Department for Education and Skills (United Kingdom)
The Department for Education and Skills was a United Kingdom government department between 2001 and 2007, responsible for the education system as well as children's services in England. The department was led by Secretary of State for Skills; the DfES had offices at four main locations: London, Sheffield and Runcorn. The DfES was represented in regional Government Offices; the DfES had jurisdiction only in England as education was the responsibility of the Scottish Government, Welsh Assembly Government and the Northern Ireland Assembly. On 28 June 2007, the DfES was split up into the Department for Children and Families and the Department for Innovation and Skills; the DCSF was reorganised as the Department for Education in 2010. The Department of Education and Science was created in 1964 with the merger of the offices of Minister of Education and the Minister of Science, with Quintin Hogg as minister. In 1992 the responsibility for science was transferred to the Cabinet Office's Office of Public Service and the Department of Trade and Industry's Office of Science and Technology, the department was renamed Department for Education.
In 1995, in the reshuffle after the Conservative leadership election of that year, the department merged with the Department of Employment to become the Department for Education and Employment. After the 2001 general election, the employment functions were transferred to the new Department for Work and Pensions, with the DfEE becoming the Department for Education and Skills. In 2007, the responsibilities for adult education, further education, higher education were transferred to the new Department for Innovation and Skills; the remainder of the education system moved to the DCSF. Colour key: Labour The permanent secretary of a UK Department is the senior civil servant. While working under the direction of the political ministers, the PS has many traditional and statutory responsibilities that are aimed at ensuring that government departments are, as far as possible, run in the public interest. Permanent Secretaries: David Bell: Jan 2006 - Jun 2007 Sir David Normington: May 2001 - Dec 2005 Sir Michael Bichard: Jul 1995 - May 2001 Sir Timothy Patrick Lankester: Feb 1994 - Jul 1995 Sir Geoffrey Holland: Jan 1993 - Jan 1994 Sir John Caines: Jul 1989 - Jan 1993 Sir David Hancock: May 1983 - June 1989 Sir James Arnot Hamilton: May 1976 - May 1983 Sir William Pile: Aug 1970 - May 1976 British Educational Communications and Technology Agency Learning and Skills Council United Kingdom budget Official Archived Website Science Learning Centres website The national network of Science Learning Centres provides Continuing Professional Development for everyone involved in science education.
The network is a joint initiative by the Department for Education and Skills and the Wellcome Trust
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home; the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the principality of Lippe, Germany.
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work, his system was successful in producing obedient children with basic numeracy. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, went on to establish hundreds more, he published many works on the subject, his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published based on the school, he began working for the Infant School Society the next year. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Countess Theresa Brunszvik, who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.
In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school, he renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden". Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens around the world; the first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz. Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860; the first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who established the Poppenhusen Institute.
The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in cities. In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens. Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan.
The number of preschools grew during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country; these facilities were an urban phenomenon in Kabul, were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare; the vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control.
In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government c
William Harris Rule
William Harris Rule was a British Methodist missionary and writer. Rule and his wife started schools building to 400 pupils in Gibraltar, he tried to establish missions in Spain. Rule was born in Penryn in Cornwall to John Rule, an army surgeon, Louise, his wife. Rule left to work as an artist at the age of seventeen. Rule was converted to Methodism at the age of twenty and moved from the career of artist to schoolmaster, he decided he wanted to become a missionary, he started studying Latin and Greek. In 1825 he was summoned to London to await a missionary position, early in 1826 he married Mary Ann Dunmill. In March they were sent to Malta to train for a mission in Palestine. However, war broke out and they were redirected to Gibraltar. Rule arrived in Gibraltar in 1832 although he had visited before, where he had made a favourable impression on the church there. Rule was of the belief that he was in charge and that lay volunteers were welcome to assist, but it was Rules's role to make decisions.
