Encyclopædia Britannica Films
Encyclopædia Britannica Films was the top producer and distributor of educational 16 mm films and VHS videocassettes for schools and libraries from the 1940s through the 1990s. Prior to 1943, the company operated under the name of Electrical Research Products Inc. Classroom Films. In November 1928, John Otterson of Electrical Research Products Inc. decided to make use of the latest sound technology in 35mm motion pictures and apply it to the 16mm format, being adopted by colleges and schools with easier-to-use projectors. The company had been involved with many Hollywood studios including Warner Bros. and boasted an operating business of $20 million leasing equipment to theaters. The headquarter offices were shared with its parent company AT&T in New York City, with the Bell Labs as the research staff and Western Electric as its manufacturer. At first, there was much skepticism of the value of motion pictures as an educational tool in public schools, despite mogul William Fox's willingness to spend $9 million in putting projectors into the nation's classrooms.
As lampooned in The New Yorker: "We doubt if any director could photograph Bunker Hill for the kiddies without stopping the fighting at least once for Major Pitcairn to sing'Sonny Boy'. We doubt if any director could photograph a major operation without interrupting it for a mandolin solo by one of the surgeons. We are troubled by the haunting dread of living in a canned civilization where everyone will look like Clara Bow and talk like Eddie Leonard. Without doubting Mr. Fox's honorable intention, we are nonetheless anxious to know whether the talkies are going to approach science and education the way they have approached life. We want to know whether they intend to give truth a happy ending!" During its first year of operation, Otterson appointed "Colonel" Frederick L. Devereux as company head, along with Varney Clyde Arnspiger, a former superintendent of schools. Under Arnspiger, a special team of experts was assembled, among them researchers Howard Gay, Max Brunstetter and Miss Laura Kreiger, along with Dr. Melvin Brodshaug from Columbia University who would stay with the company for over two decades.
Among others involved, Howard Stokes and Arthur Edwin Krows became leading production supervisors. In its early years, ERPI had competition with both the Pathé Exchange, which entered the educational market in conjunction with Harvard University, Eastman Teaching Films, an offspring of Eastman Kodak that had invented the 16mm format along with E. I. Dupont de Nemours back in 1923; the latter company had made an estimated 300 silent films by the thirties. An repeated story involved Arnsiger getting invited to an alley fist fight with an Eastman representative who feared losing a fortune with their silent films in circulation. Newark, New Jersey was among the first public school systems to incorporate sound movie projectors in their classrooms in 1930. During the early years, projectors were sold with films until the national total reached a thousand by 1936; until many technical problems were fixed, ERPI sold 35 mm formats. James Brill, an artist, unofficially became narrator on the majority of ERPI films.
His stentorian style made geography topics easy to understand for children. In 1930, he helped supervise the company's first major series, profiling the musical instruments of an orchestra; these were all reissued in years before being redone in color in 1956. Among the first films to be sold with text brochures to aid teachers were nature documentaries focusing on the time-lapse photography of plants and close-up footage of animals; these were credited to Clyde Fisher of the American Museum of Natural History, borrowing much footage from earlier British Instructional Films. Other early films of importance included a Yale University backed Arnold Gesell covering early child development and a slow motion study of football techniques with popular coaches like Biff Jones of West Point and H. E. Von Kersburg of Harvard. Dr. Carey Croneis supervised some geology subjects and worked on the science pavilion at the Century of Progress fair of 1933-34, which inspired another newcomer, Edward Shumaker, to join the company and fine-tune the title logos.
A renewed slogan read "ERPI Films bring the world to the classroom". In the spring of 1937, ERPI scored a surprise "blockbuster" with Adventures of Bunny Rabbit, its widespread appeal was due to narrator James Brill ending with a question directed towards the kindergarten and first grade students watching, one, repeated by their teachers: "And now Bunny is once more with his mother. What do YOU think he is telling Mother Gray Rabbit – and what do YOU think Mother Rabbit is telling Bunny?" Animal pictures were among ERPI's best sellers with popular late 30s and'40s titles as Three Little Kittens, Snapping Turtle and a post-war dramatization of Aesop's The Hare and the Tortoise. Geography was covered with a relatable series called "Children of Many Lands", which compared the similarities and differences of daily life outside of the United States. A typical title like Child
An art film is a serious, independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience. It is "intended to be a serious, artistic work experimental and not designed for mass appeal", "made for aesthetic reasons rather than commercial profit", contains "unconventional or symbolic content". Film critics and film studies scholars define an art film as possessing "formal qualities that mark them as different from mainstream Hollywood films"; these qualities can include: a sense of social realism. Film scholar David Bordwell describes art cinema as "a film genre, with its own distinct conventions". Art film producers present their films at special theaters and at film festivals; the term art film is much more used in North America, the United Kingdom, Australia, compared to the mainland Europe, where the terms auteur films and national cinema are used instead. Since they are aimed at small, niche-market audiences, art films acquire the financial backing that would permit large production budgets associated with released blockbuster films.
