Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be a physical object. Scholarly interest in creativity is found in a number of disciplines psychology, business studies, cognitive science, but education, engineering, theology, sociology and economics, covering the relations between creativity and general intelligence, personality type and neurological processes, mental health, or artificial intelligence; the lexeme in the English word creativity comes from the Latin term creō "to create, make": its derivational suffixes come from Latin. The word "create" appeared in English as early as the 14th century, notably in Chaucer, to indicate divine creation. However, its modern meaning as an act of human creation did not emerge until after the Enlightenment. In a summary of scientific research into creativity, Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products", or, in Robert Sternberg's words, the production of "something original and worthwhile".
Authors have diverged in their precise definitions beyond these general commonalities: Peter Meusburger reckons that over a hundred different analyses can be found in the literature. As an illustration, one definition given by Dr. E. Paul Torrance described it as "a process of becoming sensitive to problems, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, so on. For example, Teresa Amabile and Pratt defines creativity as production of novel and useful ideas and innovation as implementation of creative ideas, while the OECD and Eurostat state that "Innovation is more than a new idea or an invention. An innovation requires implementation, either by being put into active use or by being made available for use by other parties, individuals or organisations." Theories of creativity have focused on a variety of aspects. The dominant factors are identified as "the four Ps" — process, product and place. A focus on process is shown in cognitive approaches that try to describe thought mechanisms and techniques for creative thinking.
Theories invoking divergent rather than convergent thinking, or those describing the staging of the creative process are theories of creative process. A focus on creative product appears in attempts to measure creativity and in creative ideas framed as successful memes; the psychometric approach to creativity reveals that it involves the ability to produce more. A focus on the nature of the creative person considers more general intellectual habits, such as openness, levels of ideation, expertise, exploratory behavior, so on. A focus on place considers the circumstances in which creativity flourishes, such as degrees of autonomy, access to resources, the nature of gatekeepers. Creative lifestyles are characterized by nonconforming attitudes and behaviors as well as flexibility. Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece, Ancient China, Ancient India, lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation; the ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein", which only applied to poiesis and to the poietes who made it.
Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. Asked in The Republic, "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?", he answers, "Certainly not, he imitates."It is argued that the notion of "creativity" originated in Western culture through Christianity, as a matter of divine inspiration. According to the historian Daniel J. Boorstin, "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis." However, this is not creativity in the modern sense. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God. A concept similar to that of Christianity existed in Greek culture, for instance, Muses were seen as mediating inspiration from the Gods. Romans and Greeks invoked the concept of an external creative "daemon" or "genius", linked to the sacred or the divine. However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance, it was during the Renaissance that creativity was first seen, not as a conduit for the divine, but from the abilities of "great men".
The rejection of creativity in favor of discovery and the belief that individual creation was a conduit of the divine would dominate the West until the Renai
History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory, it is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, collection, organization and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources, are classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not show the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history. Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history.
Their works continue to be read today, the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today; the modern study of history is wide-ranging, includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. History is taught as part of primary and secondary education, the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies; the word history comes from the Ancient Greek ἱστορία, meaning'inquiry','knowledge from inquiry', or'judge'. It was in that sense; the ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, the Athenian ephebes' oath, in Boiotic inscriptions.
The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, research, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin into Old English as stær, but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period. Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French, historia developed into forms such as istorie and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general, dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events, body of knowledge relative to human evolution, narrative of real or imaginary events, story", it was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s: "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire".
In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events. With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory. In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and inflected, the same word is still used to mean both'history' and'story'. Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.
The adjective historical is attested from 1661, historic from 1669. Historians write in the context of their own time, with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race; the modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse. All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record; the task of histori
A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities, may be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations; the classroom provides a space. In elementary schools, classrooms can have a whole group of 18 to 26 students and one or two teachers; when there are two teachers in a classroom, one is the lead teacher and the other one is the associate. Or the second teacher may be a special education teacher. In lower elementary the classrooms are set up different than upper elementary. In these classrooms there are tables instead of desks, a rug with a smart board for whole group learning, a library and centers; the rug is the vocal point of the classroom and everything else is strategically placed around it. The teacher must be able to move swiftly through the classroom. To determine if the classroom is meeting the highest level of quality there is a grading scale called ECERS.
There are 43 items on this checklist and it is diveded into 7 categories and they are as followes: Space and Furnishings, Personal Care Routines, Language-Reasoning, Interactions, Program Structure, Parents and Staff. In an upper elementary classroom students now use desks, there is no rug for whole group learning but there is a smart board and computers. Students start practicing switching classes to get accustomed to middle and high school transitions. In a self-contained classrooms there are 7 or less students. Self-contained classrooms are designed for children. Teachers get to focus on their small group of students and create individualized lessons for each child. An integrated or inclusion classroom can be thought of as a mix between a traditional classroom and a self-contained classroom. In this style of classroom, there is a mix of general students that need services. There are two teachers in this style of classroom, a general education teacher and special education teacher, they both teach and serve the students in the classroom, but during certain parts of the day the special education teacher may pull the students that have services to give them additional support.
