Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18
Iolanthe. It is one of the Savoy operas and is the seventh of fourteen operatic collaborations by Gilbert and Sullivan. In the opera, the fairy Iolanthe has been banished from fairyland, her son, Strephon, is an Arcadian shepherd who wants to marry a Ward of Chancery. All the members of the House of Peers want to marry Phyllis; when Phyllis sees Strephon hugging a young woman, she assumes the worst and sets off a climactic confrontation between the peers and the fairies. The opera satirises many aspects of British government and society; the confrontation between the fairies and the peers is a version of one of Gilbert's favourite themes: a tranquil civilisation of women is disrupted by a male-dominated world through the discovery of mortal love. Iolanthe opened in London on 25 November 1882, at the Savoy Theatre to a warm reception, ran for 398 performances, the fourth consecutive hit by Gilbert and Sullivan, it was the first work to premiere at the Savoy and was the first new theatre production in the world to be illuminated with electric lights, permitting some special effects that had not been possible in the era of gas lighting.
The opera opened in New York, touring companies were sent around the UK and US to play the piece. The first Australasian touring production followed in 1885, the opera was revived in London beginning in 1901; the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company toured the opera nearly continuously in repertory from 1891 until 1982, made several recordings of the opera over that period. Numerous other professional and amateur productions have been given of this enduring work, various other recordings have been issued. W. S. Gilbert presented his basic idea for a new opera to Arthur Sullivan in October 1881. Gilbert's earliest ideas for the story of Iolanthe originated in his Bab Ballad, "The Fairy Curate": "Once a fairy / Light and airy / Married with a mortal." The fairy bears him a son. After her son grows up, she visits him on Earth, but she is mistaken for his lover, since fairies perpetually appear young and beautiful. Sullivan found the premise funny, Gilbert set to work on fleshing out the story. By December, he had written some lyrics for Sullivan to look at, but he struggled with the plot for several months, whereas he had dashed off earlier operas in a matter of weeks.
During these months, Sullivan took an extended trip to Egypt and elsewhere. Upon his return to London in April 1882, he moved into a new home. By the end of July 1882, Gilbert had supplied Sullivan with lyrics to several of the songs, Sullivan began work setting them to music. Over the next two months, Sullivan met Gilbert to discuss the libretto as more lyrics were completed. Music rehearsals began in September, staging began in October, scheduled around performances of Gilbert and Sullivan's previous opera, which had transferred to the Savoy Theatre a year earlier. Sullivan was still composing more numbers for the opera until 20 October, with a few modifications continuing into early November. Uncharacteristically, Sullivan composed the overture himself, instead of assigning it to an assistant. Two casts rehearsed as the opera was to open on the same night in London and New York City, a historic first for any play. Gilbert had targeted political officials for satiric treatment in earlier works.
In this opera, the House of Lords is lampooned as a bastion of the ineffective and dim-witted, whose only qualification to govern is noble birth. The political party system, the law and other institutions come in for a dose of satire. Throughout Iolanthe, both author and composer managed to couch the criticism among such bouncy, amiable absurdities and "splendid pageantry" that it is all received as good humour, with Prime Minister Gladstone complimenting the opera's good taste. In fact, Gilbert refused to allow quotes from the piece to be used as part of the campaign to diminish the powers of the House of Lords. Although titled Iolanthe all along in Gilbert's plot book, for a time the piece was advertised as Perola and rehearsed under that name. According to an often-repeated myth and Sullivan did not change the name to Iolanthe until just before the première. In fact, the title was advertised as Iolanthe as early as 13 November 1882 – eleven days before the opening – so the cast had at least that much time to learn the name.
It is clear that Sullivan's musical setting was written to match the cadence of the word "Iolanthe," and could only accommodate the word "Perola" by preceding it with "O", "Come" or "Ah". Henry Irving had produced a W. G. Wills adaptation of King René’s Daughter in London in 1880, under the name Iolanthe, in October 1882 Gilbert asked his producer, Richard D'Oyly Carte, to request Irving's permission to use the name, it is not known. Iolanthe premiered; the Savoy Theatre, opened only a year earlier, was a state-of-the-art facility, the first theatre in the world to be lit by electricity. Patience had transferred to the Savoy from the Opera Comique, upon the theatre's opening, but Iolanthe was the first show to premiere at the theatre. New lighting technologies made such special effects as sparkling fairy wands possible for the first time; the principal fairies' heads were lit by wreaths of small illuminated stars attached to a battery. T
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Revelstoke, British Columbia
Revelstoke ( is a city in southeastern British Columbia, Canada with a census population of 6,719 in 2016. By 2019, using smartphone data from Telus Insights, the community reported 14,570 actual residents in December 2018. Revelstoke is located 641 kilometres east of Vancouver, 415 kilometres west of Calgary, Alberta; the city is situated on the banks of the Columbia River just south of the Revelstoke Dam and near its confluence with the Illecillewaet River. East of Revelstoke are the Selkirk Mountains and Glacier National Park, penetrated by Rogers Pass used by the Trans-Canada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway. South of the community down the Columbia River are the Arrow Lakes, Mount Begbie, the Kootenays. West of the city is the route to Shuswap Lake. Revelstoke was founded in the 1880s; the name was Farwell, after a local land owner and surveyor. In yet earlier days, the spot was called the Second Crossing, to differentiate it from the first crossing of the Columbia River by the Canadian Pacific Railway at Donald.
