Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts called the Royal Academy, is located in Stockholm, Sweden. An independent organization that promotes the development of painting, sculpture and other fine arts, it is one of several Swedish Royal Academies; the Royal Institute of Art, an art school, once an integral part of the Academy, was broken out in 1978 as an independent entity directly under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. In 1735, Carl Gustaf Tessin set up a drawing school at Stockholm Castle, naming it the Royal Drawing Academy, it was modeled after French academies of the day as a gathering place for established artists and art connoisseurs. The painters Guillaume Taraval, Johan Henrik Scheffel, Olof Arenius and the architect Carl Hårleman taught there, the first group of students included Johan Pasch. In 1766, the academy expanded its activities following a parliamentary decree. In 1768, its name was changed to the Royal Academy of Sculpture. In 1773, King Gustav III wrote the first statutes for the academy's organization.
At the time, the curriculum spanned architecture, anatomy, theory of perspective, cultural history. The late 18th century is considered the first golden age of the Royal Academy, when great artists of the time such as Johan Tobias Sergel were elected as members and taught there. In 1810, it was renamed again to Royal Swedish Academy of the name it still bears today. By the 1830s, there was beginning to be opposition to the Royal Academy's commitment to traditional academic art. In addition, while both men and women could be elected as members of the academy, at the time women could only study art by special permission before 1864, when women students where accepted; the Stockholm Art Association was formed to offer exhibition alternatives, an Impressionist artist's group known as "The Opponents" arose as well. In 1780, the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture moved from Stockholm Castle into a 17th palace designed by the architect Nicodemus Tessin the Elder on Fredsgatan street in the city center.
In the years 1842–46 it was redesigned by the architect Fredrik Blom and an extension was added in 1893–96. List of Swedish artists The Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences or Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien is one of the royal academies of Sweden. It is an independent, non-governmental scientific organisation which takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines, its purpose is to. Nobel Prizes in Physics and in Chemistry Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel Crafoord Prizes in astronomy and mathematics, geosciences and polyarthritis Sjöberg Prize Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography Tobias Prize Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in mathematics, the natural sciences and medicine Söderberg Prize in economics or jurisprudence Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry and mathematics. Etc; the academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: Mathematics Astronomy and space science Physics Chemistry Geosciences Biosciences Medical sciences Engineering sciences Social sciences Humanities and for outstanding services to science The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808.
In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry, technology and zoology; these lasted into the 1860s. Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections, which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för...", among them Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik. Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Current publicationsAmbio Acta Mathematica Arkiv för matematik Acta Zoologica Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter, biographies of deceased members Porträttmatrikel, portraits of current members Zoologica Scripta, jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken.
The purpose of the academy was to focus on useful knowledge, to publish in Swedish in order to disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, founded in 1719 and published in Latin; the location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital was intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, which some of the founding members were familiar with. Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Official website Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
Royal College of Music, Stockholm
The Royal College of Music, Stockholm is the oldest institution of higher education in music in Sweden, founded in 1771 as the conservatory of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music. The conservatory was made independent of the Academy in 1971. Media related to Royal College of Music in Stockholm at Wikimedia Commons www.kmh.se
Royal Swedish Academy of Music
The Royal Swedish Academy of Music or Kungliga Musikaliska Akademien, founded in 1771 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies in Sweden. The Academy is an independent organization, which acts to promote the artistic, scientific and cultural development of music. Royal College of Music, Stockholm Royal Swedish Opera Music of Sweden List of Swedes in music The Royal Swedish Academy of Music - Official site Joseph Martin Kraus A page dedicated to Joseph Martin Kraus - "Swedish Mozart", with a list of further links
The Karolinska Institute is a research-led medical university in Solna within the Stockholm urban area of Sweden. It covers areas such as biochemistry, pharmacology, anatomy and medical microbiology, among others, it is recognised as Sweden's best university and one of the largest, most prestigious medical universities in the world. It is the highest ranked in all Scandinavia; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Medicine. The assembly consists of fifty professors from various medical disciplines at the university; the current rector of Karolinska Institute is Ole Petter Ottersen, who took office in August 2017. The Karolinska Institute was founded in 1810 on the island of Kungsholmen on the west side of Stockholm. A second campus was established more in Flemingsberg, south of Stockholm; the Karolinska Institute is ranked among the top medical universities internationally in a number of ranking tables. The Karolinska Institute is Sweden's third oldest medical school, after Uppsala University and Lund University.