Art film directors make up for these constraints by creating a different type of film, one that uses lesser-known film actors, modest sets to make films that focus much more on developing ideas, exploring new narrative techniques, attempting new film-making conventions. A certain degree of experience and knowledge is required to understand or appreciate such films. Film critic Roger Ebert called Chungking Express, a critically acclaimed 1994 art film, "largely a cerebral experience" that one enjoys "because of what you know about film"; this contrasts with mainstream blockbuster films, which are geared more towards escapism and pure entertainment. For promotion, art films rely on the publicity generated from film critics' reviews. Since art films have small initial investment costs, they only need to appeal to a small portion of mainstream audiences to become financially viable; the forerunners of art films include Italian silent film L'Inferno, D. W. Griffith's Intolerance and the works of Russian filmmaker Sergei Eisenstein, who influenced the development of European cinema movements for decades.
Eisenstein's film Battleship Potemkin was a revolutionary propaganda film he used to test his theories of using film editing to produce the greatest emotional response from an audience. The international critical renown that Eisenstein garnered from this film enabled him to direct October as part of a grand 10th anniversary celebration of the October Revolution of 1917, he directed The General Line in 1929. Art films were influenced by films by Spanish avant-garde creators, such as Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí, by the French playwright and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, whose 1930's avant-garde film The Blood of a Poet uses oneiric images throughout, including spinning wire models of a human head and rotating double-sided masks. In the 1920s, film societies began advocating the notion that films could be divided into "entertainment cinema directed towards a mass audience and a serious art cinema aimed at an intellectual audience". In England, Alfred Hitchcock and Ivor Montagu formed a film society and imported films they thought were "artistic achievements", such as "Soviet films of dialectical montage, the expressionist films of the Universum Film A.
G. studios in Germany". Cinéma pur, a French avant-garde film movement in the 1920s and 1930s influenced the development of the idea of art film; the cinema pur film movement included several notable Dada artists. The Dadaists used film to transcend narrative storytelling conventions, bourgeois traditions, conventional Aristotelian notions of time and space by creating a flexible montage of time and space; the cinema pur movement was influenced by German "absolute" filmmakers such as Hans Richter, Walter Ruttmann and Viking Eggeling. Richter falsely claimed that his 1921 film Rhythmus 21 was the first abstract film created. In fact, he was preceded by the Italian Futurists Bruno Corra and Arnaldo Ginna between 1911 and 1912, as well as by fellow German artist Walter Ruttmann, who produced Lichtspiel Opus 1 in 1920. Richter's film Rhythmus 21 is considered an important early abstract film. In the 1930s and 1940s, Hollywood films could be divided into the artistic aspirations of literary adaptations like John Ford's The Informer and Eugene O'Neill's The Long Voyage Home, the money-making "popular-genre films" such as gangster thrillers.
William Siska argues that Italian neorealist films from the mid-to-late 1940s, such as Open City and Bicycle Thieves can be deemed as another "conscious art film movement". In the late 1940s, the U. S. public's perception that Italian neorealist films and other serious European fare were different from mainstream Hollywood films was reinforced by the development of "arthouse cinemas" in major U. S. cities and college towns. After the Second World War, "...a growing segment of the American film going public was wearying of mainstream Hollywood films", they went to the newly created art-film theaters to see "alternatives to the films playing in main-street movie palaces". Films shown in these art cinemas included "British, foreign-languag
Comedy horror is a literary and film genre that combines elements of comedy and horror fiction. Comedy horror has been described as able to be categorized under three types: "black comedy and spoof." It crosses over with the black comedy genre. Comedy horror can parody or subtly spoof horror clichés as its main source of humour or use those elements to take a story in a different direction, for example in The Cabin in the Woods or Tucker & Dale vs. Evil. Author Bruce G. Hallenbeck cites the short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving as "the first great comedy horror story"; the story made readers "laugh one moment and scream the next", its premise was based on mischief found during the holiday Halloween. Horror and comedy have been associated with each other since the early days of horror novels. Shortly after the publication of Frankenstein, comedic parodies appeared. Edgar Allan Poe put humor and horror on the same continuum, many nineteenth century authors used black humor in their horror stories.
