The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church and an international charitable organisation. The organisation reports a worldwide membership of over 1.7 million, consisting of soldiers and adherents collectively known as Salvationists. Its founders sought to bring salvation to the poor and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs", it is present in 131 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and disaster relief and humanitarian aid to developing countries. The theology of the Salvation Army is derived from that of Methodism, although it is distinctive in institution and practice. A peculiarity of the Army is that it gives its clergy titles of military ranks, such as "lieutenant" or "major", it does not celebrate the rite of Holy Communion. However, the Army's doctrine is otherwise typical of holiness churches in the Wesleyan-Arminian tradition; the Army's purposes are "the advancement of the Christian religion... of education, the relief of poverty, other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole".
The Army was founded in 1865 in London by one-time Methodist circuit-preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission, can trace its origins to the Blind Beggar tavern. In 1878 Booth reorganised the mission, becoming its first General and introducing the military structure, retained as a matter of tradition, its highest priority is its Christian principles. The current international leader of The Salvation Army and chief executive officer is General Brian Peddle, elected by the High Council of The Salvation Army on 3 August 2018; the Salvation Army refers to its ministers as "officers". When acting in their official duties, they can be recognized by the colour-coded epaulettes on their white uniform dress shirts; the epaulettes has the letters. Officers ranks include lieutenant, major and the general. Promotion in rank up to the rank from lieutenant to major depends on years of service; the ordination of women is permitted in the Salvation Army. Salvation Army officers were allowed to marry only other officers.
Husbands and wives share the same rank and have the same or similar assignments. Such officer-couples are assigned together to act as co-pastors and administer corps, Adult Rehabilitation Centers and such; as of 2016 the organisation will not appoint homosexual people to posts as ministers, preferring individuals "whose values are consistent with the church's philosophy". See LGBT clergy in Christianity; the Army has churches located throughout the world. They are known as Salvation Army corps, they may be implemented as part of a larger community center. Traditionally many corps buildings are alternatively called citadels; the Salvation Army is well known for its network of thrift stores or charity shops, colloquially referred to as "the Sally Ann" in Canada and "Salvos Stores" in Australia, which raise money for its rehabilitation programs by selling donated used items such as clothing and toys. Clothing collected by Salvation Army stores that are not sold on location are sold wholesale on the global second hand clothing market.
The Salvation Army's fundraising shops in the United Kingdom participate in the UK government's Work Programme, a workfare programme where benefit claimants must work for no compensation for 20 to 40 hours per week over periods that can be as long as 6 months. When items are bought at the Salvation Army thrift stores, part of the proceeds go towards The Salvation Army's emergency reliefs efforts and programs. Items not sold are recycled and turned into other items such as carpets and rugs, instead of being thrown away in landfills; the Salvation Army helps their employees by hiring ex-felons depending on the circumstances because they believe in giving people second chances. There are many job opportunities available for them nationwide and are able to move their way up to become a manager or work in one of their corporate offices; some shops are associated with an Adult Rehabilitation Centers where men and women make a 6-month rehabilitation commitment to live and work at the ARC residence.
They are unpaid. Many ARCs are male-only; the program is to combat addiction. They work at the store or residence; this is referred to as "work therapy". They attend twelve-step programs and chapel services as a part of their rehabilitation; the Army advertises these programs on their collection trucks with the slogan "Doing the Most Good". The general design pattern is that an ARC is associated with warehouse. Donations are consolidated from other stores and donation sites and sorted and priced and distributed back out to the branch stores. Low-quality donated items are sold at the warehouse dock in a "dock sale". Farmland at Hadleigh in Essex was acquired in 1891 to provide training for men referred from Salvation Army shelters, it featured market gardens and two brickfields. It was mentioned in the Royal Commission report of 1909 appointed to consider Poor Laws. 7,000 trainees had passed through its doors by 1912 with more than 60% subsequently finding employment. It has a Twitter feed @SalArmyHFE and website.
The Salvation Army operates summer camps for children, Silvercrest Residences, adult day care centers. It has headquarter offices internationally and for each territory and division; some of the other facilities include: Homele
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Distributed Proofreaders Canada
Distributed Proofreaders Canada is a volunteer organization that converts books into digital format and releases them as public domain books in formats readable by electronic devices. It as of 2018 has published about 4,200 books. Books that are released are stored on a book archive called Faded Page. While its focus is on Canadian publications and preserving Canadiana, it includes books from other countries as well, it is modelled after Distributed Proofreaders, performs the same function as similar projects in other parts of the world such as Project Gutenberg in the United States and Project Gutenberg Australia. Distributed Proofreaders Canada was launched in December 2007 by Michael Shepard. Although it was established by members of the original Distributed Proofreaders site, it is a separate entity, it is a volunteer based non-profit organization. All the administrative and management costs are borne by its members; the software used by DP Canada was downloaded from SourceForge but has been modified since then.