It is one of Sweden's largest centres for training and research, accounting for 30% of the medical training and more than 40% of all academic medical and life science research conducted in Sweden. The Karolinska University Hospital, located in Solna and Huddinge, is associated with the university as a research and teaching hospital. Together they form an academic health science centre. While most of the medical programs are taught in Swedish, the bulk of the Ph. D. projects are conducted in English. The institute's name is a reference to the Caroleans; the Karolinska Institute was founded by King Karl XIII on 13 December 1810 as an "academy for the training of skilled army surgeons" after one in three soldiers wounded in the Finnish War against Russia died in field hospitals. Indeed, a report of the time came to the conclusion that "the medical skills of the army barber-surgeons are manifestly inadequate, so Sweden needs to train surgeons in order to better prepare the country for future wars."
Just one year in 1811, the Karolinska Institute was granted license to train not only surgeons but medical practitioners in general. As one of KI's first professors, Jöns Jacob Berzelius laid the foundations of the newly inaugurated institute's scientific orientation, which in 1816 is granted the name Carolinska Institutet; this name, didn't make an impact at the time and so was expanded to Carolinska Medico Chirurgiska institutet, which proved more popular when preceded by the epithet Kongliga, as introduced in 1822. This original institute was situated in the Royal Bakery on Riddarholmen and within a just a couple of years had grown to encompass four professorships in anatomy, natural history and pharmacy, theoretical medicine and practical medicine. At around the same time Anders Johan Hagströmer, a professor of anatomy and surgery from the Collegium Medicum, was appointed the institute's first inspector, a post equivalent to today's president. In the same year, the institute moved to the old Glasbruk quarter on Norr Mälarstrand, beside what is now the City Hall.
The move across the waters of Riddarfjärden was accomplished with the help of barges, one of, said to have capsized, consigning parts of Hagströmer's collection of preparations to the lake bed. Despite this his library survives intact and today forms part of the KI-Swedish Society of Medicine museum at the institute's Hagströmer Library. In 1861 the institute reached a significant milestone in being awarded the right to confer its own degrees. This, in turn, led to an increase in the size of the student body, necessitating the demolition of the old building on the Glasbruk plot and its replacement with a new, larger one; this new institute building was built in stages during the 1880s and into the first decade of the 20th century. Although it had gained the right to confer general degrees, KI wasn't licensed to confer medical degrees until 1874. Though the institute could run courses in medicine, the right to confer medical degrees was exclusively that of Uppsala University. Following on from this change in the institute's status the first doctoral thesis was defended at KI by Alfred Levertin, on the subject of "Om Torpa Källa".
Just shortly thereafter the Medical Students' Union was formed. The next decade was one of firsts. By 1880 the Karolinska Institute had started to accept women and so it was in 1884 that Karolina Widerström became the first woman to obtain a bachelor's degree in medicine from the institute. Anna Stecksén became the first woman to obtain a doctorate from the university. Just five years following the death of Alfred Nobel in 1895, the Karolinska Institute received the right to select the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Since this assignment has given the Karolinska Institute a broad contact network in the field of medical science. Indeed, over the years, five of the institute's own researchers have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. By 1930 the Swedish parliament had decided that a new teaching hospital was needed and
Education in Sweden
Education in Sweden is mandatory for children between ages 6 and 15. The school year in Sweden runs from mid/late August to early/mid June; the Christmas holiday from mid December to early January divides the Swedish school year into two terms. From the age of one, children can be admitted to preschool. Preschool is free for poorer families and subsidized for everyone else; the year children turn six they start the compulsory preschool class, which act as a transition phase between preschool and comprehensive schools. Children between ages 7 and 15 attend comprehensive school where a wide range of subjects are studied. All students study the same subjects, with exception for different language choices; the majority of schools in Sweden are municipally run, but there are autonomous and publicly funded schools, known as independent schools. All students continue studying in 3 year long upper secondary schools where most students choose one out of 16 national programmes some of which are vocational and some preparatory.