Author Robert Bloch called them "opposite sides of the same coin". In comedy horror film, gallows humor is a common element. While comedy horror films provide scares for audiences, they provide something that dramatic horror films do not: "the permission to laugh at your fears, to whistle past the cinematic graveyard and feel secure in the knowledge that the monsters can't get you". In the era of silent film, the source material for early comedy horror films came from stage performances instead of literature. One example, The Ghost Breaker, was based on a 1909 play, though the film's horror elements were more interesting to the audience than the comedy elements. In the United States following the trauma of World War I, film audiences sought to see horror on screen but tempered with humor; the "pioneering" comedy horror film was One Exciting Night, written and produced by D. W. Griffith, who noticed the stage success of the genre and foresaw a cinematic translation. While the film included blackface performances, Griffith included footage of a hurricane for a climactic storm.
As an early experiment, the various genres were not well-balanced with horror and comedy, films improved the balance and took more sophisticated approaches. Charles Bramesco of Vulture.com identifies Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein as the first commercially successful comedy horror film. Its success established it as commercially viable. List of comedy horror films List of genres Zombie comedy – a subgenre involving zombies Hallenbeck, Bruce G.. Comedy-Horror Films: A Chronological History, 1914–2008. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-3332-9. Och, Dana. Transnational Horror Across Visual Media: Fragmented Bodies. Routledge Research in Cultural and Media Studies. Taylor & Francis. Pp. 201–208. ISBN 978-1-136-74484-6. Carroll, Noël. "Horror and Humor". Beyond Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 235–253
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
Commedia all'italiana or Italian-style comedy is an Italian film genre. It is considered to have started with Mario Monicelli's I soliti ignoti in 1958 and derives its name from the title of Pietro Germi's Divorzio all'italiana. Rather than a specific genre, the term indicates a period in which the Italian film industry was producing many successful comedies, with some common traits like satire of manners and grotesque overtones, a strong focus on "spicy" social issues of the period and a prevailing middle-class setting characterized by a substantial background of sadness and social criticism that diluted the comic contents; as he said in an interview with the director Mario Monicelli, the Italian comedy is something simple, tied to popular culture of Italy. It is a tangle of stories of the poor and unfortunate in a unfortunate and negative setting, i.e. the period of poverty that followed in Europe and in Italy after the end of World War II. In any plot of the films of this genre, there is a group of thieves and bandits who would like to make ends meet by ramshacklely preparing a big hit.
However each has its problems and its difficulties, attributable to ignorance, inadequate means, unrequited love and many other mishaps. The whole plot of the story revolves around these unnecessary misunderstandings, allowing the viewer to have a clear and precise vision of the deficiencies of the Italians of that period and of both the gloom and joy of the whole of Italy; the group of cheaters chieving their aim with deceit and cunning, at the end of the story always find themselves duped and crushed economically and psychologically worse off than before. Whoever comes out best the story is always the most powerful, either in the political arena or in some other social context. What makes the viewer laugh are the jokes about the repeated blunders of the actors that would make them famous during the preparation of their shots; the element of sadness is much present in all the stories on the theme of Italian comedy, not just the mockery of the poor people who seek to improve their situation, but to the bitter end show a bitter smile and a dim hope of the protagonists into the future.
Just think of the situation or the tragic end of the film Il sorpasso or the melancholy end of the film I soliti ignoti in which thieves have fail in their coup, losing everything they had. Another important feature of this type of comedy is the feeling, although the social condition of the people who populate the stories is low, the protagonists have shown great will to live, to love, to dream, to become a taste of the film sentimental. What breaks this feeling is a typical Italian clumsiness or a fall, which pulls the viewer a big laugh; the protagonist is at once sentimentally duped. In the sixties and seventies such plots merged with the satire. In these stories, such as in Signore e signori buonanotte, as it denotes skill in manifesting Italian taste satirical scenes is exaggerated and scratchy; the characters are targeted by powerful people or satire inept people rude, bad animalistic personalities related to the masks of the Commedia dell'arte. The Italian comedy ceased to exist in the eighties, by which time the principal actors had become old, replaced by a comic genre focused more on the vulgar and abusive side of the characters, which followed American models.