In addition to preserving Canadiana, DP Canada is notable because it is one of the first major efforts to take advantage of Canada's copyright laws which allows more works to be preserved. Unlike copyright law in other countries, Canada has a "life plus 50" copyright term. Works by authors who died more than fifty years ago may be made publicly available in Canada. Other countries have differing copyright laws. Although files available through DP Canada are publicly available in other countries, the onus is on the reader to ensure that they only download material, not in copyright in their country of residence. Notable Canadian authors whose books have been published include Stephen Leacock, L. M. Montgomery, E. T. Seton and Mazo de la Roche. Authors whose works have been released in Canada but not other parts of the world include A. A. Milne, C. S. Lewis, Winston Churchill, E. E. Smith and Amy Carmichael. Eligible books are chosen by members for publication based on personal access. Books are scanned electronically and each page is uploaded to the proofreading website.
A project is made available to the proofreading members. Each book is proofread in three stages called'P1','P2' and'P3'. During the first stage, errors in scanning and other minor errors are corrected. Once all pages in the book have been edited the book pages are promoted to the next stage, P2; the proofreading is repeated and again in stage P3 to ensure no errors make it to the final publication. Once stage P3 is finished the book moves to a set of two formatting stages called'F1', and'F2'. In these stages the book text is changed into a format that allows it to be presented to the reader in a style that resembles the original book as as possible. For example, text appearing in Italic type is placed within formatting tags <i>this text is in italics</i>; when formatted the text appears as this text is in italics. When the formatting stages are complete, a post-processing stage brings all the files together to publish the books in five electronic formats; these include mobi, HTML, PDF and plain text.
The HTML version is made available as a Zip file. Before the books are added to the Faded Page book archive, the books are placed in a final round called'Smooth Reading'. While in this phase, members of DP Canada are encouraged to read them. While the books are in this phase, comments about the book for possible improvements can be sent to the post processor. Once past the Smooth Reading process, the publication is posted on Faded Page; the books that are published by DP Canada in the public domain are made available through the Faded Page book archive. Some of the publications released are posted to the Project Gutenberg Canada website. PG Canada is a book archive. List of digital library projects Distributed Proofreaders Canada Faded Page Book Archive
Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass, What Alice Found There is a novel by Lewis Carroll and the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Alice again enters a fantastical world, this time by climbing through a mirror into the world that she can see beyond it. There she finds that, just like a reflection, everything is reversed, including logic Through the Looking-Glass includes such verses as "Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus and the Carpenter", the episode involving Tweedledum and Tweedledee; the mirror which inspired Carroll remains displayed in Charlton Kings. Chapter One – Looking-Glass House: Alice is playing with a white kitten and a black kitten when she ponders what the world is like on the other side of a mirror's reflection. Climbing up onto the fireplace mantel, she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers, to her surprise, that she is able to step through it to an alternative world. In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass poetry, "Jabberwocky", whose reversed printing she can read only by holding it up to the mirror.
She observes that the chess pieces have come to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up. Chapter Two – The Garden of Live Flowers: Upon leaving the house, she enters a sunny spring garden where the flowers can speak. Elsewhere in the garden, Alice meets the Red Queen, now human-sized, who impresses Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speeds. Chapter Three – Looking-Glass Insects: The Red Queen reveals to Alice that the entire countryside is laid out in squares, like a gigantic chessboard, offers to make Alice a queen if she can move all the way to the eighth rank/row in a chess match. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White Queen's pawns, begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train that jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank, thus acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move, she arrives in a forest where a depressed gnat teaches her about the looking glass insects, strange creatures part bug part object, before flying away sadly.
Alice continues her journey and along the way, crosses the "wood where things have no names". There she forgets all nouns, including her own name. With the help of a fawn who has forgotten his identity, she makes it to the other side, where they both remember everything. Realizing that he is a fawn, she is a human, that fawns are afraid of humans, it runs off. Chapter Four – Tweedledum and Tweedledee: She meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee, who she knows from the nursery rhyme. After reciting the long poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter", they draw Alice's attention to the Red King—loudly snoring away under a nearby tree—and maliciously provoke her with idle philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red King's dreams; the brothers begin suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the nursery rhyme about them predicts. Chapter Five – Wool and Water: Alice next meets the White Queen, absent-minded but boasts of her ability to remember future events before they have happened.
Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing over a brook together, but at the moment of the crossing, the Queen transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, where the Sheep annoys her with nonsensical shouting about "crabs" and "feathers". Chapter Six – Humpty Dumpty: After crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank, Alice encounters Humpty Dumpty, besides celebrating his unbirthday, provides his own translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky". In the process, he introduces Alice to the concept of portmanteau words, before his inevitable fall. Chapter Seven – The Lion and the Unicorn: "All the king's horses and all the king's men" come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance, are accompanied by the White King, along with the Lion and the Unicorn, who again proceed to act out a nursery rhyme by fighting with each other. In this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of "Anglo-Saxon messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta".
Chapter Eight – "It's my own Invention": Upon leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight, Alice reaches the seventh rank by crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight, intent on capturing the "white pawn"—Alice—until the White Knight comes to her rescue. Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing, the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition called Haddocks' Eyes, falls off his horse. Chapter Nine – Queen Alice: Bidding farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook, is automatically crowned a queen, with the crown materialising abruptly on her head, she soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens, who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion. They invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice—of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge. Chapter Ten – Shaking: Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party, which turns into chaos.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It