The Maine Law, passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States. Temperance activist Neal Dow helped craft the Maine liquor law while he was mayor of Portland, Maine; the law's wording included that the sale of all alcoholic beverages except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes" was prohibited. Word of the law's passage spread elsewhere in the nation, by 1855 twelve states had joined Maine in total prohibition. Known as "dry" states, these states were the opposite of "wet" states, where no prohibition laws existed; the act was unpopular with many working class immigrants. Opposition to the law turned violent in Portland on June 2, 1855, during an incident known as the Portland Rum Riot. Opponents of the Maine Law stormed Portland City Hall because they thought Mayor Dow was keeping liquor in the basement. Newspapers reported that Dow ordered rioters to be fired upon, wounding seven; the riot was a contributing factor to the law being repealed in 1856.
However, despite repeal, prohibition was re-enacted in various forms and was written into the state constitution in 1885. The Maine Law gained recognition internationally and was the inspiration for United Kingdom Alliance in Manchester, England; that organization grew and during the late 19th Century a street in Manchester, England was renamed "Maine Road" in honour of the law. Known as "Dog Kennel Lane", the street was renamed due to the influence of the Temperance Movement. Delaware was the second state to pass a prohibitory liquor law in 1847 but one year the State Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional. In February 1855, a second prohibitory liquor law passed by the state legislature; the Massachusetts legislature passed a "Maine Law" in 1852, struck down a year by that state's Supreme Court. Two years in 1855, the legislature passed a revised prohibitory liquor law to avoid the constitutional flaws of the first law; the Rhode Island General Assembly passed its own "Maine Law" in 1852, which outlawed sale or consumption of liquor for eleven years.
Liquor was banned again in 1874 and 1886. When statewide prohibition ended in 1889, the decision was left to the individual cities and towns of Rhode Island whether to be "wet" or "dry". Vermont's legislature passed a prohibitory liquor law in 1852, ratified by the people of the state the year after. Connecticut's legislature was vetoed by the governor; the next year, with a new governor, the legislature once again passed a "Maine Law" with a majority in both houses. In 1853, Indiana passed a "Maine Law", invalidated by the state's supreme court, but in 1855, a new prohibitory liquor law was passed. In 1853, Michigan passed a prohibitory liquor law, ratified by 2/3 of the electorate. However, in 1854, the law was declared unconstitutional; the next year the state legislature passed a revised liquor law. In 1854, the people of Texas voted to prohibit the sale of liquor than one quart. In 1854, Ohio passed a law "forbidding the sale of intoxicating liquor,", ruled unconstitutional by state appellate courts.
However, in 1855, the Ohio State Supreme Court overturned the lower court rulings and upheld the constitutionality of a statewide prohibitory liquor law. The New York state legislature passed a prohibitory liquor law in 1854, only to be vetoed by Governor Seymour; the same year, Governor Seymour was replaced by the prohibition candidate Myron H. Clark. Early the next year, the legislature re-passed the "Maine Law,". Pennsylvania's prohibitory liquor law went into effect in 1855 after its passage by the state legislature. 1855, the Iowa state legislature passed a "Maine Law", ratified by the people the same year. In 1855, the New Hampshire state Assembly overcame two previous rejections by the state Senate to pass a prohibitory liquor law. In 1880, under the Governorship of John St. John, the State of Kansas enacted a liquor prohibition law. Alcohol laws of Maine Maine Liquor Licensing and Compliance Division Oren B. Cheney Neal Dow John Hubbard Prohibition in the United States Rolde, Neal. Maine: A Narrative History.
Gardiner, ME: Harpswell Press. P. 178. ISBN 0-88448-069-0. Volk, Kyle G.. Moral Minorities and the Making of American Democracy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Pp. 167–205. ISBN 019937192X. Maine Alcohol History
The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was anti-Catholic and hostile to immigration, starting as a secret society; the movement emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common name; the Know Nothings believed a "Romanist" conspiracy was afoot to subvert civil and religious liberty in the United States and sought to politically organize native-born Protestants in what they described as a defense of their traditional religious and political values. It is remembered for this theme because of fears by Protestants that Catholic priests and bishops would control a large bloc of voters. In most places, Know Nothingism lasted only a year or two before disintegrating because of weak local leaders, few publicly declared national leaders and a deep split over the issue of slavery.
