Education economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies. From early works on the relationship between schooling and labor market outcomes for individuals, the field of the economics of education has grown to cover all areas with linkages to education. Economics distinguishes in addition to physical capital another form of capital, no less critical as a means of production – human capital. With investments in human capital, such as education, three major economic effects can be expected: increased expenses as the accumulation of human capital requires investments just as physical capital does, increased productivity as people gain characteristics that enable them to produce more output and hence return on investment in the form of higher incomes. Investments in human capital entail an investment cost.
In European countries most education expenditure takes the form of government consumption, although some costs are borne by individuals. These investments can be rather costly. EU governments spent between 3% and 8% of GDP on education in 2005, the average being 5%. However, measuring the spending this way alone underestimates the costs because a more subtle form of costs is overlooked: the opportunity cost of forgone wages as students cannot work while they study, it has been estimated that the total costs, including opportunity costs, of education are as much as double the direct costs. Including opportunity costs investments in education can be estimated to have been around 10% of GDP in the EU countries in 2005. In comparison investments in physical capital were 20% of GDP, thus the two are of similar magnitude. Human capital in the form of education shares many characteristics with physical capital. Both require an investment to create and, once created, both have economic value. Physical capital earns a return because people are willing to pay to use a piece of physical capital in work as it allows them to produce more output.
To measure the productive value of physical capital, we can measure how much of a return it commands in the market. In the case of human capital calculating returns is more complicated – after all, we cannot separate education from the person to see how much it rents for. To get around this problem, the returns to human capital are inferred from differences in wages among people with different levels of education. Hall and Jones have calculated from international data that on average that the returns on education are 13.4% per year for first four years of schooling, 10.1% per year for the next four years and 6.8% for each year beyond eight years. Thus someone with 12 years of schooling can be expected to earn, on average, 1.1344 × 1.1014 × 1.0684 = 3.161 times as much as someone with no schooling at all. Economy-wide, the effect of human capital on incomes has been estimated to be rather significant: 65% of wages paid in developed countries is payments to human capital and only 35% to raw labor.
The higher productivity of well-educated workers is one of the factors that explain higher GDPs and, higher incomes in developed countries. A strong correlation between GDP and education is visible among the countries of the world, as is shown by the upper left figure, it is less clear, how much of a high GDP is explained by education. After all, it is possible that rich countries can afford more education. To distinguish the part of GDP explained with education from other causes, Weil has calculated how much one would expect each country’s GDP to be higher based on the data on average schooling; this was based on the above-mentioned calculations of Jones on the returns on education. GDPs predicted by Weil’s calculations can be plotted against actual GDPs, as is done in the figure on the left, demonstrating that the variation in education explains some, but not all, of the variation in GDP; the matter of externalities should be considered. When speaking of externalities one thinks of the negative effects of economic activities that are not included in market prices, such as pollution.
These are negative externalities. However, there are positive externalities – that is, positive effects of which someone can benefit without having to pay for it. Education bears with it major positive externalities: giving one person more education raises not only his or her output but the output of those around him or her. Educated workers can bring new technologies and information to the consideration of others, they can act as an example. The positive externalities of education include the effects of personal networks and the roles educated workers play in them. Positive externalities from human capital are one explanation for why governments are involved in education. If people were left on their own, they would not take into account the full social benefit of education – in other words the rise in the output and wages of others – so the amount they would choose to obtain would be lower than the social optimum. A 2013 study assesses demand- and supply-side factors that affect educational access and attainment in development countries, it shows that addressing demand-side factors, such as geographic gaps between rural and urban areas, higher levels of population growth and child labour, can have greater impact on increasing levels of education in developing countries than supply-side factors, such as constructing additional school facilities, hiring more teachers etc.
The dominant model of th
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Distributed leadership is a conceptual and analytical approach to understanding how the work of leadership takes place among the people and in context of a complex organization. Though developed and used in education research, it has since been applied to other domains, including business and tourism. Rather than focus on characteristics of the individual leader or features of the situation, distributed leadership foregrounds how actors engage in tasks that are "stretched" or distributed across the organization. With theoretical foundations in activity theory and distributed cognition, understanding leadership from a distributed perspective means seeing leadership activities as a situated and social process at the intersection of leaders and the situation. Distributed leadership emerged in the early 2000s from sociological, cognitive and anthropological theories, most distributed cognition and activity theory, though influenced by Wenger's communities of practice, it was conceived as a theoretical and analytical framework for studying school leadership, one that would explicitly focus attention on how leadership was enacted in schools, as an activity stretched across the "social and situational contexts."Leadership research up through the late 1990s focused on the specific traits, functions, or effects of individual leaders.
