Southern Nazarene University
Southern Nazarene University is a Christian liberal arts college located in Bethany, United States. The history of the institution is one of various mergers and, one of differing institutions. While SNU claims its founding date as 1899, that founding date refers to an institution that merged with what is now SNU: Texas Holiness University; as an Oklahoman institution, SNU dates back to 1906, with the founding of the Beulah Heights Academy and Bible School. The roots of the original Southern Nazarene University are in an orphanage of downtown Oklahoma City, founded by Miss Mattie Mallory. Mallory used her inheritance to buy property north of the city, which she named Beulah Heights, relocated the orphanage there. In 1906, the Beulah Heights Academy and Bible School opened. In 1909, the school was renamed Oklahoma Holiness College and new property was purchased to the west of Oklahoma City at Bethany; that same year the surrounding holiness community became Nazarene and, as its church base swelled, the school’s financial problems "proved less threatening than those at other institutions".
The school changed its name in 1918 to Oklahoma Nazarene College, when the first Nazarene Educational Regions were established. When Peniel College merged with Oklahoma Nazarene College in 1920, the name changed to Bethany-Peniel College. Peniel was the first of four fellow Nazarene institutions that would be absorbed by the Oklahoma school; the second institution was Central Nazarene College, another Nazarene school in Texas, in 1929. Two years Arkansas Holiness College was absorbed by Bethany-Peniel; the last merger was Bresee Theological College, in 1940. As historian Timothy L. Smith wrote, "It outdistanced and absorbed the schools at Hutchinson, Kansas and Hamlin, Vilonia and Des Arc, Missouri. Bethany became the Nazarene center for the whole Southwest."In 1955, the name changed again from Bethany-Peniel College to Bethany Nazarene College to avoid confusion with the term "penal" or "penal colony", again in 1986, from Bethany Nazarene College to Southern Nazarene University. The main campus is located in Oklahoma.
Since 1990, SNU has maintained a presence in Tulsa, providing adult and professional programs. SNU is one of eight regional U. S. liberal arts colleges affiliated with the Church of the Nazarene. SNU represents the "South Central Region". In terms of the Church of the Nazarene, the "South Central Region" comprises the Oklahoma, Northeast Oklahoma, Southwest Oklahoma, Texas-Oklahoma Latino, West Texas, South Texas, North Arkansas, South Arkansas, Louisiana districts, which include Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas; each college receives financial backing from the Nazarene churches on its region. Each college or university is bound by a gentlemen's agreement not to recruit outside its respective "educational region". Southern Nazarene is a member of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities and the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities. SNU has been accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools since 1956. SNU provides students undergraduate degree options in several different fields of interest.
It offers three graduate degrees and seven professional programs for adults. Southern Nazarene is an open admissions college, meaning that all who apply with a high school diploma are accepted without regard to course grades or standardized test scores. In 2005, the American Association of University Professors took SNU off its censure list. SNU was placed on the list in 1987 after eight faculty members were irregularly terminated in 1986. Discrepancies in the reasons for their termination led the AAUP to investigate: the initial reason given was that of financial difficulty on the part of the institution, due to a decline in student retention and the resulting drop in enrollment, while the reason given was one of unspecified performance deficiencies in the terminated faculty members. SNU offered some of the terminated faculty members monetary compensation but remained on the list for 18 years, until its administration had drafted academic tenure procedures that met AAUP standards. A report released in April 2008 found that, of the U.
S. institutions surveyed based on data provided under the 1990 Student Right-to-Know Act, SNU had the 17th-largest gap between the average graduation rate for white students and the average graduation rate for black students. White students had an average graduation rate of 50 percent, 7 points below the national average for all students, while black students at SNU were found to have an average graduation rate of 14 percent, 35 points below their white peers. 11 percent of the student population at SNU is black. In a separate report issued in 2009 by the American Enterprise Institute, SNU was found to have the 8th-highest graduation rate among noncompetitive institutions in the U. S. with an average graduation rate of 54 percent. Noncompetitive institutions were defined in the report as institutions that "require only evidence of graduation from an accredited high school" for admission. There were 2,090 students at SNU in 2007. SNU provides various dormitories. All students under the age of 22 must live on-campus, although exceptions are made for local students living with families.