With the Americanized transformation of this comic genre in Italy, the kind of Commedia all'italiana died. The last film that famous still reflects the characters of the Italian comedy is Il marchese del Grillo, directed by Mario Monicelli. Alberto Sordi plays the role of a spoiled rich Marquis of Rome, bored by the day. For this he designs jokes on the poor and the helpless for no particular end, as if they were toys from the living room, his joker cynicism is not stopped by the power of Pope Pius VII. This film still reflects the character of the average prankster kid of the sixties, who only caring about himself and what he has, not caring of others and to those most in need. Cynicism is the main theme of this film, based on a true story. Vittorio Gassman, Ugo Tognazzi, Alberto Sordi and Nino Manfredi were the four top stars of Italian Comedy in the 1960s and 1970s, followed by newcomers such as Stefania Sandrelli, Monica Vitti, Giancarlo Giannini, Mariangela Melato, Catherine Spaak. In 1961, Dino Risi directed Il sorpasso, now a cult-movie Una vita difficile, I mostri, In nome del Popolo Italiano and Profumo di donna.
Monicelli's works include La grande guerra, I compagni, L'armata Brancaleone, Vogliamo i colonnelli, Romanzo popolare and Amici miei. Other notable film makers of the genre were Pasquale Festa Campanile, Ettore Scola, Luigi Comencini, Antonio Pietrangeli, Nanni Loy and Lina Wertmüller, and the script writers Age & Scarpelli, Leo Benvenuti, Piero De Bernardi, Rodolfo Sonego, Suso Cecchi d'Amico, Sergio Amidei Lanzoni, Rémi Fournier. Comedy Italia
Christian film industry
The Christian film industry is an umbrella term for films containing a Christian themed message or moral, produced by Christian filmmakers to a Christian audience, films produced by non-Christians with Christian audiences in mind. They are interdenominational films, but can be films targeting a specific denomination of Christianity. Popular mainstream studio productions of films with strong Christian messages or Biblical stories, like Ben-Hur, The Ten Commandments, The Passion of the Christ, The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Eli, Machine Gun Preacher and Silence, are not part of the Christian film industry, being more agnostic about their audiences' religious beliefs; these films also have a much higher budget, production values and better known film stars, are received more favourably with film critics. Many films from the Christian film industry are produced by confessing Christians in independent companies targeting a Christian audience; this has been on the rise since the success of Sherwood Pictures' Fireproof, the highest grossing independent film of 2008.
The success of Fireproof may have been due in part to a door opened by the box office success of The Passion of the Christ. Before the invention of the movie projector, European audiences gathered in darkened rooms to watch magic lantern presentations. Catholic priest Athanasius Kircher promoted the magic lantern by publishing the book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae in 1680. Controversy soon followed as priests and masons used the lanterns "to persuade followers of their ability to control both the forces of darkness and enlightenment" and temperance groups used the lanterns to fight alcoholism. In the 1800s, missionaries such as David Livingston used the lanterns to present the Gospel in Africa. After movie theaters emerged, magic lanterns disappeared from the public. Throughout the late 19th and into the 20th century, there was much dispute among Christians as to "Christian film". Many thought motion picture was creating a graven image, shunned having anything to do with the film industry. Through the years, many Christians began to utilize motion picture for their own purposes.
Herbert Booth, as part of the Salvation Army, claimed to be the first user of film for the cause of Christianity, in 1899. The Protestant Church encouraged film from the early 20th century, with Congregational minister, the Reverend Herbert Jump writing his influential pamphlet, The Religious Possibilities of the Motion Pictures, in 1910. By the 1940s a renaissance of Christian filmmaking occurred as recorded by Andrew Quicke and Terry Lindvall in Celluloid Sermons: The Emergence of the Christian Film Industry, 1930-1986, the sequel to Sanctuary Cinema. In the 1940s, Christian film libraries emerged. Christian businessmen interested in renting audio visual materials started libraries to rent films to churches. Harvey W. Marks started the Visual Aid Center in 1945. Circa 1968, Harry Bristow launched Christian Cinema in a small theater in the Germantown area of Philadelphia, in the early'70s, the ministry moved to a theater in Ambler, Pennsylvania. Christian Cinema operated a movie theater that showed only Christian films, but closed down in the mid 1990s.
The growth of Christian film libraries led to the Christian Film Distributors Association being formed in 1974. The CFDA began holding a conference each year for Christian distributors; the Christian Film and Video Association gave out Crown Awards for films that "gloried Jesus Christ."In 1949 Ken Anderson, editor for a Youth for Christ magazine, decided to form a small Christian film studio. An old shut-down dancehall was purchased and moved onto some donated land to become the first home for Gospel Films, which grew into the largest Christian film distributor. Seeing the potential of Christian films, the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association created World Wide Pictures as a subsidiary in 1951 to produce and distribute Christian films. Throughout the'50s and'60s Christian films were produced with increasing professionalism and ads for Christian films appeared in magazines such as Christianity Today. A year earlier, the Protestant Film Commission began a series of non-theatrical feature films intended for rental to churches and other, related organizations.
