Monkey is a common name that may refer to groups or species of mammals, in part, the simians of infraorder Simiiformes. The term is applied descriptively to groups of primates, such as families of new world monkeys and old world monkeys. Many monkey species are tree-dwelling, although there are species that live on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are active during the day. Monkeys are considered to be intelligent the old world monkeys of Catarrhini. Simians and tarsiers emerged within haplorrhines some 60 million years ago. New World monkeys and catarrhine monkeys emerged within the simians some 35 million years ago. Old World monkeys and Hominoidea emerged within the catarrhine monkeys some 25 million years ago. Extinct basal simians such as Aegyptopithecus or Parapithecus and sometimes the Catarrhini group are considered monkeys by primatologists. Lemurs and galagos are not monkeys. Like monkeys, tarsiers are haplorhine primates. Apes emerged within "monkeys" as sister of the Cercopithecidae in the Catarrhini, so cladistically they are monkeys as well.
There has been some resistance to directly designate apes as monkeys despite the scientific evidence, so "Old World monkey" may be taken to mean the Cercopithecoidea or the Catarrhini. That apes are monkeys was realized by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in the 18th century. Monkeys can be distinguished from other primates by having only two pectoral nipples, a pendulous penis, the lack of sensory whiskers. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word "monkey" may originate in a German version of the Reynard the Fox fable, published circa 1580. In this version of the fable, a character named. In English, no clear distinction was made between "ape" and "monkey". Colloquially, the terms "monkey" and "ape" are used interchangeably. A few monkey species have the word "ape" in their common name, such as the Barbary ape. In the first half of the 20th century, the idea developed that there were trends in primate evolution and that the living members of the order could be arranged in a series, leading through "monkeys" and "apes" to humans.
Monkeys thus constituted a "grade" on the path to humans and were distinguished from "apes". Scientific classifications are now more based on monophyletic groups, groups consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor; the New World monkeys and the Old World monkeys are each monophyletic groups, but their combination was not, since it excluded hominoids. Thus the term "monkey" no longer referred to a recognized scientific taxon; the smallest accepted taxon which contains all the monkeys is the infraorder Simiiformes, or simians. However this contains the hominoids, so that monkeys are, in terms of recognized taxa, non-hominoid simians. Colloquially and pop-culturally, the term is ambiguous and sometimes monkey includes non-human hominoids. In addition, frequent arguments are made for a monophyletic usage of the word "monkey" from the perspective that usage should reflect cladistics. A group of monkeys may be referred to as a tribe or a troop. Two separate groups of primates are referred to as "monkeys": New World monkeys from South and Central America and Old World monkeys from Africa and Asia.
Apes —consisting of gibbons, gorillas and humans—are catarrhines but were classically distinguished from monkeys. Monkeys range in size from the pygmy marmoset, which can be as small as 117 millimetres with a 172-millimetre tail and just over 100 grams in weight, to the male mandrill 1 metre long and weighing up to 36 kilograms; some are arboreal. Some characteristics are shared among the groups. Old World monkeys have trichromatic color vision like that of humans, while New World monkeys may be trichromatic, dichromatic, or—as in the owl monkeys and greater galagos—monochromatic. Although both the New and Old World monkeys, like the apes, have forward-facing eyes, the faces of Old World and New World monkeys look different, though again, each group shares some features such as the types of noses and rumps; the following list shows where the various monkey families are placed in the classification of living primates. ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs and galagos Suborder Haplorhini: tarsiers and apes Infraorder Tarsiiformes Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers Infraorder Simiiformes: simians Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys Family Callitrichidae: marmosets and tamarins Family Cebidae: capuchins and squirrel monkeys Family Aotidae: night monkeys Family Pitheciidae: titis and uakaris Family Atelidae: howler and woolly monkeys Parvorder Catarrhini Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithec
A brain–computer interface, sometimes called a neural-control interface, mind-machine interface, direct neural interface, or brain–machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. BCI differs from neuromodulation. BCIs are directed at researching, assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA; the papers published after this research mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature. The field of BCI research and development has since focused on neuroprosthetics applications that aim at restoring damaged hearing and movement. Thanks to the remarkable cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels.
Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s. The history of brain–computer interfaces starts with Hans Berger's discovery of the electrical activity of the human brain and the development of electroencephalography. In 1924 Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG. Berger was able to identify oscillatory activity, such as Berger's wave or the alpha wave, by analyzing EEG traces. Berger's first recording device was rudimentary, he inserted silver wires under the scalps of his patients. These were replaced by silver foils attached to the patient's head by rubber bandages. Berger connected these sensors to a Lippmann capillary electrometer, with disappointing results. However, more sophisticated measuring devices, such as the Siemens double-coil recording galvanometer, which displayed electric voltages as small as one ten thousandth of a volt, led to success. Berger analyzed the interrelation of alternations in his EEG wave diagrams with brain diseases.
EEGs permitted new possibilities for the research of human brain activities. Although the term had not yet been coined, one of the earliest examples of a working brain-machine interface was the piece Music for Solo Performer by the American composer Alvin Lucier; the piece makes use of EEG and analog signal processing hardware to stimulate acoustic percussion instruments. To perform the piece one must produce alpha waves and thereby "play" the various percussion instruments via loudspeakers which are placed near or directly on the instruments themselves. UCLA Professor Jacques Vidal coined the term "BCI" and produced the first peer-reviewed publications on this topic. Vidal is recognized as the inventor of BCIs in the BCI community, as reflected in numerous peer-reviewed articles reviewing and discussing the field, his 1973 paper stated the "BCI challenge": Control of objects using EEG signals. He pointed out to Contingent Negative Variation potential as a challenge for BCI control; the 1977 experiment Vidal described was the first application of BCI after his 1973 BCI challenge.
It was a noninvasive EEG control of a cursor-like graphical object on a computer screen. The demonstration was movement in a maze. After his early contributions, Vidal was not active in BCI research, nor BCI events such as conferences, for many years. In 2011, however, he gave a lecture in Graz, supported by the Future BNCI project, presenting the first BCI, which earned a standing ovation. Vidal was joined by his wife, Laryce Vidal, who worked with him at UCLA on his first BCI project. In 1988, a report was given on noninvasive EEG control of a robot; the experiment described was EEG control of multiple start-stop-restart of the robot movement, along an arbitrary trajectory defined by a line drawn on a floor. The line-following behavior was the default robot behavior, utilizing autonomous intelligence and autonomous source of energy. In 1990, a report was given on a bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation potential.
The experiment described how an expectation state of the brain, manifested by CNV, controls in a feedback loop the S2 buzzer in the S1-S2-CNV paradigm. The obtained cognitive wave representing the expectation learning in the brain is named Electroexpectogram; the CNV brain potential was part of the BCI challenge presented by Vidal in his 1973 paper. Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, that is, using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems and brain related problems, or of sensory organs; the most used neuroprosthetic device is the cochlear implant which, as of December 2010, had been implanted in 220,000 people worldwide. There are several neuroprosthetic devices that aim to restore vision, including retinal implants; the difference between BCIs and neuroprosthetics is in how the terms are used: neuroprosthetics connect the nervous system to a device, whereas BCIs connect the brain with a computer system. Practical neuroprosthetics can be linked to any part of the nervous system—for example, peripheral nerves—while the term "BCI" designates a narrower class of systems which interface with the central nervous system.
The terms are sometimes, used interchangeably. Neuroprosthetics and BCIs seek to achieve the same aims, such as restoring sight, movement, ability
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology that combines physiology, molecular biology, developmental biology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits; the understanding of the biological basis of learning, behavior and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "ultimate challenge" of the biological sciences. The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales and the techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and cognitive tasks in the brain; the earliest study of the nervous system dates to ancient Egypt. Trepanation, the surgical practice of either drilling or scraping a hole into the skull for the purpose of curing headaches or mental disorders, or relieving cranial pressure, was first recorded during the Neolithic period.