The housing options include Bracken Hall and Chapman Apartments for upperclassmen, As at most Christian colleges, there is an emphasis on spiritual development at SNU. The Office of Spiritual Development is presided over by a Vi
Oklahoma City Streetcar
The Oklahoma City Streetcar known as the MAPS 3 streetcar, is a streetcar system in Oklahoma City, United States. The 4.8-mile system serves the greater downtown Oklahoma City area using modern, low-floor streetcars, the first of, delivered in mid-February 2018. The initial system would see two lines that connect Oklahoma City's Central Business District with the entertainment district and the Midtown District. Expansion to other districts surrounding downtown as well as more routes in the CBD is underway; the streetcar was first conceived in a 2005 regional transit study known as the Fixed Guideway Study. The concept lay dormant until a local Oklahoma City businessman and political activist named Jeff Bezdek promoted the project to the Oklahoma City Council to be considered as part of Metropolitan Area Projects Plan 3 program. Bezdek launched a strategic campaign called the Modern Transit Project to generate public support for the initiative. Polling indicated that the streetcar plan had a majority of support from voters.
The Oklahoma City Council incorporated the concept into the MAPS program. The system is financed through MAPS 3, a sales tax-financed public works program; the initiative was approved in 2009 via a majority vote by the citizens of Oklahoma City. On September 29, 2015, the Oklahoma City city council approved the awarding of a $22 million contract to Inekon, of the Czech Republic, for the purchase of five streetcars, as well as spare parts and training. However, after Inekon failed to meet a one-month deadline for submitting required financial-guarantee information, project staff recommended switching to Brookville Equipment Corporation, another manufacturer that had bid for the order. On November 10, the city council voted its approval for the staff to begin negotiations with Brookville for the streetcar contract. In March 2016, the city reached a final agreement with Brookville to purchase five streetcars, with an option for a sixth, at a cost of $24.9 million. The low-floor design is Brookville's "Liberty" model.
In May 2016, the city council approved adding a sixth car to the order, in February 2017 approved expanding the order to seven cars. In December 2016, the city council awarded a $50 million contract for rail installation to builders Herzog and Stacy and Witbeck, with construction planned to begin in early 2017 and continue for about two years; the formal groundbreaking for the project took place on February 7, 2017. The project was expected to cost a total of $131.8 million in 2017, but this had increased to $136 million by 2018. The first streetcar arrived on February 12, 2018, by March 12, three of the seven on order had arrived. Three different color schemes are used, with three cars in a "redbud" color, two in blue and two in green, along with white for a portion of each car. By the end of September 2018, six of the seven cars had been received. Service commenced on the morning of December 14, 2018, followed by three days of city-funded celebrations. At a reported total installation price of $136 million, the cost was $29.6 million per mile.
Service was free until February 1. Embark began charging fares on February 2, 2019, the base fare being $1, with discounts for senior and disabled riders and with 24-hour and multi-day passes available. At the time of the line's opening, it was tentatively planned that the line would not have regular Sunday service, would operate only on Sundays when events were scheduled. However, Sunday service was scheduled for the system's first seven weeks, through late January, Embark planned to monitor Sunday ridership during that time, to determine whether Sunday service should be made a permanent part of the schedule. In late January, Embark announced that Sunday ridership had been better than expected, that Sunday service would resume on February 10 and be made a permanent part of the weekly schedule. Sunday service is scheduled to run from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. through the end of March and expand to 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. starting April 7. The streetcar system is one of the conventional type using steel rails embedded into city streets, with modern vehicles powered from overhead electric wires.