Much of the work done in educational research focused on the principal and centered around defining the heroics of individuals. Descriptions were written of what was being done but not how, which limited transferability across contexts. From this research it was unclear. Though some research on leadership has continued to focus on the role or function of the designated leader, such as instructional leadership or transformational leadership, there has be a significant shift to understanding leadership as a shared effort by more than one person; the latter constructs look more broadly at various roles that provide forms of leadership throughout the school, including teacher leadership, democratic leadership, shared leadership, or collaborative leadership. Distributed leadership draws on these multi-agent perspectives to describe how actors work to establish the conditions for improving teaching and learning in schools. Distributed leadership is not an activity, rather a procedure Leadership is defined as any "activities tied to the core work of the organization that are designed by organizational members to influence the motivation, affect, or practices of other organizational members."
Thus a leader is anyone. As this definition implies, there is within an organization a group of people who are influenced by these leadership activities: these are the followers; the role of a leader or follower is dynamic, a person might be a follower in one situation but not in another. Additionally, followers are not passive recipients of these influences and followers may influence the leaders as well; the Leader Plus aspect posits leadership activity as a whole is stretched, or distributed, across many people. Leadership is enacted with those not in official leadership positions, thus distributed leadership examines enactments of leadership activity rather than roles; the configurations of leadership activity might include collaborated, collective, or coordinated distribution. Collaborated distribution is where two or more leaders co-perform the leadership activity in the same place and time. In collective distribution, the performance of leadership actions is separate but the actions are interdependent.
Coordinated distribution exists where the leadership activities are performed in a particular sequence. Leadership activities are dynamic and situated, thus these three categories do not correspond with particular types of activities or duties; this part of the framework foregrounds leadership activities and all individuals who contribute, avoiding the tendency to focus on designated leaders. Practice is the product of interactions amongst leaders, the situation over time; this is a key link to distributed cognition, where thinking and understanding is a process constituted of interactions with other people and routines, rather than independently. Research from a distributed perspective takes a task-oriented approach as a way to break down practice into manageable units of analysis. Understanding how tasks are carried out and which are deemed important by leaders and followers gives a window into practice; the situation comprises a complex web of material and social aspects of the environment, such as history, physical environmental features, policy environment, as well as more local aspects such as task complexity, organizational structure, or staff stability.
The key here is to identify and focus on the "aspects of the situation that enable and constrain leadership practice but captur how they shape that practice." Whereas Contingency Theory describes the situation as the context within which individuals act, a distributed perspective looks to the situation as constitutive, in the sense that it both influences and is influenced by the actions of the people in it. Two aspects of the situation that are foregrounded in a distributed perspective are tools and routines. Tools are objects designed with a purpose toward enabling some action; the most obvious example of a tool is a hammer. In organizations, tools might be a rubric for assessing teaching or an attendance checklist, they are not just incidentals. Tools help focus the users attention but can obscure other elements; the attendance taker might check off all
Fenwick W. English
Fenwick W. English is an education professor. In 2002, he became the Robert Wendel Eaves Sr. Chair at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; this distinguished position honors one of this century’s great leaders in elementary education. Fenwick English was born in California to middle-class parents Mel and Phyllis, his father taught his mother taught music. Fenwick's father and mother were both accomplished pianists. In 1956 English enrolled in college at USC where he graduated with a B. S. in English and Education in 1961, an M. S. in Elementary Administration in 1963. While studying for his M. S. he was a teacher of third grade at the Tweedy Elementary School in South Gate, California. From his career start as a third grade teacher, English moved up in the ranks of practicing educators and in school administrators, he taught elementary and middle school at Palm Crest Elementary School and Foothill Intermediate School in La Canada, California from 1961–1964. His leadership in the classroom was respected and this led to his promotion to Assistant Middle School Principal at that same Foothill Intermediate School from 1964–1965.