Manuscripts dating to 1700 BC indicate that the Egyptians had some knowledge about symptoms of brain damage. Early views on the function of the brain regarded it to be a "cranial stuffing" of sorts. In Egypt, from the late Middle Kingdom onwards, the brain was removed in preparation for mummification, it was believed at the time. According to Herodotus, the first step of mummification was to "take a crooked piece of iron, with it draw out the brain through the nostrils, thus getting rid of a portion, while the skull is cleared of the rest by rinsing with drugs."The view that the heart was the source of consciousness was not challenged until the time of the Greek physician Hippocrates. He believed that the brain was not only involved with sensation—since most specialized organs are located in the head near the brain—but was the seat of intelligence. Plato speculated that the brain was the seat of the rational part of the soul. Aristotle, believed the heart was the center of intelligence and that the brain regulated the amount of heat from the heart.
This view was accepted until the Roman physician Galen, a follower of Hippocrates and physician to Roman gladiators, observed that his patients lost their mental faculties when they had sustained damage to their brains. Abulcasis, Avicenna and Maimonides, active in the Medieval Muslim world, described a number of medical problems related to the brain. In Renaissance Europe, René Descartes, Thomas Willis and Jan Swammerdam made several contributions to neuroscience. Luigi Galvani's pioneering work in the late 1700s set the stage for studying the electrical excitability of muscles and neurons. In the first half of the 19th century, Jean Pierre Flourens pioneered the experimental method of carrying out localized lesions of the brain in living animals describing their effects on motricity and behavior. In 1843 Emil du Bois-Reymond demonstrated the electrical nature of the nerve signal, whose speed Hermann von Helmholtz proceeded to measure, in 1875 Richard Caton found electrical phenomena in the cerebral hemispheres of rabbits and monkeys.
Adolf Beck published in 1890 similar observations of spontaneous electrical activity of the brain of rabbits and dogs. Studies of the brain became more sophisticated after the invention of the microscope and the development of a staining procedure by Camillo Golgi during the late 1890s; the procedure used a silver chromate salt to reveal the intricate structures of individual neurons. His technique was used by Santiago Ramón y Cajal and led to the formation of the neuron doctrine, the hypothesis that the functional unit of the brain is the neuron. Golgi and Ramón y Cajal shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906 for their extensive observations and categorizations of neurons throughout the brain. In parallel with this research, work with brain-damaged patients by Paul Broca suggested that certain regions of the brain were responsible for certain functions. At the time, Broca's findings were seen as a confirmation of Franz Joseph Gall's theory that language was localized and that certain psychological functions were localized in specific areas of the cerebral cortex.
The localization of function hypothesis was supported by observations of epileptic patients conducted by John Hughlings Jackson, who inferred the organization of the motor cortex by watching the progression of seizures through the body. Carl Wernicke further developed the theory of the specialization of specific brain structures in language comprehension and production. Modern research through neuroimaging techniques, still uses the Brodmann cerebral cytoarchitectonic map anatomical definitions from this era in continuing to show that distinct areas of the cortex are activated in the execution of specific tasks. During the 20th century, neuroscience began to be recognized as a distinct academic discipline in its own right, rather than as studies of the nervous system within other disciplines. Eric Kandel and collaborators have cited David Rioch, Francis O. Schmitt, Stephen Kuffler as having played critical roles in establishing the field. Rioch originated the integration of basic anatomical and physiological research with clinical psychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, starting in the 1950s.
During the same period, Schmitt established a neuroscience research program within the Biology Department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, bringing together biology, chemistry and mathematics. The first freestandin
David Healy (psychiatrist)
David Healy, a professor of psychiatry at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, is a psychiatrist, psychopharmacologist and author. His main areas of research are the contribution of antidepressants to suicide, conflict of interest between pharmaceutical companies and academic medicine, the history of pharmacology. Healy has written more than 150 peer-reviewed articles, 200 other articles, 20 books, including The Antidepressant Era, The Creation of Psychopharmacology, The Psychopharmacologists Volumes 1–3, Let Them Eat Prozac and Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder. Healy has been involved as an expert witness in homicide and suicide trials involving psychotropic drugs, has brought concerns about some medications to the attention of drug regulators, he has said that pharmaceutical companies sell drugs by marketing diseases and co-opting academic opinion-leaders. In his 2012 book Pharmageddon he argues that pharmaceutical companies have dominated healthcare in America with life-threatening results for patients.