The streetcars are planned to be in use with everyday traffic. Five vehicles were slated to be ordered. A sixth car was slated to be purchased through MAPS 3 with options for six more vehicles beyond the initial purchase; the streetcar vehicles was required to operate wirelessly for several hundred feet under the existing Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway bridges that separate downtown Oklahoma City central business district from the Bricktown entertainment district. The city has contracted with Herzog Transit Services to operate the line and provide day-to-day maintenance; the system has two routes, with the 4.8-mile Downtown Loop covering the full line and the shorter Bricktown Loop covering a 2-mile portion of the line, in the Bricktown district. Service is provided seven days a week on the Downtown Loop, while the Bricktown Loop operates only on Fridays and Sundays. Hours of operation are 6 a.m. to midnight Monday to Saturday, extended to 2 a.m. Friday and Saturday nights, 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. Sundays.
Streetcars operate on a headway of 15–18 minutes. The fare is $1, or $0.50 for seniors at least 65 or disabled or Medicare via Embark ID card, all riders need a ticket. 30/7/1-day passes are available via ticket vending machines at stops. Children under 7 are free with a fare-paying rider.
Paseo Arts District
The Paseo Arts District referred to as the Spanish Village, was built in 1929 as the first commercial shopping district north of Downtown Oklahoma City by Oklahoman G. A. Nichols. Early business in the area included a swimming pool called the Paseo Plunge, a dry cleaner, drug store, shoe repair store, restaurants; the Spanish Village era is said to have ended in the mid-1950s. Paseo has undergone transformations. Today, a vibrant group of artists and other interested people are transforming this community through creative thinking and arts activities. Located along Paseo Drive at N. Walker Ave and NW 28th Street, the faux Spanish village with its stucco buildings and clay tile roofs is the home to many of Oklahoma City's Artists; the Paseo Arts district is home to a number of chic bars, boutiques, art galleries, avant-garde businesses. Since 1975, Paseo hosts the annual Paseo Arts Festival each Memorial Day weekend, which showcases original works of visual and performing arts. Other events within the Paseo Arts district include its annual Fairy Ball, as well as the First Friday Gallery Walk.
The First Friday Gallery Walk is an event in which Paseo art galleries and restaurants host Art Opening Receptions on the first Friday of every month in order to displaying new artist's work and invite people to visit the Paseo district. The district is home to the oldest church in Oklahoma, Old Trinity of Paseo; the former Anglican church was built in New Brunswick, Canada in 1842 and was closed in 1990. Oklahoma City photographer Tom Lee purchased the church in 2000 and had it dismantled and moved to Oklahoma City to serve as his studio. Lee sold the church in 2007 to be rented as a venue for other events; the Paseo district is listed as a neighborhood ‘worthy of preservation’ on the National Register of Historic Places and in 2010, was named as one of the ’10 Great Neighborhoods for 2010’ by the American Planning Association. Among the galleries in the district is JRB Art at the Elms Gallery, housed in the former home of painter and museum director Nan Sheets. OKCOnline Paseo Arts District Paseo Arts District OKC Special Zoning Districts
History of Oklahoma City
The history of Oklahoma City refers to the history of city of Oklahoma City, the land on which it developed. Oklahoma City's history begins with the settlement of "unassigned lands" in the region in the 1880s, continues with the city's development through statehood, World War I and the Oklahoma City bombing. Oklahoma City was first settled on April 22, 1889, when the area known as the "unassigned lands" was opened for settlement in an event known as "The Land Run"; some 10,000 homesteaders settled the area now known as Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City became the capital of Oklahoma on June 10, 1910, supplanting Guthrie, the territorial capital, as the population center and commercial hub of the new state. Early city leaders John Shartel, Anton Classen, James W. Maney and Henry Overholser helped grow the city, which developed an efficient trolley system, a major regional commercial center, a railway hub and had attracted several large meat packing plants along with other industry; the city, now with a population of 64,000, put in a petition to become the new state capital.