This led to some friction and resignations. The start of free schools can be assigned to Mary Ann Rule, they had both learnt Spanish, Mary was asked informally to teach a neighbour's child to read. Her first student was joined by her brother and other Catholics and Jewish children. Rule was obliged to get himself involved. Rule noted that he became unawares the "founder of the first charity school in the garrison"; the Jews withdrew on religious grounds, Rule was involved when Lieutenant Governor William Houston set up the first official free school on Flat Bastion Road in 1832 and he sent his own children there. The new school was secular although it was led by a committee which included the major religious leaders, but not Rule; the following year Rule announced that he would reform his school and it would not only include religious instruction for girls and boys but students would be required to attend the Methodist church on a Sunday. The school thrived, he took on assistants, in 1835 he appointed William Lyon to be master of the school.
This allowed him and Lyon to start up another Sunday School targeted at Spanish children. Rule was interested in the families, he would survey the population so that he could distribute Bibles translated into Spanish and Italian, he had few refusals. The Catholic population realised that they needed to establish their own school, in 1835 two Irish Brothers arrived to found the Christian Brothers School. However, progress was slow as the children did not speak English and the new teachers did not speak Spanish; the brothers were overworked and nearly left when they realised that they were not expected to take a holiday. In 1835 Rule journeyed around Spain speaking to like-minded people about distributing the Bible. Amongst others he twice met Félix Torres Amat, the Bishop of Astorga who had translated the Bible into Spanish in 1824, but had had difficulty finding money for publication. Rule reported that he found Amat's liberal views interesting, but when he read his works he found that he was expressing much more conservative views.
Rule decided. He completed this in 1841, these were printed together with hymn books, school books and other religious works. Rule's new schools were popular with the better off, who wanted to avoid the poor-quality education supplied by public subscription; the whole matter came to a head on the centenary of the Wesleyan Foundation in 1839 when Gibraltarians were surprised to see 400 of Rule's local school children marching down Main Street carrying banners that showed that they were committing to the Methodist approach. It was apparent that Rule was training missionaries; this was the start of the end of his Methodist academies. Rule came into a disagreement with the governor when a soldier was disciplined for his Methodism, which Rule felt was against standing orders, he appealed directly to London and won a small victory, but the garrison prevented the support he had received from volunteers, he no longer enjoyed the support he once had. Rule's obsession was Spain, he concentrated on teaching in Spanish whilst trying to establish missions in Cadiz and Algeciras.
The latter was done against the specific advice from the Missionary society who funded his work that he should conduct any work over the border. Advocating Protestantism and supplying Bibles was against Spanish law, but Rule seemed to ignore this. Matters came to a head after Rule had been requested to economise and it emerged that he had committed to purchase a property in the south of Gibraltar without prior approval. Moreover, Rule had purchased the property in his own name and had not revealed the full details of the contract. Rule offered his resignation, it was accepted, with the Missionary Society noting that he was fortunate to escape so lightly. Rule worked as a Methodist minister at the first Wesleyan chapel in Aldershot and in Plymouth before retiring in 1872, he still visited Gibraltar. There is a carte de visite from Rule in the collection of Manuel Matamoros and he has been called the founder of Protestantism in Spain, his wife died in February 1872, it was she who started the first charity school.
Rule married again in 1873, he extended his earlier translation of the gospels to include the whole of the New Testament, this was published by the Missionary Society in 1880. Rule died on 25 September 1890 in Addiscombe, near Croydon, Surrey
Congregation of Christian Brothers
The Congregation of Christian Brothers is a worldwide religious community within the Catholic Church, founded by Edmund Rice. The Christian Brothers, as they are known, chiefly work for the evangelisation and education of youth, but are involved in many ministries with the poor, their first school was opened in Waterford, Ireland, in 1802. At the time of its foundation, though much relieved from the harshest of the Penal Laws by the Irish Parliament's Relief Acts, much discrimination against Catholics remained throughout the newly created United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland pending full Catholic Emancipation in 1829; this congregation is sometimes confused with the De La Salle Brothers – known as the Christian Brothers, Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools and Lasallians – founded in France by Jean-Baptiste de la Salle. Rice's congregation is sometimes called the Irish Christian Brothers or the Edmund Rice Christian Brothers to differentiate the two teaching orders; the reputation of the congregation has been marred by widespread sexual abuse cases.