This allows students with accommodations or an Individual Education Program, to still get to be in a general classroom but get the individualized instruction they need. Middle school and high school classrooms are set up quite similar. There is one teacher and students transition from one classroom to the next, they do not stay in one classroom all day. These classrooms can have around 20 students. Students may not have the same group of students in each class depending on the students schedule. College classrooms are set up in a lecture hall or auditorium with one teacher called a professor; this teacher has a Teacher Assistant, a grad student. This person may help grade tests, they can hold review sessions for college students to come to once or twice a week. Some other types of classrooms that a middle/high school or college might have are: computer labs for IT lessons, gymnasiums for sports, science laboratories for biology and physics; the layout and decor of the classroom has a significant effect upon the quality of the educational experience.
Attention to the acoustics and colour scheme may reduce distractions and aid concentration. The lighting and furniture influence factors such as student attention span. Few pupil-centric design principles were used in the construction of classrooms. In 19th century Britain, one of the few common considerations was to try and orient new buildings so the class windows faced north as much as possible, while avoiding west or southern facing windows, as in Britain northern light causes less glare. Desks were arranged in columns and rows, with a teacher’s desk at the front, where he or she would stand and lecture the class. Little color was used for fear of distracting the children. In the 1950s and 60s cheap and harsh fluorescent lights were sometimes used, which could cause eyestrain. Research has suggested that optimal use of daylight, color selection and the arrangement of the furniture in the classroom can affect pupils academic success. Georgetown University found that test scores increased by 11% through the improvement of a classroom's physical environment.
In the design of a classroom, desk arrangements are essential to the decor and design of the classroom followed by seating arrangements for the students. Classroom desks are arranged in rows or columns, but there are many more ways to arrange the desks, for example making a circle with the desks so that it's more of a group discussion or having the desks in a "U" shape for group discussions and easy access for the teacher. Color is a big asset to the classroom by realating the colors to the subjects learned in the classroom to help the students learn. Color helps the atmosphere be fun and exciting and help visual stimulation for the students; the acoustics of the classroom are often overlooked, but are an important part of the success of a child. Choosing only materials that cause sound to reverberate, such as tile floors and hard wall surfaces increases noise levels and can prove detrimental to learning. One study of hyperactive versus control groups of children found that white noise has no impact on either group, but that auditory stimulation such as distant conversations or music has a negative effect on both groups
In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term refers to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. In a 2003 study, Reys, Lapan and Wasman refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K–12 school program. Curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Curriculum is split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit, the excluded, the extracurricular. Curricula may be standardized, or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy. Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom's National Curriculum.
UNESCO's International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide. The word "curriculum" began as a Latin word which means "a race" or "the course of a race"; the first known use in an educational context is in the Professio Regia, a work by University of Paris professor Petrus Ramus published posthumously in 1576. The term subsequently appears in University of Leiden records in 1582; the word's origins appear linked to the Calvinist desire to bring greater order to education. By the seventeenth century, the University of Glasgow referred to its "course" of study as a "curriculum", producing the first known use of the term in English in 1633. By the nineteenth century, European universities referred to their curriculum to describe both the complete course of study and particular courses and their content. There is no agreed upon definition of curriculum; some influential definitions combine various elements to describe curriculum as follows: Through the readings of Smith and Kelly, four types of curricula could be defined as: Explicit curriculum: subjects that will be taught, the identified "mission" of the school, the knowledge and skills that the school expects successful students to acquire.
Implicit curriculum: lessons that arise from the culture of the school and the behaviors and expectations that characterize that culture, the unintended curriculum. Hidden curriculum: things which students learn, ‘because of the way in which the work of the school is planned and organized but which are not in themselves overtly included in the planning or in the consciousness of those responsible for the school arrangements; the term itself is not always meant to be a negative. Hidden curriculum, if its potential is realized, could benefit students and learners in all educational systems, it does not just include the physical environment of the school, but the relationships formed or not formed between students and other students or students and teachers. Excluded curriculum: topics or perspectives that are excluded from the curriculum, it may come in the form of extracurricular activities. This may include school-sponsored programs, which are intended to supplement the academic aspect of the school experience or community-based programs and activities.