A popular vote was held, with Governor Charles N. Haskell as one of the strongest advocates for Oklahoma City's candidacy, which Oklahoma City won; the vote was not popular among Guthrie civic leaders, an unknown Oklahoma City booster, most from the OKC Chamber of Commerce spirited the state seal away from the state capital at Guthrie in the middle of the night to ensure the transfer. The Oklahoma State Capitol was established at N. E. 23rd Street and Lincoln Boulevard. The capitol lacked a dome after its initial construction. A dome was added to the building in 2002; the new city continued to grow at a steady rate until December 4, 1928, when oil was discovered in the city. Oil wells popped up everywhere on the south lawn on the capitol building, the sudden influx of oil money within the city and throughout the state accelerated the city's growth. While those who had made money during this early oil boom escaped the Depression, the majority of Americans and Oklahomans were not so lucky. By 1935, rural migrants and unemployed workers had built a massive shanty town on the south bank of the North Canadian River.
The river flooded, bringing disease and misery to the people living there. As part of the "New Deal", the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps reduced the level of the river to prevent flooding and built one of the first experiments with public housing in the country. A municipal-owned Elm Grove camp built in 1932 and which offered better amenities to residents who paid $1 a day or donated eight hours or labor; the camp was eliminated in 1933 because of a fear that it would attract more homeless residents to the city. A May Avenue Camp continued to exist in 1939. In 1933, the city planning commission recommended a policy restricting African Americans' ability to stay in white residential areas within the city; the Second World War and the growing war industries brought recovery to the nation and Oklahoma City, the post war period saw Oklahoma City become a major hub in the national Interstate Highway System. Additionally, Tinker Air Force Base in Midwest City became the largest air depot in the country in the post war period, a fact which made Oklahoma City the target for a possible Soviet nuclear strike.
As the civil rights era dawned, downtown Oklahoma City became the site of a revolution in civil rights tactics. History teacher Clara Luper and some of her students from nearby Douglass High School led the first "sit in" in American history to desegregate the lunch counter at a downtown department store in 1958; when they succeeded, the tactic was adopted throughout the country, notably by the young activists of SNCC. From February 3 to July 29, 1964, Oklahoma City was subjected to eight sonic booms per day in a controversial experiment known as the Oklahoma City sonic boom tests; the intent was to quantify the economic costs of a supersonic transport aircraft. The experiment resulted in 15,400 damage claims; the persistence of the experiment and the 94% rejection rate of damage claims led to turmoil at all levels of government and embroiled Senator Mike Monroney's office in a battle with the Federal Aviation Administration. The embarrassment over the Oklahoma City experiments contributed to the demise of the Boeing 2707 SST project seven years later.
As the 1960s continued, Oklahoma City began to decline. By 1970, "white flight" and suburbanization had drained the life from the central business district and the surrounding areas; the oil beneath the city had begun to dry up, property values declined. The city leaders engaged in a disastrous program of "urban renewal" which succeeded in demolishing much of the aging theater district. Despite popular conjecture, the impressive Biltmore Hotel was not targeted to be taken down by the Oklahoma City Urban Renewal Authority. Plans drawn up for downtown's redevelopment by I. M. Pei always assumed. After a $3 million renovation in the mid-1960s, the hotel was renamed the Sheraton-Oklahoma Hotel. But, the operation could not turn a profit, in 1973, hotel owners agreed with the authority the building had outlived its useful life and needed to be demolished; the city had planned to build a massive shopping mall called "The Galleria" downtown, but money for renewal ran out before
Norman is a city in the U. S. state of Oklahoma located 20 miles south of downtown Oklahoma City. As the county seat of Cleveland County and a part of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, its population was 110,925 at the 2010 census. Norman's estimated population of 122,843 in 2017 makes it the third-largest city in Oklahoma. Norman was settled during the Land Run of 1889, which opened the former Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory to American pioneer settlement; the city was named in honor of Abner Norman, the area's initial land surveyor, was formally incorporated on May 13, 1891. Economically the city has prominent higher education and related research industries, as it is home to the University of Oklahoma, the largest university in the state, with nearly 32,000 students enrolled; the university is well known for its sporting events by teams under the banner of the nickname "Sooners," with over 85,000 people attending football games. The university is home including the Fred Jones Jr.. Museum of Art, which contains the largest collection of French Impressionist art given to an American university, as well as the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History.