The city was named by the Canadian Pacific Railway in appreciation of Lord Revelstoke, head of Baring Brothers & Co. the UK investment bank that, in partnership with Glyn, Mills & Co. saved the Canadian Pacific Railway from bankruptcy in the summer of 1885 by buying the company's unsold bonds, enabling the railway to reach completion. The construction of the Trans-Canada Highway in 1962 further eased access to the region, since tourism has been an important feature of the local economy, with skiing having emerged as the most prominent attraction. Mount Revelstoke National Park is just north of the town; the construction of Revelstoke Mountain Resort, a major new ski resort on Mount MacKenzie, just outside town, has been underway since late 2005, first opened during the 2007-2008 ski season. Revelstoke is the site of a railway museum. Revelstoke, BC is situated in grizzly bear habitat. In 1994 the Revelstoke garbage dump was fenced with an electric fence excluding bears from feeding on the garbage.
The population of bears, feeding at the dump turned to town to forage for food and many were destroyed as'nuisance bears'. The destruction of so many bears led to the creation of an education program meant to keep bears wild and the community safe. Revelstoke holds the Canadian record for snowiest single winter. 2447 cm of snow fell on Mt. Copeland outside town during the winter of 1971-72; that works out to just over 80 feet of snow. The townsite received 779 cm and snow levels were higher than many roofs around town by more than a few metres. Revelstoke's economy has traditionally been tied to the Canadian Pacific Railway and it still maintains a strong connection to that industry; however forestry, construction and retail have increased over the past decades. Today, freelancers, tech workers and entrepreneurs play an important role in Revelstoke's success; the city is served by Revelstoke Airport and was one of the first Canadian cities to have fibre internet installed. Revelstoke is the location of the Revelstoke Dam, constructed on the Columbia River, completed in 1984.
In 1986, to offset the economic effects of the completed hydroelectric project and the temporary closure of the local sawmill, the City of Revelstoke undertook a downtown revitalization program and it was completed with marked success. A small ski resort featuring a single short lift has operated on Mount MacKenzie since the 1960s, snowcat skiing was offered for higher altitudes. A strong movement pushed to expand the entire mountain into a single resort, construction started in the early 2000s. Revelstoke Mountain Resort opened in the winter of 2007/8 and boasts North America's greatest vertical at 1,713 metres; the resort offers 3,121 acres of fall line skiing, high alpine bowls, 13 areas of gladed terrain and more groomed terrain. Revelstoke Mountain Resort is the only resort world-wide to offer lift, cat and backcountry skiing from one village base; the resort will continue development, though economic conditions starting in late 2008 have deferred its initial plans. Revelstoke has produced some talented athletes in winter sports, notably ice hockey.
The former local BCJHL team, the Revelstoke Bruins, had a number of future NHLers on its roster in the 1970s and 1980s, including Bruce Holloway, Ron Flockhart, Rudy Poeschek. The current Revelstoke Kootenay International Junior Hockey League team is the Revelstoke Grizzlies, the former KIJHL team of locally born Aaron Volpatti. Another notable professional hockey player for the Austrian Hockey League is Andrew Kozek, born in Revelstoke. Norwegian immigrants brought skiing and ski jumping to Revelstoke, by the 1910s, several ski jumping hills had been built around town. Revelstoke Ski Club was founded in 1914, by the following year had reached 102 members; the pinnacle of the club was the annual Winter Carnival Tournament. The first tournament was held in 1915, had, in addition to cross-country skiing competitions, ski jumping competitions for boys under 16 and the title of Champion of British Columbia. Nels Nelsen Hill, first known as Big Hill, opened in 1916. Revelstoke became an international center for ski jumping, attracting the world elite for the annual tournament.