Examples of school-sponsored extracurricular programs include sports, academic clubs, performing arts. Community-based programs and activities may take place at a school after hours but are not linked directly to the school. Community-based programs expand on the curriculum, introduced in the classroom. For instance, students may be introduced to environmental conservation in the classroom; this knowledge is further developed through a community-based program. Participants act on what they know with a conservation project. Community-based extracurricular activities may include “environmental clubs, 4-H, boy/girl scouts, religious groups”. Kerr defines curriculum as "ll the learning, planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside of school." Braslavsky states that curriculum is an agreement among communities, educational professionals, the State on what learners should take on during specific periods of their lives. Furthermore, the curriculum defines "why, when, where and with whom to learn."
Smith says that, " syllabus will not indicate the relative importance of its topics or the order in which they are to be studied. Where people still equate curriculum with a syllabus they are to limit their planning to a consideration of the content or the body of knowledge that they wish to transmit."According to Smith, a curriculum can be ordered into a procedure: Step 1: Diagnosis of needs. Step 2: Formulation of objectives. Step 3: Selection of content. Step 4: Organization of content. Step 5: Selection of learning experiences. Step 6: Organization of learning experiences. Step 7: Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it. Under some definitions, curriculum is prescriptive, is based on a more general syllabus which specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. A curriculum may refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might
Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities. The concept of character can imply a variety of attributes including the existence or lack of virtues such as empathy, fortitude and loyalty, or of good behaviors or habits. Moral character refers to the assemblage of qualities that distinguish one individual from another—although on a cultural level, the set of moral behaviors to which a social group adheres can be said to unite and define it culturally as distinct from others. Psychologist Lawrence Pervin defines moral character as "a disposition to express behavior in consistent patterns of functions across a range of situations"; the philosopher George refers to moral character as the “sum of one’s moral habits and dispositions.” Aristotle has said, "we must take as a sign of states of character the pleasure or pain that ensues on acts." The word "character" is derived from the Ancient Greek word "charaktêr", referring to a mark impressed upon a coin.
It came to mean a point by which one thing was told apart from others. There are two approaches when dealing with moral character: Normative ethics involve moral standards that exhibit right and wrong conduct, it is a test of proper determining what is right and wrong. Applied ethics involve specific and controversial issues along with a moral choice, tend to involve situations where people are either for or against the issue. In 1982 V. Campbell and R. Bond proposed the following as major sources in influencing character and moral development: heredity, early childhood experience, modeling by important adults and older youth, peer influence, the general physical and social environment, the communications media, the teachings of schools and other institutions, specific situations and roles that elicit corresponding behavior; the field of business ethics examines moral controversies relating to the social responsibilities of capitalist business practices, the moral status of corporate entities, deceptive advertising, insider trading, employee rights, job discrimination, affirmative action and drug testing.
In the military field, character is considered relevant in the leadership development area. Military leaders should not only "know" theoretically the moral values but they must embody these values; the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy provides a historical account of some important developments in philosophical approaches to moral character. A lot of attention is given to Plato and Karl Marx's views, since they all follow the idea of moral character after the Greeks. Marx accepts Aristotle's insight that virtue and good character are based on a sense of self-esteem and self-confidence. Plato believed that the soul is divided into three parts of desire: Rational, Appetitive, or Spirited. In order to have moral character, we must understand what contributes to our overall good and have our spirited and appetitive desires educated properly, so that they can agree with the guidance provided by the rational part of the soul. Aristotle tells us; these are those who exhibit excellences -- excellences of character.
His phrase for excellences of character – êthikai aretai – we translate as moral virtue or moral excellence. When we speak of a moral virtue or an excellence of character, the emphasis is on the combination of qualities that make an individual the sort of ethically admirable person that he is. Aristotle defines virtuous character at the beginning of Book II in Nicomachean Ethics: “Excellence of character is a state concerned with choice, lying in a mean relative to us, this being determined by reason and in the way in which the man of practical wisdom would determine it. Now it is a mean between two vices, that which depends on excess and that which depends on defect”. In Aristotle's view, good character is based on two occurring psychological responses that most people experience without difficulty: our tendency to take pleasure from self-realizing activity and our tendency to form friendly feelings toward others under specific circumstances. Based on his view everyone is capable of becoming better and they are the ones responsible for actions that express their character.
Abraham Lincoln once said, "Character is like a reputation like its shadow. The shadow is. Christian character is defined as exhibiting the "Fruit of the Holy Spirit": love, peace, kindness, faithfulness and self-control. Doctrines of grace and total depravity assert that – due to original sin – mankind or in part, was incapable of being good without God's intervention; the Milgram experiment was a study done in the early 1960s that helped measure a person's moral character. Subjects from different socio-economic groups were tested on their willingness to press a buzzer that caused a participant – posing as a subject – in another room to express great pain and distress for giving a wrong answer to a test question; when the subjects raised questions about what they are being asked to do, the experimenter applied mild pressure in the form of appealing to the need to complete the experiment. The Milgram experiment caused a huge amount of criticism among individuals. In post-experiment interviews with subjects Milgram noted that many were convinced of the wrongness of what they were doing.
