Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum
The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum holds the records of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States. Located on the grounds of Springwood, the Roosevelt family estate in Hyde Park, New York, the library was built under the President's personal direction in 1939-1940, dedicated on June 30, 1941, it is the first presidential library in the United States and one of the thirteen presidential libraries under the auspices of the National Archives and Records Administration. Built by Philadelphia contractor John McShain, it was constructed on 16 acres of land donated by the President and his mother, Sara Delano Roosevelt; the library resulted from the President's decision that a separate facility was needed to house the vast quantity of historical papers and memorabilia he had accumulated during a lifetime of public service and private collecting. Margaret Suckley, who acted as Roosevelt's personal archivist during his life, was involved in the establishment of the library and served as its archivist for its first two decades.
Prior to Roosevelt's Presidency, the final disposition of Presidential papers was left to chance. Although a valued part of the nation's heritage, the papers of chief executives were private property which they took with them upon leaving office; some were destroyed and thus either scattered or lost to the nation forever. Others inaccessible to scholars for long periods of time; the fortunate collections found their way into the Library of private repositories. Roosevelt was the first to make his papers available to the public by donating them to the government. In erecting his library, Roosevelt created an institution to preserve intact all his papers; these included papers from all his political offices, New York state senator, assistant secretary of the Navy, governor of New York, President of the United States and his private collections of papers and memorabilia on the history of the U. S. Navy and Dutchess County, New York; the Library was overcrowded when finished, because Roosevelt did not expect to serve as president for more than two terms.
A 1950 estimate stated that the library contained 50 million items, including 16,000 books, 15,000 photographs, 275,000 feet of movie film, 300 sound recordings. The building is built of Hudson Valley fieldstone in the style reminiscent of the local Dutch colonial architecture which he favored. A sketch made by President Roosevelt dated April 12, 1937, shows the proposed building placed on the grounds close to the site chosen and a ground plan approximating that of the main block today, he built it with donated funds, at a cost of $376,000 and turned it over to the federal government on July 4, 1940 to be operated by the National Archives. By his actions, Roosevelt ensured that his papers would become the property of the nation and be housed in a library on the grounds of his Hyde Park estate where they would be available to scholars. Robert D. W. Connor, the first Archivist of the United States, said of the President, "Franklin D. Roosevelt is the nation's answer to the historian's prayer."
In July 2015, Archivist of the United States David Ferriero appointed Paul M. Sparrow to be the new director of the FDR Library and Museum. In early planning for the library the President expressed the hope that Eleanor Roosevelt's papers would find a place here. In 1942 President Roosevelt made a rough sketch for wings to be added on to the north and south sides of the building should additional space be needed for her papers. At the time of her death in 1962 Mrs. Roosevelt's papers totaled three million pages. During her tenure at the library, Elizabeth B. Drewry raised funds for the wings to house Eleanor Roosevelt's papers. Construction was completed in 1972; the library contains the donated papers of others associated with Roosevelt, such as Henry Morgenthau, Jr.'s diary of 840 volumes. Roosevelt's actions served as a precedent; when Congress passed the Presidential Libraries Act in 1955, it regularized the procedures initiated by President Roosevelt for built and federally maintained libraries to preserve the papers of future Presidents.
Though official presidential papers are now public property as a result of the Presidential Records Act of 1978, there is legislation limiting the size and financing of museums, Roosevelt's original intentions of preserving papers in one place and making them accessible to the nation still hold true. Roosevelt hoped the library would become an important research center and attract visitors to the museum; the museum section of the building opened June 30, 1941. However, the onset of World War II changed Roosevelt's plans, the official opening of the library as a research facility was deferred as the President served a third term and was elected to a fourth term in 1944, he visited the library during the war to sort and classify his records and memorabilia. President Roosevelt paid his last visit to Hyde Park in March, 1945 and died on April 12 at Warm Springs, Georgia, at the age of sixty-three. In 2009 the library and museum received 17.5 million dollars in funds from the federal government for renovations.
This was the first renovation since the library opened in 1941. The new state-of-the-art permanent museum exhibits opened on June 30, 2013. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library Roosevelt and His Library, part 1 Roosevelt and His Library, part 2 FDR, His Library, the National Archives "Life P
John C. Breckinridge
John Cabell Breckinridge was an American lawyer and soldier. He represented Kentucky in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever vice president of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861, he was a member of the Democratic party. He served in the U. S. Senate during the outbreak of the American Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army, he was appointed Confederate secretary of war in 1865. Breckinridge was born near Kentucky to a prominent local family. After non-combat service during the Mexican–American War, he was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1849, where he took a states' rights position against interference with slavery. Elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1850, he allied with Stephen A. Douglas in support of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. After reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term, he was nominated for vice-president at the 1856 Democratic National Convention to balance a ticket headed by James Buchanan.