In 1965, he moved up to Middle School Principal and Central Project Director, Temple City USD, Temple City, California. It was during his five years at Temple City, his observations in the classroom and school became the groundwork for his first book Differentiated staffing: Giving teaching a chance to improve learning published in 1969. The book was well received, it was not long before he was putting his theories into practice. In 1970 he was asked to direct a project in staff differentiation with three pilot schools in the Mesa Public Schools District in Mesa, Arizona; the project was funded by Arizona State University where English was employed with the title of Project Director/Visiting Lecturer. In essence he was conducting practical research by being allowed to reorganize each pilot school along different models and measure performance differences; this work was the topic of his Doctoral Dissertation, he received his Ph. D. in 1972. There was a clear improvement of student performance due to organization and differentiation of staff.
The positive results were published in two books Strategies for Differentiated Staffing and School Organization and Management. What worked in Arizona on the small scale would get its true test in the Sarasota County, Florida district schools. English was hired as the Assistant Superintendent for Personnel and Program Development by that district. At 25,000 students, the implementation was more difficult but just as effective as in Arizona. English received national recognition for his achievements by being elected Associate Executive Director–American Association of School Administrators and Director of the National Center for the Improvement of Learning. Arlington, Virginia. Although this position was honorary, it gave him exposure to people and movements within education at the national level, it gave him the opportunity to plan and direct two national summer conferences in Minneapolis and Denver. He documented his ideas and work in his books School Organization and Management, Needs Assessment: A focus for Curriculum Development and Quality Control in Curriculum Development.
In Washington, D. C. in the late 1970s, President Jimmy Carter's administration was moving for the creation of a cabinet-level Department of Education. Consultants were needed. In 1979 English was hired by Peat, Mitchell & Co. as their National Practice Director, North American Continent, for Elementary and Secondary Education, in the firm’s Washington, D. C. Office; the consulting business opened English's eyes to a whole new set of tools. Business auditing and accounting practices were formed the core of KPMG's business. English grasped these tools and was successful in being elected as a partner in the firm in 1980. Could business auditing practices be used to further refine Educational Administration to create a better education system? English discussed the concept and the potential benefits in Improving Curriculum Management in the Schools, Fundamental Curriculum Decisions; this theory became practice when in 1979 English was asked to conduct a "Curriculum Audit" of the Columbus, Ohio Public School District.
This was the first of many formal curriculum audits conducted under his guidelines. The name, "Curriculum Audit" was subsequently changed to "Curriculum Management Audit" when Virginia Vertiz, Director of the National Curriculum Audit Center from 1990 to 1996, became involved in the improvement of the process. In 1982 English was asked to become Superintendent of Schools for the prestigious Northport-East Northport Union Free School District in Northport, New York on Long Island, New York. To make a mark in the field of education required the credentials of a University Professorship at a minimum, yet none of the professors in U. S. academia had practiced education or educational administration in a real secondary school district. The gap between academia and practical administration was huge. Bridging the gap became a quest for English that would take him to many positions at many academic institutions throughout the U. S, his travels in building this bridge would earn him the nickname "The Gypsy" from friends and family.
In academia, the yardstick of prestige and success is publications. From his vantage point as a secondary school District Administrator, English knew that in order to jump to academia, he would have to out-write and out-
University of Bath
The University of Bath is a public university located in Bath, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers; the university's main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath's submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.
As of 2018, in national rankings the university is placed 5th according to the Guardian, 11th in the Complete University Guide and 12th by the Times/Sunday Times. Internationally it is placed in the top 400 by the 2016 ARWU and has featured in the top 300 in the 2016, 2017 and 2018 THE World University Rankings. In The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2014 the university was awarded the title of "Best Campus University in Britain". and in 2012 the title of ‘University of the Year 2011/12’. The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association, Universities UK and GW4; the University of Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, an institution founded as a school in 1595 and a technical school established in Bristol in 1856 which became part of the Society of Merchant Venturers in 1885. Meanwhile, in the neighbouring city of Bath, a pharmaceutical school, the Bath School of Pharmacy, was founded in 1907.