Healy is a founder and chief executive officer of Data Based Medicine Limited, which aims to make medicines safer through "online direct patient reporting of drug effects". David Healy trained in Dublin, at Cambridge University, he is a former Secretary of the British Association for Psychopharmacology. He is a professor of psychiatry at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, a psychiatrist, psychopharmacologist and author, his main areas of research are the development and history of psychopharmacology, the impact of psychotropic drugs on our culture. Healy has written more than 150 peer-reviewed articles, 200 other articles, 20 books, including The Antidepressant Era and The Creation of Psychopharmacology from Harvard University Press, The Psychopharmacologists Volumes 1–3 and Let Them Eat Prozac from New York University Press, Mania: A Short History of Bipolar Disorder from Johns Hopkins University Press. Healy has been involved as a legal expert witness in homicide and suicide trials involving psychotropic drugs, has brought concerns about some drugs to the attention of American and British regulators.
He has alleged that pharmaceutical companies sell drugs by marketing diseases and co-opting academic opinion-leaders, sometimes ghostwriting their articles. His most recent book, claims that pharmaceutical companies have dominated healthcare in America with life-threatening results for patients. In 2000 a lucrative job at Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health was withdrawn under unclear circumstances. Healy and his supporters have claimed that this withdrawal was due to Healy giving a speech and publishing a paper claiming that the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine increases the risk that patients will commit suicide. Lilly was a major contributor to the Centre at the time. A settlement was reached, in which Healy received a visiting professor appointment, a joint statement was released stating "Although Dr Healy believes that his clinical appointment was rescinded because of his November 2000 speech at the CAMH, Dr Healy accepts assurances that pharmaceutical companies played no role in either CAMH's decision to rescind his clinical appointment or the University of Toronto's decision to rescind his academic appointment."Healy directs an Electroconvulsive Therapy clinic in Wales.
He defends the procedure as having an immediate visible effect in depressed patients for whom no other options have worked geriatric patients. He has co-written a history of ECT along with Edward Shorter and cites the controversial Max Fink as authoritative source. Healy has clarified which chapters he wrote and that he was not financially supported by Fink's Scion Foundation. Another reforming psychiatrist, Peter Breggin, has criticised Healy for this aspect of his work on the grounds of ethics and the longer-term data. Healy has speculated that Insulin coma therapy may have'worked' in the sense of generating enthusiasm in staff and in an unclear way to challenge anxiety or'psychosis', despite a lack of, or contrary, evidence from the time. Healy is a founder and chief executive officer of Data Based Medicine Limited, which operates through its website RxISK.org, which aims to make medicines safer through "online direct patient reporting of drug effects". Healy sits on the Honorary International Editorial Advisory Board of the Mens Sana Monographs.
In an international review article, Healy say that the idea that antidepressants might contribute to suicide in depressed patients was first raised in 1958. For 30 years antidepressants were used in depressed and hospitalised patients; the issue of suicidality on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors became one of public concern with reports in 1990 that Prozac could lead to suicidality in patients. Fourteen years warning labels were put on antidepressants suggesting particular difficulties "during the early phase of treatment, during treatment discontinuation, when the dose of treatment is being changed, that treatment related risks may be present in patients being treated for syndromes other than depression, such as anxiety or smoking cessation". Healy has written many papers and presented many lectures on his view that all SSRI antidepressants – Prozac and Zoloft – should show warning labels, as they could "trigger suicidal and violent behavior in some patients". Healy says. Most of the authors published in the Journal of the American Medical Association have received research funding from, or acted as a consultant for, a drug company.