The National Weather Center, located in Norman, houses a unique collection of university, state and private sector organizations that work together to improve the understanding of events related to the Earth's atmosphere. Norman lies within Tornado Alley, a geographic region where tornadic activity is frequent and intense; the Oklahoma City metropolitan area, including Norman, is the most tornado-prone area in the world. The Storm Prediction Center, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is located at the NWC. SPC forecasts severe tornado outbreaks nationwide. Additionally, research is conducted at the co-located National Severe Storms Laboratory, which includes field research and operates various experimental weather radars; the Oklahoma region became part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Prior to the American Civil War the United States government began relocating the Five Civilized Tribes – the five Native American tribes that the United States recognized via treaty – to Oklahoma.
Treaties of 1832 and 1833 assigned the area known today as Norman to the Creek Nation. Following the Civil War, the Creeks were accused of aiding the Confederacy and as a result they ceded the region back to the United States in 1866. In the early 1870s, the federal government undertook a survey of these unassigned lands. Abner Ernest Norman, a 23-year-old surveyor from Kentucky, was hired to oversee part of this project. Norman's work crew set up camp near what is today the corner of Lindsey streets. In 1887, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway began service to the area, opened to settlement as part of the Land Run of 1889. On April 22, 1889, the Land Run saw the founding of Norman, with at least 150 residents spending the night in makeshift campsites. Two prominent Norman businessmen, former Purcell railroad freight agent Delbert Larsh and railroad station chief cashier Thomas Waggoner, began lobbying for the territorial government to locate its first university in Norman; the two were interested in growing the city and had reasoned that, rather than try to influence legislatures to locate the contested territory capital in Norman, it made sense to attempt to secure the state's first university instead.
On December 19, 1890, Larsh and Waggoner were successful with the passage of Council Bill 114, establishing the University of Oklahoma in Norman 18 years before Oklahoma statehood. The City of Norman was formally incorporated on May 13, 1891. By the 1890s, Norman had become a sundown town. African Americans were not allowed to live within the city limits or stay overnight until the early 1960s; the city has continued to grow throughout the decades. By 1902 the downtown district contained two banks, two hotels, a flour mill, other businesses; the rail lines transitioned to freight during the 1940s as the United States Numbered Highway system developed. The city population reached 11,429 in 1940. In 1941, the University of Oklahoma and Norman city officials established Max Westheimer Field, a university airstrip, leased it to the U. S. Navy as a Naval Flight Training Center in 1942; the training center was used for training combat pilots during World War II. A second training center, known as Naval Air Technical Training Center, a naval hospital were established to the south.
In the years following World War II the airstrip was transferred back to the university's control. Today the airstrip is called the University of Oklahoma Westheimer Airport. Following the war the remaining military presence and post-war veterans who came to Norman to get an education again grew the city's population, 27,006 by 1950; the Navy again utilized the bases in a lesser capacity from 1952 to 1959 in support of the Korean War effort. With the completion of Interstate 35 in June 1959, Norman found its role as a bedroom community to Oklahoma City increasing rapidly. Throughout the 1960s Norman's land mass increased
Midtown Oklahoma City
Midtown is located northwest of downtown Oklahoma City, surrounded by Automobile Alley to the east and Asia District to the north. It is home to smaller communities like Church Row, it is a 387-acre area with an estimated 3,501 residents. Midtown, like much of the inner city, is experiencing a renaissance as the city cleans out the blight and decay and replaces it with upscale urban amenities like the 5th Street and 10th Street streetscapes. According to MidtownOKC.com, a website provided by property owners and other leaders in Midtown's renaissance, the vision for Midtown is a response to the desire for urban lifestyle options in Oklahoma City. "Active pedestrian street life, including sidewalk cafes and locations utilized for outdoor events and festivals, creates an interactive and enjoyable public life... In this vision, a hip, energized urban population enjoys exceptional restaurants, stylish shops, first-rate art galleries, all located nearby." The vision for Midtown seems to be similar to the nearby Triangle District in downtown Oklahoma City, which considers the Live-Work-Play lifestyle to be the fundamental idea of the project.