For students not fulfilling the requirements for the national programmes introductory programmes are available where students work to satisfy the requirements for the national programmes. In 2018, 16% of students finishing year 9 of comprehensive school were not eligible for national programmes; the higher education system is compatible with the rest of Europe through the Bolonga Process where degrees are divided into 3 cycles, basic level, advanced level and doctoral level. There are two degrees available in each cycle of different lengths. Universities have no tuition fees and student aid is available from the government. In 1842, the Swedish parliament introduced ndash. In 1882 two grades were added to "folkskola", grade 5 and 6; some "folkskola" had grade 7 and 8, called "Fortsättningsskola". Schooling in Sweden became mandatory for 7 years in the 1930s and for 8 years in the 1950s. In 1962 the current grundskola was introduced with Swedish children having 9 mandatory years in school – from August the year the child turns 7 to June the year the child turns 16.
The 1962 curriculum included two different study paths vocational and preparatory, this was however abolished in the 1969 revision. In 1980 came another major revision increasing the emphasize on the theoretical subjects. In 1994 the grading system was changed and in the latest revision from 2011 the grading system was changed yet again this time introducing grades from year 6. In 1905 realskolan was introduced for students wanting to continue studying after folkskolan it had varying length between 3 and 6 years. In 1968 gymnasieskolan was introduced with a similar structure to the current version. 22 different programmes some of which were vocational and some preparatory. These programmes lasted from between 2 and 4 years something, changed in 1991 making all programmes 3 years long. Preschool is offered to all children who's parents are working, unemployed or on parental leave from the age of one. From the age of 3, all children are eligible for at least 3 hours of preschool every day for free.
For children being at preschool for more than 3 hours a day or under 3 years of age the municipality sets the fee. All municipalities use a system. Poorer families get a free preschool education, it is intended to free up parents to work, establishing a foundation for children going into the comprehensive school and promote fundamental values such as the equal value of all people. This is achieved through pedagogical activities prepared by preschool teachers involving things such as play and drawing; the preschool teachers should incorporate multiple educational moments each day. The educational system in Sweden is based on a nine-year long comprehensive school, with mandatory attendance between 7 and 15 years of age. In the Swedish compulsory school each student take 16 compulsory subjects which are, sorted by time allocated: Swedish, Physical Education, Handicrafts, Visual arts, Physics, Biology, Social Studies, Religion and Home Economics. All of these subjects are taken in all three school stages, lower stage, middle stage, upper stage.
In sixth grade students can choose a non-compulsory foreign language course. Over 85% of grade 9 students studied a third language in 2017. All schools have to offer 2 of the languages Spanish and German. Many schools offer additional help in English and Swedish instead of the language course. Taking the language course can improve the students final grade score and for some more competitive Upper Secondary Schools be required. There is a compulsory, non-graded Student's Choice subject where the student can choose from various activities facilitated by the school. Student's Choice has been criticized for being a bad use of the students and teachers time. In Sweden students start receiving grades from year 6 with proposals of changing it to year 4. Before grade 6 students receive an Individual Development Plan containing the teachers assessment of the students knowledge. Students have regular development talks with their teachers discussing how to improve based on their IUP and grades; the grading system in compulsory school uses the grades A, B, C, D, E as passing grades and F as failing.
B and D work as filling grades, for when a student hasn't reached all objectives for C or A but has reached most of them. If the student can't be graded, e.g. extensive truancy, the student will receive a dash instead of an F. A dash is not considered a grade. If a student is
Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College
Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College is a private Swedish institution for higher education and research. The university college has departments for education in nursing, social work, church music and psychotherapy as well as research within the field of social science, welfare rights, health care science and ethics, palliative care, diaconal research and worklife ethics and psychotherapy research; the aims of the research programme are in line with the university college's diaconal history. In 1851, the first nurse training course in Sweden was launched by Marie Cederschiöld under the auspices of Ersta diakoni; the first oriented programme at national level began at the turn of the last century in the form of diaconal training at the Stora Sköndal Foundation. Today Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College is owned by Ersta diakoni, Stora Sköndal Foundation and Bräcke diakoni, divided into three campuses located in Södermalm, Stora Sköndal, south of Stockholm and Hisingen, Gothenburg; the historical background has resulted in human health and vulnerability being the focus of study and explains how research fields have developed and given the university its specific profile.
Department of diaconal studies, church music and theology Department of social sciences Department of health care sciences Institute for commissioned education Institute for organisational and worklife ethics Library Official website for Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College