Revelstoke's own Nels Nelsen set the world records in the hill, at 73 meters in 1925 and 82 meters set by Bob Lymburne in 1932. The hill was renovated by 1948, leading to further international tournaments; the town considered placing a bid for the 1968 Winter Olympics. However
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834. A member of the Whig Party, he was a long-time leader of multiple reform movements, most famously the Reform Act 1832, his government saw the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, in which the government purchased slaves from their owners in 1833. Grey was a strong opponent of the foreign and domestic policies of William Pitt the Younger in the 1790s. In 1807, he resigned as foreign secretary to protest the King's uncompromising rejection of Catholic Emancipation. Grey resigned in 1834 over disagreements in his cabinet regarding Ireland, retired from politics, his biographer G. M. Trevelyan argues: in our domestic history 1832 is the next great landmark after 1688... saved the land from revolution and civil strife and made possible the quiet progress of the Victorian era. Earl Grey tea is named after him. Descended from a long-established Northumbrian family seated at Howick Hall, Grey was the second but eldest surviving son of General Charles Grey KB and his wife, daughter of George Grey of Southwick, co.
Durham. He had two sisters, he was educated at Richmond School, followed by Eton and Trinity College, acquiring a facility in Latin and in English composition and declamation that enabled him to become one of the foremost parliamentary orators of his generation. He became the second Earl Grey, Viscount Howick and Baron Grey of Howick on November 14, 1807 upon the death of his father. Upon the death of his uncle on March 30, 1808 he became the third Baronet Grey of Howick. Grey was elected to Parliament for the Northumberland constituency on 14 September 1786, aged just 22, he became a part of the Whig circle of Charles James Fox, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the Prince of Wales, soon became one of the major leaders of the Whig party. He was the youngest manager on the committee for prosecuting Warren Hastings; the Whig historian T. B. Macaulay wrote in 1841: At an age when most of those who distinguish themselves in life are still contending for prizes and fellowships at college, he had won for himself a conspicuous place in Parliament.
No advantage of fortune or connection was wanting that could set off to the height his splendid talents and his unblemished honour. At twenty-three he had been thought worthy to be ranked with the veteran statesmen who appeared as the delegates of the British Commons, at the bar of the British nobility. All who stood at that bar, save him alone, are gone, advocates, accusers. To the generation, now in the vigour of life, he is the sole representative of a great age which has passed away, but those who, within the last ten years, have listened with delight, till the morning sun shone on the tapestries of the House of Lords, to the lofty and animated eloquence of Charles Earl Grey, are able to form some estimate of the powers of a race of men among whom he was not the foremost. Grey was noted for advocating Parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation, his affair with the Duchess of Devonshire, herself an active political campaigner, did him little harm although it nearly caused her to be divorced by her husband.
In 1806, Grey, by Lord Howick owing to his father's elevation to the peerage as Earl Grey, became a part of the Ministry of All the Talents as First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Fox's death that year, Howick took over both as Foreign Secretary and as leader of the Whigs; the ministry broke up when George III blocked Catholic Emancipation legislation and required that all ministers individually sign a pledge, which Howick refused to do, that they would not, "propose any further concessions to the Catholics." The government fell from power the next year, after a brief period as a member of parliament for Appleby from May to July 1807, Howick went to the Lords, succeeding his father as Earl Grey. He continued in opposition for the next 23 years. There were times during this period. In 1811, the Prince Regent tried to court Grey and his ally William Grenville to join the Spencer Perceval ministry following the resignation of Lord Wellesley. Grey and Grenville declined because the Prince Regent refused to make concessions regarding Catholic Emancipation.
Grey's relationship with the Prince was strained further when his estranged daughter and heiress, Princess Charlotte, turned to him for advice on how to avoid her father's choice of husband for her. On the Napoleonic Wars, Grey took the standard Whig party line. After being enthused by the Spanish uprising against Napoleon, Grey became convinced of the French emperor's invincibility following the defeat and death of Sir John Moore, the leader of the British forces in the Peninsular War. Grey was slow to recognise the military successes of Moore's successor, the Duke of Wellington; when Napoleon first abdicated in 1814, Grey objected to the restoration of the Bourbons, an authoritarian monarchy and when Napoleon was reinstalled the following year, he said that, an internal French matter. In 1826, believing that the Whig party no longer paid any attention to his opinions, Grey stood down as leader in favour of Lord Lansdowne; the following year, when Canning succeeded Lord Liverpool as Prime Minister, it was therefore Lansdowne and not Grey, asked to join the Government which needed strengthening following the resignations of Robert Peel and the Duke of Wellington.