In the South, the party did not emphasize anti-Catholicism, but was the main alternative to the dominant Democratic Party. The collapse of the Whig Party after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act left an opening for the emergence of a new major party in opposition to the Democrats; the Know Nothings elected congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts and several other individuals in the 1854 elections and created a new party organization known as the American Party. In the South, the American Party served as a vehicle for politicians opposed to the Democratic Party. Many hoped that it would seek a middle ground between the pro-slavery positions of many Democratic politicians and the anti-slavery positions of the emerging Republican Party; the American Party nominated former President Millard Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, although he kept quiet about his membership. Fillmore received 21.5% of the popular vote in the 1856 presidential election, finishing behind the Democratic and Republican nominees.
The party declined after the 1856 election. The 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision further aroused opposition to slavery in the North, where many Know Nothings joined the Republicans. Most of the remaining members of the party supported the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. Anti-Catholicism had been a factor in colonial America but played a minor role in American politics until the arrival of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics in the 1840s, it reemerged in nativist attacks on Catholic immigration. It appeared in New York politics as early as 1843 under the banner of the American Republican Party; the movement spread to nearby states using that name or Native American Party or variants of it. They succeeded in a number of local and Congressional elections, notably in 1844 in Philadelphia, where the anti-Catholic orator Lewis Charles Levin, who went on to be the first Jewish congressman, was elected Representative from Pennsylvania's 1st district. In the early 1850s, numerous secret orders grew up, of which the Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner came to be the most important.
They merged in New York in the early 1850s as a secret order that spread across the North, reaching non-Catholics those who were lower middle class or skilled workmen. The name "Know Nothing" originated in the semi-secret organization of the party; when a member was asked about his activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing." Outsiders derisively called them "Know Nothings," and the name stuck. In 1855, the Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label; the immigration of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics to the United States in the period between 1830 and 1860 made religious differences between Catholics and Protestants a political issue. Violence erupted at the polls. Protestants alleged that Pope Pius IX had put down the failed liberal Revolutions of 1848 and that he was an opponent of liberty and republicanism. One Boston minister described Catholicism as "the ally of tyranny, the opponent of material prosperity, the foe of thrift, the enemy of the railroad, the caucus, the school".
These fears encouraged conspiracy theories regarding papal intentions of subjugating the United States through a continuing influx of Catholics controlled by Irish bishops obedient to and selected by the Pope. In 1849, an oath-bound secret society, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, was created by Charles B. Allen in New York City. At its inception, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner only had about 36 members. Fear of Catholic immigration led to a dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, whose leadership in many cities included Catholics of Irish descent. Activists formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause: Immigration during the first five years of the 1850s reached a level five times greater than a decade earlier. Most of the new arrivals were poor Catholic peasants or laborers from Ireland and Germany who crowded into the tenements of large cities. Crime and welfare costs soared. Cincinnati's crime rate, for example, tripled between 1846 and 1853 and its murder rate increased sevenfold.
Boston's expenditures for poor relief rose threefold during the same period. In spring 1854, the Know Nothings carried Boston and other New England cities, they swept the state of Massachusetts in the fall their biggest victory. The Whig candidate for mayor of Philadelphia, editor Robert T. Conrad, was soon revealed as a Know Nothing as he promised to crack down on crime, close saloons on Sund
Delavan is a city in Walworth County, United States. The population was 8,463 at the 2010 census, it is located 45 miles southwest of Milwaukee. The city is located within the Town of Delavan but the two entities are politically independent. Delavan sits in the middle of. During the last Ice Age, the final glaciation, named the Michigan tongue, covered this region; the Michigan tongue descended along the area of Lake Michigan. The "Delavan lobe" of this glacier broke off; the first humans known to inhabit the Delavan area were Native Americans around 1000 BCE. Between 500-1000 CE, Mound Builders lived in what is now the Delavan Lake area. Mound Builders were of the Woodland culture; the effigy mounds they erected along the shores of Delavan Lake numbered well over 200, according to an archeological survey done in the late 19th century by Beloit College. Many were along the north shore of the lake; the Potawotomi Indians settled around the lake in the late 18th century, although there were only an estimated 240 in the county.