At the turn of the nineteenth century, Waterford merchant Edmund Rice considered travelling to Rome to join a religious institute the Augustinians. Instead, with the support of The Most Rev. Dr Thomas Hussey, Lord Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, he decided to found a religious community dedicated to teaching disadvantaged youth; the first school, on Waterford's New Street, was a converted stable and opened in 1802, with a second school opening in Stephen Street soon after to cater for increasing enrollment. Two men from his hometown of Callan, Thomas Grosvenor and Patrick Finn, soon arrived to aid Rice in his makeshift schools, with the intention of living the life of lay brothers. In the same year, Rice used proceeds from the sale of his victualling business to begin building a community house and school on land provided by the diocese. Bishop Hussey opened the new complex, christened “Mount Sion” on June 7, 1803, pupils were transferred to the new school building the following year; the reputation of the school spread and across the next few years several men sought to become “Michaels”.
On 15 August 1808 seven men, including Edmund Rice, took religious promises under Bishop John Power of Waterford. Following the example of Nano Nagle's Presentation Sisters, they were called "Presentation Brothers"; this was one of the first congregations of men to be founded in Ireland and one of the few founded in the Church by a layman. Houses were soon opened in Carrick-on-Suir, in 1811, in Cork. In 1812 the Archbishop of Dublin established a community in the nation's capital and by 1907 there were ten communities in Dublin, with pupils in excess of 6,000; the schools included primary and technical schools, along with orphanages and a school for the deaf. A community was founded in Limerick in 1816, followed by establishments in several of Ireland's principal towns; the Holy See formally established the congregation in 1820. This, was an unusual event, since the Christian Brothers were the first Irish congregation of men approved by a charter from Rome; some brothers in Cork chose to remain under the original Presentation rule and continued to be known as Presentation Brothers, a separate congregation but recognising Edmund Rice as its Founder.
The congregation of Irish Christian Brothers spread to other parts of England. These new ventures were not always successful. Two brothers had been sent to Gibraltar to establish an institute in 1835. However, despite initial successes they left in August 1837 on account of disagreements with the local priests. In 1878 the Brothers returned to the Crown colony of Gibraltar; the school flourished supplying education to the twentieth century. The "Line Wall College" was noted in 1930 for the education that it supplied to "well to do" children. A mission to Sydney, Australia, in 1842 failed within a couple of years. Brother Ambrose Treacy established a presence in Melbourne, Australia, in 1868, in 1875 in Brisbane, in 1876 a school was commenced in Dunedin, New Zealand. In 1875 a school was opened in Newfoundland. In 1886 the Pope requested that they consider setting up in India, a province of the congregation was established there. In 1900 came the invitation to establish houses in Rome, in 1906 schools were established in New York City.
In 1940 Iona College was founded in New York, as a Higher Education College, facilitating poorer high school graduates to progress to a College education. In 1955 Stella Maris College in Uruguay was established. In 1972 the alumnus rugby team was travelling in Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 when it crashed in the Andes, stranding survivors in freezing conditions with little food and no heat for 72 days. In 1967, the Christian Brothers had a membership of about 5,000; the Christian Brothers teacher training centre has become the Marino Institute for Education which has trained lay teachers since 1972 and has offered degrees validated by the University of Dublin since 1974. In 2012 Trinity College Dublin became a co-trustee with the Brothers of the Institute; the Brothers' schools include primary and technical schools and schools for the deaf. A number of these technical schools taught poor children trades such as carpentry and building skills for which they could progress to gain apprenticeships and employment.
As the National School system and vocational schools developed in the Irish Republic, the Irish Christian Brothers became mor
Flat Bastion Road
Flat Bastion Road is a road in Gibraltar, the British Overseas Territory at the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. The road runs north-south, providing Bay of Gibraltar. Known in Spanish as Senda del Moro, the traditional Llanito name for the road is Cuesta de Mr. Bourne; the road angles along the west side of the Rock of Gibraltar to a fortification. Married quarters were built along the road. In the nineteenth century there were outbreaks of yellow fever in the 1820s and of diphtheria in the 1880s among the residents due to faulty sewers. Developments included, in the 1830s a school for poor children which remained in use as a school into the early twentieth century and a club where masked balls were held. In modern times the bastion's magazine has been refurbished for civilian use, the barracks have been converted into affordable housing, parking has become an issue. Flat Bastion Road begins to the southeast of the Garrison Library, at the intersection of Prince Edward's Road and Castle Road, north of its junction with Devil's Gap Road.