Major journals have expressed
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Karl Spencer Lashley was a psychologist and behaviorist remembered for his contributions to the study of learning and memory. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Lashley as the 61st most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Lashley was born on June 1890 in the town of Davis, West Virginia, he was the only child of Maggie Lashley. He grew up in a middle-class family with a reasonably comfortable life. Lashley's father held various local political positions, his mother was a stay-at-home parent, had a vast collection of books in the home. She brought in women from the community; this is no doubt. Lashley has always held his family in high regard, he has said. Lashley's mother was a strong advocate of schooling, she encouraged Lashley intellectually from an early age. Lashley was a active boy, both physically and mentally, he was able to read by the age of four. His favorite thing to do as a child was to wander through the woods and collect animals, like butterflies and mice.
He spent most of his childhood alone. He did not have many friends; the reasons for his lack of friendships is unclear. Lashley graduated high school at age 14, he enrolled at West Virginia University, where he had intended to become an English major. He took a course in zoology and switched his major to zoology due to his interactions with the professor John Black Johnston. Lashley wrote, "Within a few weeks in his class I knew that I had found my life's work". After obtaining his Bachelor of Arts at West Virginia University, he was awarded a teaching fellowship at the University of Pittsburgh, where he taught biology along with biological laboratories. While there he carried out research which he used for his master's thesis. Once Lashley completed his master's degree, he studied at Johns Hopkins University, where he received his PhD in genetics in June 1911, he became a professor at University of Minnesota, University of Chicago, Harvard University. At Hopkins Lashley minored in psychology under John B.
Watson, whom he continued to work with him after receiving his PhD. It was during this time that Lashley worked with Franz and was introduced to his training/ablation method. Watson had a great deal of influence on Lashley. Together the two conducted field experiments and studied the effects of different drugs on maze learning of rats. Watson helped Lashley to focus on specific problems in learning and experimental investigation, followed by locating the area of the cerebrum involved in learning and discrimination. Lashley's career began with research concerning brain mechanisms and how they were related to sense receptors, he conducted work on instinct as well as color vision. He studied many animals and primates, an interest since his freshman year at college. Lashley worked at the University of Minnesota for a time and at the Institute for Juvenile Research in Chicago before becoming a professor at the University of Chicago. After this he went to Harvard, but was dissatisfied and from there became the director of the Yerkes Laboratory of Primate Biology in Orange Park, Florida.
Lashley's most influential research centered around the cortical basis of learning and discrimination. He researched this by looking at the measurement of behavior before and after specific quantified, induced brain damage in rats, he trained rats to perform specific tasks lesioned specific areas of the rats' cortex, either before or after the animals received the training. The cortical lesions had specific effects on acquisition and retention of knowledge, but the location of the removed cortex had no effect on the rats' performance in the maze; this led Lashley to conclude that memories are not localized, but that they are distributed across the cortex. Today we know that distribution of engrams does in fact exist, but that the distribution is not equal across all cortical areas, as Lashley assumed, his study of V1 led him to believe that it was a site of memory storage in the brain. He reached this erroneous conclusion due to imperfect lesioning methods. By the 1950s two separate principles had grown out of Lashley's research: mass action and equipotentiality.
"Mass action" refers to the idea that the rate and accuracy of learning depend on the amount of cortex available. If cortical tissue is destroyed following the learning of a complex task, deterioration of performance on the task is determined more by the amount of tissue destroyed than by its location. "Equipotentiality" refers to the idea that one part of the cortex can take over the function of another part. Therefore, to destroy a function, all the tissue within a functional area must be destroyed. If the area is not destroyed the cortex can take over another part; these two principles grew out of Lashley's research on the cortical basis of learning and discrimination. In February 1954, while doing his teaching at Harvard, Lashley unexpectedly collapsed and was hospitalized, he was put on a cortisone treatment. This began to soften his vertebrae, as a result a splenectomy was performed, he was on the road to a full recovery until his trip to France with his wife Clair, where he once again unexpectedly collapsed, but this time to his death on August 7, 1958.
Lashley was elected to many scientific and philosophical societies, including the American Psychological Association, Eastern Psychological Association (Pres