Some of their burial mounds are preserved in. From the mid-17th century through the mid-18th century, Delavan was part of "New France", it came under British rule in the Province of Quebec following the French and Indian War. In accordance with the Treaty of Paris, it was turned over to the United States and became part of the newly established Northwest Territory. Between 1800 and 1836, the Delavan area was part of the Indiana Territory, followed by the Illinois Territory becoming part of the Wisconsin Territory in 1836. Statehood was granted to Wisconsin in 1848. Between 1847 and 1894, Delavan was home to 26 circus companies; the Mabie Brothers U. S. Olympic Circus the largest in America, arrived in 1847, to become the first circus to quarter in the territory of Wisconsin, its famous rogue elephant, "Romeo", stood 10 1⁄2 feet high, 10,500 pounds. The original P. T. Barnum Circus was organized here in 1871 by William C. Coup and Dan Costello. Over 130 members of Delavan's 19th century circus colony are buried in Spring Grove and St. Andrew cemeteries.
On July 21, 1948, Delavan was the site of Wisconsin’s Circus Centennial as part of the state's celebration of 100 years of statehood. On May 2, 1966, Delavan was selected by the U. S. Post Office to issue on a first day cover basis, the five-cent American Circus commemorative postage stamp. Delavan is located at 42°39′N 88°38′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.22 square miles, of which 6.76 square miles is land and 0.46 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,463 people, 3,189 households, 2,079 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,251.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,500 housing units at an average density of 517.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.2% White, 1.7% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 12.7% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29.4% of the population. There were 3,189 households of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 28.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. One of the major manufacturing and industrial centers of Walworth County, Delavan is home to over 230 businesses including such companies as Borg Indak, Andes Candies, Waukesha Cherry-Burrell, Ajay Leisure Products and Outboard Marine Corp. City events include the Delavan Train Show in March, Cinco de Mayo in May, Scarecrow Fest in September; the local school district has three elementary schools, Phoenix Middle School and Delavan Darien High School. There are three private schools: St. Andrew's Parish School, Our Redeemer Lutheran School, Delavan Christian School; the Wisconsin School for the Deaf is located in Delavan. Delavan was a stop on the Racine & Southwestern branch line of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, better known as the Milwaukee Road.
In its 1980 bankruptcy, the Milwaukee Road disposed of the Southwestern Line. The Wisconsin and Southern Railroad continues to service Delavan from a connection at Bardwell to the west. City of Delavan Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1885 1892 1895 1904 1910 "Delavan". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Delavan is a city in Tazewell County, United States. The population was 1,825 at the 2000 census, it is part of Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area. Delavan was founded by a group of settlers from New England; the city derives its name from Edward C. Delavan, a temperance advocate from Albany, New York. A post office has been in operation at Delavan since 1840. Delavan is located at 40°22′15″N 89°32′44″W. According to the 2010 census, Delavan has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,825 people, 705 households, 516 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,567.4 people per square mile. There were 744 housing units at an average density of 1,046.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.36% White, 0.44% African American, 0.16% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.44% of the population. There were Native Americans. There were 705 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.5% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.7% were non-families.
24.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 27% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,063, the median income for a family was $46,250. Males had a median income of $36,685 versus $21,435 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,734. 5.7% of the population and 4.2% of families were below the poverty line. 5% of those under the age of 18 and 7.5% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Delavan has a consolidated public schools district which educates pre-school through high school students in different areas of a common campus environment.
John T. Culbertson, Jr. Illinois Supreme Court justice Julia Thecla, artist Delavan School District Website Delavan Ambulance Service City of Delavan Website
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th