Proceeding in a southerly direction, it becomes Gardiner's Road as it passes through Charles V Wall, just before it reaches Europa Road. The road runs along the west side of the Rock of Gibraltar, leading to the Flat Bastion fortification; the original Flat Bastion called Baluarte de Santiago, was built by the Spanish some time between 1565 and 1627. It may have been designed by Daniel Specklin, it was one of the fortifications along the Charles V Wall. The Flat Bastion Magazine within the Bastion was once a point where immense quantities of gunpowder were stored, it was threatened by a fire in 1874 that swept through the long grass and other vegetation of the south districts of the colony and reached Charles V's wall before burning out. Conditions were unsanitary in the 19th century; the road is mentioned in 1828. A French medical commission visited the colony and documented their findings on the spread of the epidemic. Many of the reported cases were in houses on Flat Bastion Road. By September most of the houses on the road were infected.
A sanitary sewer that ran parallel to the road was suspected. One source said. However, the French commission said that the sewer outside at least one of the houses in the road emitted a bad smell. A report of 1 September 1828 described Wilson's Buildings, two wooden sheds on the road to Flat Bastion, as "decidedly inimical to the health of any persons who may inhabit them." Families living on the road in 1828 included those of Josepha Bernado, Jose Nuñez, the financier Grellet, the family of Thomas Gum, the family of Michaela Medina. In 1832 the Gibraltar Public School, a free English-language establishment for poor children, was set up in a government-owned building on Flat Bastion Road. Funded by the contributions of wealthy people in the colony, it was open to children of all faiths. By 1833, there were 99 girls at the school. After boys were excluded in 1897, it continued as a school for girls into the early 20th century. An 1883 Sanitary Order in Council aimed at reducing health risks defined Flat Bastion Road as one of the boundaries of the "streets, roads, passages, alleys and public places" within which the new regulations would apply.
The Army Medical Department reported in 1889 that several cases of diphtheria had occurred in the married quarters on Flat Bastion Road. It turned out; the pipes were connected directly to the sewer, sewer gas was escaping into the rooms. The road was depicted in an article on the colony that appeared in 1885 in Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, a New York-based magazine, in a pastiche of ink drawings that depict "Catland Bay", Waterport Gate, the signal station and the rock from the Spanish lines. A donkey is depicted in the foreground. Jeanie Conan depicted the picturesque road in a watercolour titled "Flat Bastion Rd. Gibraltar" in 1888. A visitor noted that the "Ladysmith club" on the Flat Bastion Road was holding masquerades in its salons, while elsewhere the Salvation Army was preaching and parading signs with advice from the gospels. During the 1970 census, residents on the road were counted as part of the Gowlands Ramp enumeration area; the magazine is now a geological research facility and exhibition centre involved with the lithology of Gibraltar.
The barracks, north of the bastion on Flat Bastion Road, have been renovated and converted into affordable residential housing. The Flat Bastion barracks redevelopment project started by 2007, was completed about 2010; the development has been renamed Flat Bastion Mews. Communal gardens for the new housing were established at that time; the two bedroom apartments included allocated parking. The government's Traffic and Transport Plan issued in 2009, mentions a parking project for Flat Bastion Road under which 104 parking spots were to be added. In 2010 there was public criticism about the lack of parking on the road as the government had removed existing parking before constructing the new parking spaces
Higher education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, higher education is available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education.
In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion. This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level; the latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.
In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation; the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment and educational inflation. The U. S. system of higher education was influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life; the philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt. Demonstrated ability in reading and writing, as measured in the United States by the SAT or similar tests such as the ACT, have replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, is required for admission to higher education.
There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, philosophy, or art. The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects. In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools concentrates on practical applications, with little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universiti