Dublin City School District (Georgia)
The Dublin City School District is a public school district in Laurens County, United States, based in Dublin. It serves the surrounding communities in Laurens County; the Dublin City School District has three elementary schools, one middle school, one high school. Elementary schools: Hillcrest Elementary School Saxon Heights Elementary School Susie Dasher Elementary SchoolSecondary schools: Dublin Middle School Dublin High School Dublin City School District
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed. However, since the 1980s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs. In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the primary source of K-12 education for American youth. Education reformers desire to make public education into a market, where accountability creates high-stakes from curriculum standards tied to standardized tests; as a result of this input-output system, equality has been conceptualized as an end point, evidenced by an achievement gap among diverse populations. This conceptualization of education reform is based on the market-logic of competition; as a consequence, competition creates inequality which has continued to drive the market-logic of equality at an end point by reproduce the achievement gap among diverse youth.
The one constant for all forms of education reform includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health and well-being. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students and society. From ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a educated full-time personal tutor; this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education. Related reforms attempted to develop similar classical results by concentrating on "why", "which" questions neglected by classical education. Abstract, introspective answers to these questions can theoretically compress large numbers of facts into few principles; this path was taken by some Transcendentalist educators, such as Amos Bronson Alcott. In the early modern age, Victorian schools were reformed to teach commercially useful topics, such as modern languages and mathematics, rather than classical subjects, such as Latin and Greek.
Many reformers focused on reforming society by reforming education on more scientific, pragmatic or democratic principles. John Dewey and Anton Makarenko are prominent examples of such reformers; some reformers incorporated several motivations, e.g. Maria Montessori, who both "educated for peace", to "meet the needs of the child". In historic Prussia, an important motivation for the invention of Kindergarten was to foster national unity by teaching a national language while children were young enough that learning a language was easy. Reform has taken many directions. Throughout history and the present day, the meaning and methods of education have changed through debates over what content or experiences result in an educated individual or an educated society. Changes may be implemented by individual educators and/or by broad-based school organization and/or by curriculum changes with performance evaluations. Plato believed. In The Republic, he said, "... compulsory learning never sticks in the mind."
An educational debate in the time of the Roman Empire arose after Christianity had achieved broad acceptance. The question concerned the educational value of pre-Christian classical thought: "Given that the body of knowledge of the pre-Christian Romans was heathen in origin, was it safe to teach it to Christian children?" Though educational reform occurred on a local level at various points throughout history, the modern notion of education reform is tied with the spread of compulsory education. Education reforms did not become widespread until after organized schooling was sufficiently systematized to be'reformed.' In the modern world, economic growth and the spread of democracy have raised the value of education and increased the importance of ensuring that all children and adults have access to high-quality, effective education. Modern education reforms are driven by a growing understanding of what works in education and how to go about improving teaching and learning in schools. However, in some cases, the reformers' goals of "high-quality education" has meant "high-intensity education", with a narrow emphasis on teaching individual, test-friendly subskills regardless of long-term outcomes, developmental appropriateness, or broader educational goals.
Western classical education as taught from the 18th to the 19th century has missing features that inspired reformers. Classical education is most concerned with answering the who, what and when? Questions that concern a majority of students. Unless taught, group instruction neglects the theoretical "why" and "which" questions that concern fewer students. Classical education in this period did not teach local languages and cultures. Instead it taught their cultures; this produced odd social effects in which an intellectual class might be more loyal to ancient cultures and institutions than to their native vernacular languages and their actual governing authorities. Before there were government-funded public schools, education of the lower classes was by the charity school, pioneered in the 19th century by Protestant organizations and adapted by the Roman Catholic Church and governments; because these schools operated on small budgets and attempted to serve as many needy children as possible, they were designed to be inexpensive.
The basic program was to develop "grammar" s
Vidalia City School District
The Vidalia City School District is a public school district in Toombs County, United States, based in and serving Vidalia. The Vidalia City School District has two elementary schools, one middle school, one high school. J. D. Dickerson Primary School Sally Dailey Meadows Elementary School J. R. Trippe Middle School Vidalia Comprehensive High School Vidalia City School District
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students
Savannah College of Art and Design
Savannah College of Art and Design is a private, accredited university with locations in Savannah, Georgia. Founded in 1978 to provide degrees in programs not yet offered in the southeast, the university now operates two locations in Georgia, a degree-granting location in Hong Kong, a degree-granting online education program, a study abroad location in Lacoste, France with rotating course offerings; the university enrolls more than 13,000 students from across the United States and around the world with international students comprising up to 14 percent of the student population. SCAD is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges and other regional and professional accrediting bodies. Richard G. Rowan, Paula S. Wallace, May L. Poetter and Paul E. Poetter incorporated the Savannah College of Art and Design September 29, 1978; the university opened the following year with five trustees, four staff members, seven faculty members, 71 students. The school offered eight majors.
In May 1981, the first graduate received a degree. The following year, the first graduating class received degrees. In 1982, the enrollment grew to more than 500 students to 1,000 in 1986, 2,000 in 1989. In 2014, the university enrolled more than 11,000 students. SCAD opened a study abroad location in Lacoste, France in 2002 that provides programming for the various academic departments offered by the university's degree-granting locations, it launched an online learning program in 2003 that U. S. News and World Report ranks as among the best for bachelor's programs in the nation. In 2005 the university opened a location in Midtown Atlanta that merged with the Atlanta College of Art in 2006. In September 2010, SCAD opened a Hong Kong location in the Sham Shui Po district. Richard Rowan served as president of the college from its inception in 1978 until April 2000, when SCAD's board of trustees promoted him to chancellor; as chancellor, Rowan spent most of his time traveling and recruiting international students and staff.