This became part of the Technical College in 1929. The college came under the control of the Bristol Education Authority in 1949; the college was housed in the former Muller's Orphanage at Ashley Down in Bristol, which still houses part of the City of Bristol College whilst the remainder has been converted into residential housing. In 1963, the Robbins Committee report paved the way for the college to assume university status as Bath University of Technology. Although the grounds of Kings Weston House, in Bristol, were considered — which and until 1969, accommodated the College's School of Architecture and Building Engineering — the City of Bristol was unable to offer the expanding college an appropriately sized single site. Following discussions between the College Principal and the Director of Education in Bath, an agreement was reached to provide the college with a new home in Claverton Down, Bath, on a greenfield site, purchased through a compulsory purchase order from the Candy family of Norwood Farm, overlooking the city.
Construction of the purpose-built campus began in 1964, with the first building, now known as 4 South, completed in 1965, the Royal Charter was granted in 1966. In November 1966, the first degree ceremony took place at the Assembly Rooms in Bath. Over the subsequent decade, new buildings were added. In the mid-19th century, there were plans to build a college of the University of Oxford on the site; the university logo features the so-called Gorgon's head, taken, via the university's coat of arms, from a Roman sculpture found in the city. Until 30 October 2012, it was a member of the 1994 Group. A report by the Higher Education Funding Council for England into governance at the University was published on 20 November 2017; the Vice Chancellor of the University is the highest paid in the country. The university's main campus is located on Claverton Down 1.5 miles from the centre of Bath. The site is compact; the design involved the separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, with road traffic on the ground floors and pedestrians on a raised central thoroughfare, known as the Parade.
Buildings would line the parade and student residences built on tower blocks rise from the central thoroughfare. Such plans were followed. At the centre of the campus is the Library and Learning Centre, a facility open round the clock offering computing services and research assistance as well as books and journals. A number of outlets are housed around the parade, including restaurants and fast-food cafés, plus two banks, a union shop and two small supermarkets, as well as academic blocks. Building names are based on their distance vis-à-vis the library. Odd-numbered buildings are on the same side of the parade as the Library, even-numbered buildings are on the opposite side. Buildings along the east-west axis are directly accessible from the parade, considered to be "level two", but additions, such as 7 West, 9 West, 3 West North and 8 East, follow the rule less strictly. 7 West is accessible only via 5 West or 9 West, 3 West North, 9 West and 8 East have entrances at ground level at varying distances from the main parade.
Buildings on the south of the campus, 1 South to 4 South, are accessible via roads and p
Buffalo Common Council
The Buffalo Common Council is the legislative branch of the city of Buffalo, New York government. It is a representative assembly, with one elected member from each of nine districts: Niagara, Masten, Lovejoy, North and South. In the past, the Common Council had as many as five at-large members and a Council President who were elected citywide; each council seat is elected for a four-year term, with elections occurring during off-years, between mid-term elections and presidential elections. From Buffalo's incorporation in 1832 the common council existed under New York State charters. In the early years of the common council the Buffalo Mayor, the head of the executive branch of the Buffalo government was the President of the common council, head of the legislative branch. From 1832-1854 all Mayors were Common Council President. Eli Cook was the first mayor who did not serve as Common Council President for his whole term as mayor. From 1832-1913, no mayor served as Common Council President. In 1914, New York State charters established a Council that consisted of five members – a Mayor and four Council Members.
From 1913-1927, the Council was composed of the Mayor, Commissioner of Finance and Accounts, Commissioner of Public Works, Commissioner of Parks and Public Buildings, Commissioner of Public Affairs and the Mayor was the Chairman of the Board. In 1926, the Kenefick Commission was appointed to form a new city charter after New York State authorized its cities to write their own charters in 1924. Since 1927, no Mayor has presided over the common council. A 1983 downsizing eliminated two at-large members. A 2002 downsizing eliminated the remaining three at-large members and the elected Common Council President; the size of the council's membership has been shrinking in tandem with the decrease in population. The Democratic Party is the dominant party in Buffalo politics; as of October 2015, the current membership is as follows:Rev. Darius G. Pridgen - Common Council President - Ellicott District Richard A. Fontana - Lovejoy District David Franczyk - Fillmore District Joseph Golombek, Jr. - North District Christopher P. Scanlon - President Pro Tempore, South District Joel Feroleto - Delaware District David A. Rivera - Majority Leader, Niagara District Rasheed Wyatt - University District Ulysees O. Wingo, Sr. - Masten DistrictAccording to the web site of the City of Buffalo, there is a Majority Leader and a Minority Leader if there are members from more than one political party.