When Wellington became Prime Minister in 1828, George IV singled out Grey as the one person he could not appoint to the Government. In
Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London, the world's second oldest merchant bank. It was founded in 1762 by Francis Baring, a British-born member of the German-British Baring family of merchants and bankers; the bank collapsed in 1995 after suffering losses of £827 million resulting from fraudulent investments in futures contracts, conducted by its employee Nick Leeson, working at its office in Singapore. Barings Bank was founded in 1762 as the John and Francis Baring Company by Francis Baring, with his older brother John Baring as a silent partner, they were sons of wool trader of Exeter, born in Bremen, Germany. The company began in offices off Cheapside in London, within a few years moved to larger quarters in Mincing Lane. Barings diversified from wool into many other commodities, providing financial services for the rapid growth of international trade, including the lucrative slave trade which enriched the family and the business and allowed significant expansion of the bank's activities and prestige.
In 1774, Barings started business in the US. By 1790, Barings had expanded its resources, both through Francis' efforts in London and by association with leading Amsterdam bankers Hope & Co. In 1793, the increased business necessitated a move to larger quarters in Devonshire Square. Francis and his family lived upstairs, above the offices. In 1796, the bank helped to finance the purchase of about 1 million acres of remote land that would become part of the state of Maine. In 1800, John retired and the company was reorganized as Francis Baring and Co. Francis' new partners were his eldest son Thomas and son-in-law, Charles Wall. In 1802, Barings and Hope & Co. were called on to facilitate the largest land purchase in history: the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the area of the USA. It is regarded as "one of the most significant trades of all time"; this was accomplished though Britain was at war with France, the sale helped to finance Napoleon's war effort. Technically, the United States purchased Louisiana from Barings and Hope, not from Napoleon.
Baring was willing to help Napoleon in the short term because he, British politicians who backed him, predicted that American expansion into Louisiana would, as elsewhere in the USA, result in the extermination of native populations, the importation of Africans as slaves, the production and export of cotton to the whirring British mills around Manchester. In other words, American slavery would ensure Baring's profits in Britain. After a $3 million down payment in gold, the remainder of the purchase was made in United States bonds, which Napoleon sold to Barings through Hope & Co. of Amsterdam at a price of $87.50 per $100 face value. Francis' second son Alexander, working for Hope & Co. made the arrangements in Paris with François Barbé-Marbois, Director of the Public Treasury. Alexander sailed to the United States and back to pick up the bonds and deliver them to France. In 1803, Francis began to withdraw from active management, bringing in Thomas' younger brothers Alexander and Henry to become partners in 1804.
The new partnership was called Baring Brothers & Co. which it remained until 1890. The offspring of these three brothers became the future generations of Barings leadership. In 1806, the company relocated to 8 Bishopsgate, where they stayed for the remaining life of the company; the building underwent several expansions and refurbishments, was replaced with a new high-rise building in 1981. Barings helped to finance the United States government during the War of 1812. By 1818, Barings was called "the sixth great European power", after England, Prussia and Russia. A fall off in business and some poor leadership in 1820s caused Barings to cede its dominance in the City of London to the rival firm of N M Rothschild & Sons. Barings remained a powerful firm, in the 1830s the leadership of new American partner Joshua Bates, together with Thomas Baring, son of Sir Thomas Baring, 2nd Baronet, began a turnaround. Bates advocated a shift in Barings' efforts from Europe to the Americas, believing that greater opportunity lay in the West.
In 1832, a Barings office was established in Liverpool to capitalize on new North American opportunities. In 1843, Barings became exclusive agent to the US government, a position they held until 1871. Barings was next appointed by Sir Robert Peel to supply "Indian corn" to Ireland for famine relief between November 1845 and July 1846, after the staple potato crop failed; the company declined to act beyond 1846, when the government instructed them to restrict purchases to within the United Kingdom. Baring Brothers refused any commission for work performed in the cause of famine relief, their position as prime purchasers of Indian corn was assumed by Erichson, a corn factor of Fenchurch St, London. In 1851, Baring and Bates brought in another American, Russell Sturgis as partner. Despite the embarrassment to his partners caused by his sympathies for the South in the American Civil War, Sturgis proved a capable banker. After the death of Bates in 1864, he assumed a leadership role in the firm. In the 1850s and 1860s, commercial credit business provided the firm with its "bread and butter" income.
Thomas Baring's nephew Edward, son of Henry Baring, became a partner in 1856. By the 1870s, under the emerging leadership of "Ned" Baring the 1st Baron Revelstoke, Barings were involved in international securities from the United States and Argentina. Barings cautiously and ventured into the North American railroad boom following the