The Cottage District, locally known as "SOSA", is an eclectic residential area within Midtown containing several examples of excellent architecture. There are notable construction projects going in Midtown, including numerous local eateries and new housing. Midtown Renaissance official website SoSA subset neighborhood website
Nichols Hills, Oklahoma
Nichols Hills is a city in Oklahoma County, United States, a part of the Oklahoma City metropolitan area. The population was 3,710 as of the 2010 census, it is considered the most affluent city based on per capita income. The 1,280 acres now known as Nichols Hills were developed as an exclusive residential area by Dr. G. A. Nichols in 1929. Between 1907 and 1929, Dr. Nichols, an Oklahoma City real estate pioneer, developed the University, Paseo Arts District, Military Park, Central Park, University Place, Harndale, Nichols University Place and Lincoln Terrace neighborhoods of Oklahoma City and designed the city of Nicoma Park, Oklahoma. By 1928, Dr. Nichols saw many Oklahoma City residential neighborhoods being encroached by the Oklahoma City Oil Field and industrial districts. Recognizing the importance of protecting home owners, Dr. Nichols developed Nichols Hills by placing restrictions on undesirable commercial activity while at the same time comprehending the need for commercial shopping districts within the city.
Dr. Nichols hired Hare and Hare, a Kansas City, Missouri landscape architecture firm known for its landscape designs for Kansas City's Country Club Plaza and Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, to design the city in such a way as to follow the natural terrain of the country side; the distinctive curving streets, named after English towns, were punctuated by small and large parks, two golf courses, bridle paths, a polo field, a club house, tennis courts located throughout the city. Commercial districts were located by Dr. Nichols on the perimeter of the city. Nichols Hills was founded as a municipality in September 1929 and grew when Dr. Nichols dedicated additional property to the city. During the early 1930s, The Great Depression took its toll on Nichols Hills’ finances and large investors in Nichols Hills' property became delinquent on their taxes. Nichols Hills was refused; the refusal awakened the citizens of Nichols Hills, who thereafter embarked on a capital and beautification campaign that led to significant manor and upscale residential development after World War II.
By 1950, after its failure to annex Nichols Hills, Oklahoma City began annexing the land surrounding Nichols Hills including some property, platted by Dr. Nichols as part of Nichols Hills. Nichols Hills is now surrounded by Oklahoma City on the south and west, The Village on the north. In 1959, thwarting a potential annexation from Oklahoma City, the first city charter was formed. Since its inception, Nichols Hills has maintained strict land use restrictions and zoning ordinances. Known for its quality housing, Nichols Hills and its citizens maintain parks running throughout the city; the city is home to the Oklahoma City Golf and Country Club, designed by Perry Maxwell. Nichols Hills is known to have some of the highest housing prices in the state of Oklahoma, its citizens have the highest average household income in Oklahoma. Nichols Hills has a full-service city government, which includes water and fire services. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, of which, 2.0 square miles of it is land and 0.50% is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,710 people, 1,729 households, 1,167 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,880.9 people per square mile. There were 1,858 housing units at an average density of 928.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.66% White, 0.42% African American, 1.38% Native American, 1.95% Asian, 0.59% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. Nichols Hills is Oklahoma's best educated city, with 71.3% of adult residents holding an associate degree or higher, 68.7% of adults possessing a baccalaureate degree or higher. There were 1,729 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.5% were married couples living together, 5.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. Of all households, 29.3% were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $139,375 and the median income for a family was $197,917; the per capita income for the city was $99,366 ranking it first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income list. About 2.8% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.7% of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. The home ownership rate is 91.2%. Nichols Hills is zoned to Oklahoma City Public Schools, its public high school is John Marshall High School located in Oklahoma City. It is located near the Oklahoma City private schools Casady School, Heritage Hall School, Bishop McGuinness Catholic High School. Nichols Hills is part of the Metropolitan Library System and is served by The Village Library located in The Village.