Chapel Films, servicing Catholic interests with feature and short subjects dated back to the 1930s. Since The Great Commandment opened in movie theaters in 1941, many Christian filmmakers have attempted to pursue theatrical releases. World Wide Pictures was a pioneer in partnering with churches to bring Christian films to the cinema. Gateway Films was "formed with the express purpose of communicating the Christian Gospel in the secular motion picture theaters" and released The Cross and the Switchblade in 1972. In 1979, the Jesus film appeared in theaters across the United States; this film, based on the Gospel of Luke, was made for $6 million by Campus Crusade for Christ. Many Christian films have been released to theaters since that time, such as The Omega Code, Megiddo: The Omega Code 2, Jonah: A VeggieTales Movie, The Passion of the Christ, Facing the Giants, The Ultimate Gift, Amazing Grace, The Pirates Who Don't Do Anything: A VeggieTales Movie, The Secrets of Jonathan Sperry, To Save a Life, Preacher's Kid, Letters to God, What If...
The Grace Card, Soul Surfer, October Baby, Home Run, Grace Unplugged, I'm in Love with a Church Girl, Son of God, God's
Biologically, a child is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty, or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty. The legal definition of child refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Child may describe a relationship with a parent or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion. Biologically, a child is a person between birth and puberty, or the period of human development from infancy to puberty; the term child may refer to anyone below the age of majority or some other age limit. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier"; this is ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. The term child may refer to someone below another defined age limit unconnected to the age of majority. In Singapore, for example, a child is defined as someone under the age of 14 under the "Children and Young Persons Act" whereas the age of majority is 21.
In U. S. Immigration Law, a child refers to anyone, under the age of 21; some English definitions of the word child include the fetus. In many cultures, a child is considered an adult after undergoing a rite of passage, which may or may not correspond to the time of puberty. Children have fewer rights than adults and are classed as unable to make serious decisions, must always be under the care of a responsible adult or child custody, whether their parents divorce or not. Recognition of childhood as a state different from adulthood began to emerge in the 16th and 17th centuries. Society began to relate to the child not as a miniature adult but as a person of a lower level of maturity needing adult protection and nurturing; this change can be traced in paintings: In the Middle Ages, children were portrayed in art as miniature adults with no childlike characteristics. In the 16th century, images of children began to acquire a distinct childlike appearance. From the late 17th century onwards, children were shown playing with toys and literature for children began to develop at this time.
According to Professor Peter Jones of Cambridge university development of the brain continues long past legal definitions of adulthood so "to have a definition of when you move from childhood to adulthood looks absurd. It's a much more nuanced transition that takes place over three decades." Children go through stages of social development. Children learn through play and in most societies through formal schooling; as a child is growing they are learning. They learn how to prioritize their actions, their behavior is transcending. They learn how to learn new behavior. Children with ADHD and learning disabilities may need extra help to develop social skills; the impulsive characteristics of an ADHD child may lead to poor peer relationships. Children with poor attention spans may not tune into social cues in their environment, making it difficult for them to learn social skills through experience. Health issues affecting children are managed separately from those affecting adults, by pediatricians; the age at which children are considered responsible for their society-bound actions has changed over time, this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.
In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, a position adopted by the Church. In the 19th century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime. Children from the age of seven forward were considered responsible for their actions. Therefore, they could face criminal charges, be sent to adult prison, be punished like adults by whipping, branding or hanging. Minimum employment age and marriage age vary; the age limit of voluntary/involuntary military service is disputed at the international level. During the early 17th century in England, about two-thirds of all children died before the age of four. During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically, and this has continued. Child mortality rates have fallen across the world. About 12.6 million under-five infants died worldwide in 1990, which declined to 6.6 million in 2012. The infant mortality rate dropped from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012.
The highest average infant mortality rates are in sub-Saharan Africa, at 98 deaths per 1,000 live births – over double the world's average. Education, in the general sense, refers to the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, preparing intellectually for mature life. Formal education most takes place through schooling. A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education. Education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, but attendance at school may not be, with alternative options such as home-schooling or e-learning being recognized as valid forms of education in certain jurisdictions. Children in some countries are kept out of school, or attend only for short periods. Data from UNICEF indicate