conservative Labour Colour key: Conservative Colour key: Conservative Labour Colour key: Labour In 2007, the education portfolio was divided between the Department for Children and Families, the Department for Innovation and Skills. In 2009, the latter department was merged into the Department for Business and Skills. Colour key: Labour Labour Co-operative The Department for Education and the post of Secretary of State for Education were recreated in 2010. Responsibility for higher and adult education remained with the Secretary of State for Business and Skills, until reunited with the Department for Education in 2016. Colour key: Conservative Department for Education Department for Business and Skills
Barry John Sheerman is a British Labour Co-operative politician, the Member of Parliament for Huddersfield since the 1979 general election. Sheerman was born on 17 August 1940 in Sunbury-on-Thames and went to Hampton Grammar School on Hanworth Road in Hampton Kingston Technical College, he was educated at the University of London. He became a lecturer at the University of Wales, Swansea in 1966 and remained there until his election to parliament in 1979. Sheerman unsuccessfully contested Taunton in the October 1974 election, became the MP for Huddersfield East from 1979 to 1983 and for Huddersfield since the 1983 general election. Sheerman has held the Huddersfield seats since, with his majority as low as 3,955 in 1983 and as high as 15,848 in the 1997 general election. In the most recent general election in 2017, Sheerman's majority was increased to 12,005 with a swing of 4.7% to Labour. From 1983 to 1988, Sheerman was the Labour spokesperson on employment, he was Chair of the House of Commons Education and Skills select committee from 2001 to 2010, renamed the Children and Families Committee in 2007.
Under his chairmanship, the Committee was critical of government policy. Sheerman warned the government not to "lose their nerve" over reforming secondary education exam system back in 2005, in 2006 said it was "naive" to allocate local school places through parental choice, with lottery selection being the best way to avoid "bloody awful" schools existing as a side effect of parents pushing for their children to study elsewhere. During Sheerman's chairmanship, the select committee produced reports on subjects such as home education, education outside the classroom, young people not in education employment or training. Sheerman voted for the Iraq war, has nearly always voted to block subsequent independent investigations into the war, with the most recent such vote in 2016, he is Chair of the Labour Forum for Criminal Justice and of the Cross-Party Advisory Group on Preparation for European Monetary Union. Outside parliament, he is Chair of the National Educational Research and Development Trust, a trustee of the National Children's Centre.
His political interests are listed as trade, finance, further education, economy, the European Union, South America and the United States. His recreations include walking and films. In 1993, Sheerman co-wrote, with Isaac Kramnick, a biography of the Labour intellectual Harold Laski. In June 2009, Sheerman called for a secret ballot of the Parliamentary Labour Party on whether Gordon Brown should continue in office as prime minister; this followed widespread criticism of Brown's performance and the resignation of Cabinet member James Purnell. Sheerman reassured his local party chairman that he had not directly called for Brown's resignation. Sheerman called for a London catering company to employ "English workers" in a Twitter exchange on 23 April 2012; the comments reached the national press. In response Sheerman said the objection to him speaking out was "pernicious political correctness", he is founder and chairman of Policy Connect, a cross-party, not-for-profit based in London, where he chairs seminar events and research inquiries.
He is chair and co-chair of a number of official All-Party Parliamentary Groups, including the All-Party Parliamentary Carbon Monoxide Group, the All-Party Parliamentary Manufacturing Group, the Bullying All-Party Group. Since 2012, Sheerman has led the Schools to Work Commission, the Labour Party's policy review on the transition from education to employment. In June 2015, Sheerman caused controversy when he argued that lowering the voting age to 16, by reducing childhood, might raise the risk of sexual abuse. Sheerman voted for the triggering of Article 50. Kirklees, which his constituency falls within, saw 55% of its residents vote in the 2016 EU referendum to leave the EU. In October 2017, Sheerman appeared on television and announced that he believed only better educated people voted to remain in the EU. Barry Sheerman married Pamela Elizabeth Brenchley in 1965 in north Surrey, with whom he has one son and three daughters, he lives in a flat in Huddersfield. MP Homepage Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Contributions in Parliament during 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 at Hansard Archives Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005 Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Ask Aristotle BBC Politics NEET: Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training Children and Families Committee The Review of Elective Home Education Children and Families Committee Transforming Education Outside the Classroom Children and Families Committee Appointments in October 2009 Single mothers hostels in September 2009 School bully in November 2006 Choice of schools in August 2006 Gas safety in February 2006 Obsession with A levels in February 2005 Women are brighter than men in December 2004 2020 Vision on the Environment in schools in November 2009 on YouTube Money skills at the Galpharm Stadium in October 2009 on YouTube Religion in schools on Teachers TV in January 2008 on YouTube
Royal assent is the method by which a monarch formally approves an act of the legislature. In some jurisdictions, royal assent is equivalent to promulgation, while in others, a separate step. Under a modern constitutional monarchy royal assent is considered to be little more than a formality. While the power to veto a law by withholding royal assent was once exercised by European monarchs, such an occurrence has been rare since the eighteenth century. Royal assent is sometimes associated with elaborate ceremonies. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the sovereign may appear in the House of Lords or may appoint Lords Commissioners, who announce that royal assent has been granted at a ceremony held at the Palace of Westminster for this purpose. However, royal assent is granted less ceremonially by letters patent. In other nations, such as Australia, the governor-general signs a bill. In Canada, the governor general may give assent either in person at a ceremony held in the Senate or by a written declaration notifying parliament of their agreement to the bill.