Although the subjects may have had moral values, many were criticized on whether they were a moral character. In one experiment, done in the United States in 1985, the moral character of a person was b
E. D. Hirsch
Eric Donald Hirsch Jr. cited as E. D. Hirsch, is an American educator and academic literary critic, he is professor emeritus of education and humanities at the University of Virginia. In the 1960s Hirsch's Validity in Interpretation made an important contribution to contemporary literary theory and established him as "the founder of contemporary intentionalism," defending the notion of objectivity in humanistic studies and distinguishing between the "meaning" of a text, which relates to understanding and does not change, its "significance," which relates to explanation and changes over time. In popular culture Hirsch is best known for his work on cultural literacy, is the founder and chairman of the Core Knowledge Foundation. Beginning in 1990s, Hirsch began publishing books in the Core Knowledge Grader Series which the Foundation describes as "an engaging, illustrated guide to the essential knowledge outlined in the Core Knowledge Sequence", including information and activities for teachers and children, as well as suggestions for related readings and resources.
There are eight books in print, beginning with What Your Preschooler Needs to Know and ending with What Your Sixth Grader Needs to Know. The books have been popular with parents who homeschool, as well as parents whose children attend Core Knowledge schools, have been revised and updated over the years. In 1996, Hirsch wrote The Schools Why We Don't Have Them. In it, Hirsch proposed that Romanticized, anti-knowledge theories of education are not only the cause of America's lackluster educational performance, but a cause of widening inequalities in gender and race. Hirsch portrays American educational theory as one which attempts to give students intellectual tools such as "critical thinking skills,” but which denigrates teaching any actual content, labeling it "mere rote learning.” Hirsch states that it is this which has failed to develop literate students. A sample passage on Romanticism, from The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them: Romanticism believed that human nature is innately good, should therefore be encouraged to take its natural course, unspoiled by the artificial imposition of prejudice and convention.
Second, Romanticism concluded that a child is neither a scaled-down, ignorant version of the adult nor a formless piece of clay in need of molding, the child is a special being in its own right with unique, trustworthy - indeed holy - impulses that should be allowed to develop and run their course. The Schools We Need included sharp criticism of American schools of education. Hirsch described the contemporary ed. school as a "Thoughtworld," hostile to research-based findings and dissenting ideas. In 2006, Hirsch published The Knowledge Deficit, in which he continued the argument made in Cultural Literacy. Disappointing results on reading tests, Hirsch argued, can be traced back to a knowledge deficit that keeps students from making sense of what they read. In 2009, he published The Making of Americans: Democracy and Our Schools, in which he makes the case that the true mission of the schools is to prepare citizens for participation in our democracy by embracing a common-core, knowledge-rich curriculum as opposed to what Hirsch claims to be the current content-free approach.
He laments 60 years without a curriculum in US schools because of the anti-curriculum approach championed by John Dewey and other Progressives. In 2016, he published "Why Knowledge Matters: Rescuing our Children from Failed Educational Theories", outlining the three major problems with education in the United States: the emphasis on teaching skills, such as critical thinking skills, rather than knowledge, individualism rather than communal learning, developmentalism, that is, teaching children what is "appropriate" for their age. In 2011 a British version of The Core Knowledge Sequence was published online and the books began to be adapted for the UK, beginning with What Your Year 1 Child Needs to Know. While Hirsch's views continue to provoke debate and controversy, Sol Stern, a senior fellow at the Manhattan Institute who has written extensively on education reform, wrote in 2013 that Hirsch was "the most important education reformer of the past half-century." The Core Knowledge Foundation reports that there were 1,260 schools in the US using all or part of the Core Knowledge Sequence.
The Foundation believes that the actual number is much higher, but only counts schools that submit a "profile form" to the Foundation annually. The profile of Core Knowledge Schools in the US is diverse—including public, charter and parochial schools in urban and rural locations. Independent nonprofit GreatSchools.org reports. While he was not directly involved in developing the Common Core State Standards adopted in 46 states and the District of Columbia, many education watchers credit E. D. Hirsch as having provided the "intellectual foundation" for the initiative. While the Core Knowledge Foundation in the US describes itself as non-partisan, Hirsch himself is an avowed Democrat who has described himself as "practically a socialist" and "a man of the Left, the Old Left". Over the years, he has expressed deep sympathy for underprivileged minority youths and has stated that he designed a curriculum to "place all children on common ground, sharing a common body of knowledge. That's one way to secure civil rights."In The Making of Americans, Hirsch explained his position as both a "political liberal" and "an educational conservative": I am a political liberal, but once I recognized the relative inertness and stability of the shared background knowledge students need to master reading and writing, I was
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp