William J. Behan
William J. Behan was an American Confederate veteran and politician, he served as the 41st mayor of New Orleans. Behan was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 25, 1840 to his parents, father John Holland Behan and mother Katherine Behan, he was the eldest of three boys, William J. Frank, Isaac D. With deep family ties to the City, Behan was destined from a young age to live out his days in the area. William attended the Western Military Institute in Tennessee. Behan became Captain of the Mistick Krewe of Comus. Behan joined the Washington Artillery of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War of 1861-1865, he held, at the time, the notoriety of being the youngest officer under that section of General Robert E. Lee's forces, he became a major in the CSA. After the war, Behan headed the implementation of the Crescent City White League; this paramilitary group consisted of Confederate veterans who sought to keep Republicans from taking office. It was described by many to be the "Military arm of the Democratic Party.
Behan's involvement in the formation of this led to his nomination from the Democratic Party for the Mayor of New Orleans. He won in, he became the first Mayor in the new city charter, constructed in the post-war process. In 1884, after two years in office, Behan lost his incumbent position in what is considered to be an travesty to the Democratic selection; the popular vote in the election was thrown out and was deemed inconclusive, the decision was made by a "Ring" of influential politicians. He was ousted by fellow Democrat J. Valsin Guillotte. Outraged by this decision, Behan joined the Republican Party. Behan was defeated in his third attempt at Mayor in 1904, stated that he would never strive to be Mayor of New Orleans for the rest of his life. After leaving politics, Behan found riches as a manufacturer of Sugar, he was a partner in the Zuberbeir and Behan groceries company. Behan died May 4, 1928 on Jackson Avenue at his home in New Orleans
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
Benjamin Franklin Flanders was a teacher and planter in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1867, he was appointed by the military commander as the 21st Governor of Louisiana during Reconstruction, a position which he held for some six months, he is the last Republican mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana. Flanders was born in New Hampshire. At the age of twenty-six, he graduated from Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. In January 1843 he read law under Charles M. Emerson; the following year he left this study to become a principal. In 1845, Flanders became editor of a local newspaper. In 1847 he married Susan H. Sawyer in New Hampshire, she returned with him to New Orleans. Flanders became active in politics, elected as a Democratic alderman representing the 3rd Municipal District of New Orleans, serving from 1847 to 1852. In 1852, he was selected as the secretary and treasurer of the New Orleans and Great Western Railroad, a position he held until 1862. In 1861, he fled New Orleans, he had opposed secession, sentiment against Unionists was strong.
Flanders made his way to Illinois. He did not return to New Orleans until April 1862. On July 20, he was appointed by the military government as New Orleans City Treasurer, he served until his election to Congress on December 12, 1862. He was elected along with Michael Hahn as at-large Representatives of Louisiana, defeating independent incumbent J. E. Bouligny. Flanders and Hahn were not seated in Congress until the last fifteen days of their terms in February 1863. On July 13, 1863, Flanders was made the Captain of Company C, 5th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, a Union Army unit, he was honorably discharged in August 1863, when he was appointed a Special Agent of the United States Treasury Department of the Southern Region by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, he held this position until 1866. While in office, he generated commissions for the government by selling confiscated cotton from Confederate plantations; the Department of Treasury controlled licensing of cotton brokers, trying to regulate the market, but a black market flourished for the lucrative sale of cotton.
In 1864, Flanders campaigned for governor and finished in third place behind Michael Hahn and Fellows. He was appointed by Republicans as the first Supervising Special Agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau, Department of the Gulf. At the same time, he led the movement to create a local Republican Party in Louisiana, he formed the'Friends of Universal Suffrage' with other Louisiana Unionists, as well as free men of color and freedmen. These laws had been passed to control the movement of freedmen. Fearful of the black majority in many Louisiana districts, most white Democrats opposed giving freedmen suffrage after Confederate veterans were temporarily disenfranchised unless they took a loyalty oath; the tension over the rights of freed slaves escalated into New Orleans riot of 1866, in which whites attacked blacks. In 1867, General Philip Sheridan, Commander of the 5th Military District, which included Louisiana and Texas, removed elected Governor James Madison Wells for not responding to the riots appropriately and for not advancing the rights of freedmen.
Sheridan appointed Flanders as Governor of Louisiana. About six months on January 1, 1868, Major General Winfield Scott Hancock, as the new military commander of Louisiana, removed all radical Republicans from state offices. Governor Flanders resigned on January 8 and was replaced by General Hancock's appointee, Joshua Baker. In 1870, Governor Henry C. Warmoth, elected as part of the Reconstruction-era civil government, appointed Flanders as Mayor of New Orleans; as of 2018, Flanders remains the most recent Republican mayor of the city. He was elected to a full two-year mayoral term, serving until 1873; that year President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Flanders as Assistant Treasurer of the United States. Flanders ran unsuccessfully in 1888 as a Republican candidate for Louisiana State Treasurer. Flanders retired to his Ben Alva plantation in Lafayette Parish, he died there in 1896. His remains were interred at Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans. Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress National Governor's Association biography State of Louisiana - Biography
Samuel Miller Quincy
Samuel Miller Quincy was the 28th mayor of New Orleans and a Union Army officer during the American Civil War. He was the son of Josiah Quincy, Jr. former mayor of Boston, the younger brother of Josiah Phillips Quincy. He was a distant cousin of President John Quincy Adams and a descendant of Rev. George Phillips who settled in Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630, he was a Harvard graduate and legal historian, Union soldier in the American Civil War, during which he was wounded, captured and exchanged. Shortly after the attack on Fort Sumter, Quincy was commissioned a captain in the 2nd Massachusetts Infantry Regiment on May 25, 1861, he was promoted to major on October 22, 1862 and to colonel on January 18, 1863. He resigned his commission on June 5, 1863 but was re-commissioned as the lieutenant colonel of the 73rd United States Colored Infantry Regiment on November 29, 1863 and was promoted to colonel in command of the regiment on May 29, 1864, he served as Mayor of New Orleans from May 5 to June 8, 1865.
He transferred to the 96th US Colored Infantry Regiment on September 27, 1865 and was mustered out on January 21, 1866 and became the colonel of the 81st US Colored Infantry the next day. He was honorably mustered out of service on November 30, 1866. On February 21, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Quincy for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, The U. S. Senate confirmed the award on May 18, 1866, he was a member of the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. General Quincy died on March 24, 1887. Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue, p. 496. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc. 1990. ISBN 1-56013-002-4. Massachusetts Historical Society: Quincy, Wendell and Upham Family Papers, 1633-1910
Nicolas Girod or Nicholas Girod was the fifth mayor of New Orleans, from late in 1812 to September 4, 1815. Born in Cluses, he presided over the then-Francophone city during the 1814-15 British invasion. Nicolas Girod was the mayor of New Orleans from 1812-1815. Born in French Savoy, he migrated to Spanish Louisiana in the late 1770s with brother Claude François [1752-1813) and brother-in-law Andre Quetand and was joined by brother Jean François, he prospered as a commission merchant and owner of extensive property in New Orleans in the American quarter. The war of 1812 limited his hopes for material growth of the city, he resigned office September 1815 to salvage his waning personal finances. He never had no children. Nicolas Girod was in a predominantly Catholic city, he was the first regularly-elected mayor of New Orleans after Louisiana's admission to the Union. He was elected on September 21, 1812. Girod took office on November 5 of that year and served until September 4, 1814. Girod was a member of a prominent family who owned considerable interests in shipping and mercantile enterprises.
He was one of three brothers with brother-in-law Andre Quetand who conducted commercial enterprises with area planters in what was known as the commission or factorage business. The Girods kept a wholesale and retail store in the vicinity of the levee landing, which in years was transferred to the building at the corner of Chartres and St. Louis streets, he owned a large number of properties in the area of today's Central Business District, in the vicinity of Girod Street. New Orleans was full of excitement in the spring of 1821 when Girod remodeled and furnished the house on Chartres Street, that he inherited from Cluade Francois Girod, in readiness for Napoleon Bonaparte; the ship Seraphine was being outfitted for a secret voyage by Commander Bossier and Dominique You, Nicolas Girod was one of the sponsors of the plan to rescue Napoleon from his exile in Saint Helena. A residence was established for Napoleon at Chartres and St Louis streets by Nicholas Girod, the ship "Seraphine" was built and equipped with the object of rescuing Napoleon from St. Helena.
Under command of Capt. Bossier and Dominique You, the expedition set sail with this purpose, but returned when signalled by a French merchantman that Napoleon had died May 5, 1821. Girod was quite a philanthropist. Among other provisions in his 1837 holographic will, he left a bon of $100,000 to be applied to the construction of a facility in Orleans Parish for the housing and care of Louisiana's French orphans. Other institutions and individuals were recipients under this will, including Charity Hospital, $30,000. Nicolas Girod died on September 1, 1840, at his home located on the corner of Chartres and St. Louis streets, his former residence in the French Quarter is now known as the Napoleon House. Both New Orleans and Mandeville, have a Girod Street, named in Nicolas Girod's honor. Battle of New Orleans Napoleon House Girod Street Cemetery Girod administration at New Orleans Public Library website, transcription from a 1940 WPA compilation Nicolas Girod at Find a Grave
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the
Henry C. Deming
Henry Champion Deming was a U. S. Representative from Connecticut. Born in Colchester, the son of Gen. David and Abigail Deming. Deming pursued classical studies, he graduated from Yale College in 1836 where he was an 1836 initiate into the Skull and Bones Society, from the Harvard Law School in 1839. He was admitted to the bar in 1839 and began practice in New York City but devoted his time chiefly to literary work. At this time he was engaged with Park Benjamin, Sr. in editing The New World, a literary weekly, at this time he published a translation of Eugène Sue's The Wandering Jew. He moved to Hartford, Connecticut in 1847, opened a law office. In 1849, 1850, 1859 and 1860, he was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives. In 1854 he was elected Mayor of Hartford and served until 1858, again from 1860 to 1862. At the close of the year 1861, he was appointed Colonel of the 12th Connecticut Infantry Regiment, accompanied Gen. Butler's expedition to New Orleans. After the capture of that city he was detailed Mayor of New Orleans, served with tact and ability until January 1863, when he resigned both military and civil position, on account of his own health and the health of his wife.
Deming was elected as a Republican to the Thirty-ninth Congresses. He served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of War, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1866 to the Fortieth Congress. In 1868 he wrote a life of Ulysses S. Grant, The Life of Ulysses S. Grant, which had an extensive sale. In the following year he was appointed by the President, Collector of Internal Revenue, this office he held until his death, which occurred at his residence in Hartford on October 9, 1872, he was interred in Spring Grove Cemetery. Besides his Congressional speeches, Col. Deming published a Eulogy of Abraham Lincoln, delivered before the General Assembly of Connecticut, in 1865; these with his unpublished writings abundantly attest his great fertility of intellect. He received an LL. D. from Trinity College in 1861. This article incorporates public domain material from the Yale Obituary Record. In 1850 he married Sarah, daughter of Laurent Clerc, the first deaf-mute instructor in the United States.
His wife died in July 1869. In June 1871, he married Mrs. Annie Putnam Jillson, a great-granddaughter of Gen. Putnam, who survived him, his children by his first wife: Henry Champion Deming, Jr. president Mercantile Trust Company Charles Clerc Deming and railroad executive. Mary Shipman Deming Laurent Clerc Deming, railroad executive 3 infants, not named, died in infancy This article incorporates public domain material from the Yale Obituary Record; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov. United States Congress. "Henry C. Deming". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Henry C. Deming at Find a Grave