In practice, there is a majority leader when all members of the council are from the same political party. Mr. Scanlon was appointed by a majority of the Council on May 16, 2012, to fill the vacancy created when Michael P. Kearns won a seat on the New York State Assembly in a special election to fill a vacancy there. Mr. Scanlon secured his seat by winning in a subsequent general election; the term of all Common Council members expires in January 2020. Budget Committee Buffalo Urban Renewal Agency Civil Service Committee Claims Committee Community Development Committee Education Committee Finance Committee Joint Schools Construction Board Legislative Committee Minority Business Enterprise Committee Police Oversight Rules Committee Transportation Committee Water Front Committee Legislative Branch - The Common Council City of Buffalo website - leadership History of the Common Council The Buffalo Common Council- Through the Years Buffalo Common Council Proceedings: Online Editions Digitized versions of Council Proceedings
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development and the entire lifespan. Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking and behaviors change throughout life; this field examines change across three major dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, socioemotional development. Within these three dimensions are a broad range of topics including motor skills, executive functions, moral understanding, language acquisition, social change, emotional development, self-concept, identity formation. Developmental psychology examines the influences of nature and nurture on the process of human development, processes of change in context and across time. Many researchers are interested in the interactions among personal characteristics, the individual's behavior, environmental factors, including the social context and the built environment.
Ongoing debates include biological essentialism vs. neuroplasticity and stages of development vs. dynamic systems of development. Developmental psychology involves a range of fields, such as educational psychology, child psychopathology, forensic developmental psychology, child development, cognitive psychology, ecological psychology, cultural psychology. Influential developmental psychologists from the 20th century include Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Barbara Rogoff, Esther Thelen, Lev Vygotsky. John B. Watson and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are cited as providing the foundations for modern developmental psychology. In the mid-18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau described three stages of development: infants and adolescence in Emile: Or, On Education. Rousseau's ideas were taken up by educators at the time, it focuses on how and why certain modifications throughout an individual’s life-cycle and human growth change over time. There are many theorists. For example, Erik Erikson developed a model of eight stages of psychological development.
He believed that humans developed in stages throughout their lifetimes and this would affect their behaviors In the late 19th century, psychologists familiar with the evolutionary theory of Darwin began seeking an evolutionary description of psychological development. James Mark Baldwin who wrote essays on topics that included Imitation: A Chapter in the Natural History of Consciousness and Mental Development in the Child and the Race: Methods and Processes. James Mark Baldwin was involved in the theory of developmental psychology. Sigmund Freud, whose concepts were developmental affected public perceptions. Sigmund Freud believed that we all had a conscious and unconscious level. In the conscious, we are aware of our mental process; the preconscious involves information that, though not in our thoughts, can be brought into consciousness. Lastly, the unconscious includes mental processes, he believed there is tension between the conscious and unconscious because the conscious tries to hold back what the unconscious tries to express.
To explain this he developed three personality structures: the id, superego. The id, the most primitive of the three, functions according to the pleasure principle: seek pleasure and avoid pain; the superego plays the moralizing role. Based on this, he proposed five universal stages of development, that each is characterized by the erogenous zone, the source of the child's psychosexual energy; the first is the oral stage. During the oral stage, "the libido is centered in a baby's mouth." The baby is able to suck. The second is the anal stage, from one to three years of age. During the anal stage, the child defecates from the anus and is fascinated with their defecation; the third is the phallic stage. During the phallic stage, the child is aware of their sexual organs; the fourth is the latency stage. During the latency stage, the child's sexual interests are repressed. Stage five is the genital stage. During the genital stage, puberty starts happening. Jean Piaget, a Swiss theorist, posited that children learn by constructing knowledge through hands-on experience.
He suggested that the adult's role in helping the child learn was to provide appropriate materials that the child can interact with and use to construct. He used Socratic questioning to get children to reflect on what they were doing, he tried to get them to see contradictions in their explanations. Piaget believed that intellectual development takes place through a series of stages, which he described in his theory on cognitive development; each stage consists of steps. He believed that these stages are not separate from one another, but rather that each stage builds on the previous one in a continuous learning process, he proposed four stages: sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational. Though he did not believe these stages occurred at any given age, many studies have determined when these co