Before the Royal Assent by Commission Act 1541 became law, assent was always required to be given by the sovereign in person before Parliament. The last time royal assent was given by the sovereign in person in Parliament was in the reign of Queen Victoria at a prorogation on 12 August 1854; the Act was repealed and replaced by the Royal Assent Act 1967. However section 1 of that Act does not prevent the sovereign from declaring assent in person if he or she so desires. Royal assent is the final step required for a parliamentary bill to become law. Once a bill is presented to the sovereign or the sovereign's representative, he or she has the following formal options: the sovereign may grant royal assent, thereby making the bill an Act of Parliament; the sovereign may delay the bill's assent through the use of his or her reserve powers, thereby vetoing the bill. The sovereign may refuse royal assent on the advice of her ministers; the last bill, refused assent by the sovereign was the Scottish Militia Bill during Queen Anne's reign in 1708.
Under modern constitutional conventions, the sovereign acts on, in accordance with, the advice of his or her ministers. However, there is some disagreement among scholars as to whether the monarch should withhold royal assent to a bill if advised to do so by her ministers. Since these ministers most enjoy the support of parliament and obtain the passage of bills, it is improbable that they would advise the sovereign to withhold assent. Hence, in modern practice, the issue has never arisen, royal assent has not been withheld; the sovereign is believed not to have the power to withhold assent from a bill against the advice of ministers. Legislative power was exercised by the sovereign acting on the advice of the Curia regis, or Royal Council, in which important magnates and clerics participated and which evolved into parliament. In 1265, the Earl of Leicester irregularly called a full parliament without royal authorisation. Membership of the so-called Model Parliament, established in 1295 under Edward I included bishops, earls, two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each borough.
The body came to be divided into two branches: bishops, abbots and barons formed the House of Lords, while the shire and borough representatives formed the House of Commons. The King would seek the consent of both houses before making any law. During Henry VI's reign, it became regular practice for the two houses to originate legislation in the form of bills, which would not become law unless the sovereign's assent was obtained, as the sovereign was, still remains, the enactor of laws. Hence, all Acts include the clause "Be it enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, by the authority of the same, as follows...". The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 provide a second potential preamble if the House of Lords were to be excluded from the process; the power of parliament to pass bills was thwarted by monarchs. Charles I dissolved parliament in 1629, after it passed motions and bills critical of—and seeking to restrict—his arbitrary exercise of power.
During the eleven years of personal rule that followed, Charles performed dubious actions such as raising taxes without Parliament's approval. After the English Civil War, it was accepted that parliament should be summoned to meet but it was still commonplace for monarchs to refuse royal assent to bills. In 1678, Charles II withheld his assent from a bill "for preserving the Peace of the Kingdom by raising the Militia, continuing them in Duty for Two and Forty Days," suggesting that he, not parliament, should control the militia; the last Stuart monarch, Anne withheld on 11 March 1708, on the advice of her ministers, her assent to the Scottish Militia Bill. No monarch has since withheld royal assent on a bill passed by the British parliament. During the rule of the succeeding Hanoverian dynasty, power was exercised more by parliament and the government; the first Hanoverian monarch, George I, relied on his ministers to a greater extent than had previous monarchs. Hanoverian monarchs attempted to restore royal control over legislation: G
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t