In 2001, he left the college. Paula S. Wallace is the current president. Wallace Paula S. Rowan, served as SCAD's provost and dean of academics before becoming president; as president, Wallace directs the internal management of the institution. Wallace has led the collaboration for several annual events, such as the Sidewalk Arts Festival, Savannah Film Festival, a Fashion Show, SCAD Style, deFine Art Festival, Art Educators' Forum and Rising Star. SCAD's efforts to work with the city of Savannah to preserve its architectural heritage include restoring buildings for use as college facilities, for which it has been recognized by the American Institute of Architects, the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Historic Savannah Foundation and the Victorian Society of America; the college campus includes 67 buildings throughout the grid-and-park system of downtown Savannah. Many buildings are on the famous 21 squares of the old town, which are laden with monuments, live oaks and a Southern-Gothic feel.
Located in Atlanta's Midtown, SCAD Atlanta includes classroom and exhibition space, computer labs, photography darkrooms and sculpture studios, a dining hall, fitness center, swimming pool and residence hall. SCAD Atlanta's Ivy Hall opened in 2008 after extensive restoration. In 2009, SCAD Atlanta opened the Digital Media Center; the SCAD Lacoste campus is made up of 15th- and 16th-century structures. The campus includes guest houses, computer lab and printmaking lab. In Hong Kong, SCAD occupies renovated historic North Kowloon Magistracy Building, with more than 80,000 square feet, it is equipped with meeting areas, computer labs, an art gallery and library. The college's first academic building was the Savannah Volunteer Guard Armory, purchased and renovated in 1978-79. Built in 1892, the Romanesque Revival red brick structure is included on the National Register of Historic Places. Named Preston Hall, the building was renamed Poetter Hall in honor of co-founders May and Paul Poetter. SCAD soon expanded acquiring buildings in Savannah's downtown historic and Victorian districts, restoring old and derelict buildings that had exhausted their original functions.
The College operates four libraries: Jen Library in Georgia. There is a large amount of resources available via the eLearning Library; the most notable of the group is Jen Library for the size of its collection. The Jen Library houses 42,000 books, 11,000 bound volumes of periodicals, 1,600 videotapes in an 85,000 square foot building; the building, once served as a Maas Brothers department store before being acquired and repurposed by the University. Its structural and design features include a large glass staircase and floor-to-ceiling windows on opposite corners of the building; the Jen Library houses multiple rare collections containing both books and visual arts materials including the Don Bluth Collection of Animation and the Newton Collection of British and American Art. It is home to the Gutstein Gallery, an assemblage of contemporary art from both nationally recognized artists as well as SCAD alumni. Most students live outside of the residence halls, as there are no formal campus grounds other than those contained by the building properties themselves.
In Atlanta the university provides ACA Residence Hall of SCAD and Spring House. The Hong Kong residence hall is the Hong Kong Gold Coast residences; the residence halls in Savannah are Barnard Village, Boundary Village, Montgomery House, Oglethorpe House, Pulask
Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra. Elementary algebra is considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied by professional mathematicians. Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many values. For example, in x + 2 = 5 the letter x is unknown, but the law of inverses can be used to discover its value: x = 3. In E = mc2, the letters E and m are variables, the letter c is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum.
Algebra gives methods for writing formulas and solving equations that are much clearer and easier than the older method of writing everything out in words. The word algebra is used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of mathematical object in abstract algebra is called an "algebra", the word is used, for example, in the phrases linear algebra and algebraic topology. A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist; the word algebra comes from the Arabic الجبر from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wa'l-muḳābala by the Persian mathematician and astronomer al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the English language during the fifteenth century, from either Spanish, Italian, or Medieval Latin, it referred to the surgical procedure of setting broken or dislocated bones. The mathematical meaning was first recorded in the sixteenth century; the word "algebra" has several related meanings as a single word or with qualifiers. As a single word without an article, "algebra" names a broad part of mathematics.
As a single word with an article or in plural, "an algebra" or "algebras" denotes a specific mathematical structure, whose precise definition depends on the author. The structure has an addition, a scalar multiplication; when some authors use the term "algebra", they make a subset of the following additional assumptions: associative, unital, and/or finite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word "algebra" refers to a generalization of the above concept, which allows for n-ary operations. With a qualifier, there is the same distinction: Without an article, it means a part of algebra, such as linear algebra, elementary algebra, or abstract algebra. With an article, it means an instance of some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra, an associative algebra, or a vertex operator algebra. Sometimes both meanings exist for the same qualifier, as in the sentence: Commutative algebra is the study of commutative rings, which are commutative algebras over the integers. Algebra began with letters standing for numbers.
This allowed proofs of properties. For example, in the quadratic equation a x 2 + b x + c = 0, a, b, c can be any numbers whatsoever, the quadratic formula can be used to and find the values of the unknown quantity x which satisfy the equation; that is to say. And in current teaching, the study of algebra starts with the solving of equations such as the quadratic equation above. More general questions, such as "does an equation have a solution?", "how many solutions does an equation have?", "what can be said about the nature of the solutions?" are considered. These questions led extending algebra to non-numerical objects, such as permutations, vectors and polynomials; the structural properties of these non-numerical objects were abstracted into algebraic structures such as groups and fields. Before the 16th century, mathematics was divided into only two subfields and geometry. Though some methods, developed much earlier, may be considered nowadays as algebra, the emergence of algebra and, soon thereafter, of infinitesimal calculus as subfields of mathematics only dates from the 16th or 17th century.
From the second half of 19th century on, many new fields of mathematics appeared, most of which made use of both arithmetic and geometry, all of which used algebra. Today, algebra has grown until it includes many branches of mathematics, as can be seen in the Mathematics Subject Classification where none of the first level areas is called algebra. Today algebra in