The Democrats won the election, but Breckinridge had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, could not express his opinions in debates. He joined Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party. In 1859, he was elected to succeed Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittenden's term in 1861. After Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention, the party's northern and southern factions held rival conventions in Baltimore that nominated Douglas and Breckinridge for president. A third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell; these three men split the Southern vote, while more anti-slavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won all but three electoral votes in the North, allowing him to win the election. Breckinridge carried most of the Southern states. Taking his seat in the Senate, Breckinridge urged compromise to preserve the Union. Unionists were in control of the state legislature, gained more support when Confederate forces moved into Kentucky.
Breckinridge fled behind Confederate lines. He was commissioned a brigadier general and expelled from the Senate. Following the Battle of Shiloh in 1862, he was promoted to major general, in October he was assigned to the Army of Mississippi under Braxton Bragg. After Bragg charged that Breckinridge's drunkenness had contributed to defeats at Stone River and Missionary Ridge, after Breckinridge joined many other high-ranking officers in criticizing Bragg, he was transferred to the Trans-Allegheny Department, where he won his most significant victory in the 1864 Battle of New Market. After participating in Jubal Early's campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley, Breckinridge was charged with defending supplies in Tennessee and Virginia. In February 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of War. Concluding that the war was hopeless, he urged Davis to arrange a national surrender. After the fall of Richmond, Breckinridge ensured the preservation of Confederate records, he escaped the country and lived abroad for more than three years.
When President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to all former Confederates in 1868, Breckinridge returned to Kentucky, but resisted all encouragement to resume his political career. War injuries sapped his health, he died in 1875. Breckinridge is regarded as an effective military commander. Though well-liked in Kentucky, he was reviled by many in the North as a traitor. John Cabell Breckinridge was born at Thorn Hill, his family's estate near Lexington, Kentucky on January 16, 1821; the fourth of six children born to Joseph "Cabell" Breckinridge and Mary Clay Breckinridge, he was their only son. His mother was the daughter of Samuel Stanhope Smith, who founded Hampden–Sydney College in 1775, granddaughter of John Witherspoon, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Having served as Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives, Breckinridge's father had been appointed Kentucky's Secretary of State just prior to his son's birth. In February, one month after Breckinridge's birth, the family moved with Governor John Adair to the Governor's Mansion in Frankfort, so that his father could better attend to his duties as Secretary of State.
In August 1823, an illness referred to as "the prevailing fever" struck Frankfort, Cabell Breckinridge took his children to stay with his mother in Lexington. On his return, both he and his wife fell ill. Cabell Breckinridge died, his assets were not enough to pay his debts, his widow joined the children in Lexington, supported by her mother-in-law. While in Lexington, Breckinridge attended Pisgah Academy in Woodford County, his grandmother taught him the political philosophies of her late husband, John Breckinridge, who served in the U. S. Senate and as Attorney General under President Thomas Jefferson; as a state legislator, Breckinridge had introduced the Kentucky Resolutions in 1798, which stressed states' rights and endorsed the doctrine of nullification in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. After an argument between Breckinridge's mother and grandmother in 1832, he, his mother, his sister Laetitia moved to Danville, Kentucky, to live with his sister Frances and her husband, president of Centre College.
Breckinridge's uncle, William Breckinridge, was on the faculty there, prompting him to enroll in November 1834. Among his schoolmates were Beriah Magoffin, William Birney, Theodore O'Hara, Thomas L. Crittenden and Jeremiah Boyle. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in September 1838, he spent the following winter as a "resident graduate" at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton Univers
1828 United States presidential election
The 1828 United States presidential election was the 11th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, October 31, to Tuesday, December 2, 1828. It featured a re-match of the 1824 election, as President John Quincy Adams of the National Republican Party faced Andrew Jackson of the nascent Democratic Party. Unlike in 1824, Jackson defeated Adams, marking the start of Democratic dominance in federal politics. Adams was the second president to lose re-election, following John Adams. Jackson had won a plurality of the electoral and popular vote in the 1824 election, but had lost the contingent election, held in the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the election, Jackson's supporters accused Adams and Henry Clay of having reached a "corrupt bargain" in which Clay helped Adams win the contingent election in return for the position of Secretary of State. After the 1824 election, Jackson's supporters began plans for a re-match in 1828; as the once-dominant Democratic-Republican Party collapsed and allies such as Martin Van Buren and Vice President John C. Calhoun laid the foundations of the Democratic Party.
Opponents of Adams coalesced around Jackson, unlike the 1824 election, the 1828 election became a two-way contest. Adams's supporters rallied around the president, calling themselves National Republicans in contrast to Jackson's Democrats. Jackson's cause was aided by the passage of the Tariff of 1828, referred to by its opponents as the Tariff of Abominations, which raised tariffs on imported materials and goods from abroad. With the ongoing expansion of the right to vote to most white men, the election marked a dramatic expansion of the electorate, with 9.5% of Americans casting a vote for President, compared with 3.4% in 1824. Passage of the unpopular tariff helped Jackson carry much of the South, Jackson swept the Western states. Adams won only three states outside of his home region. Jackson became the first president whose home state was neither Virginia; the election ushered Jacksonian Democracy into prominence, thus marking the transition from the First Party System to the Second Party System.
Historians debate the significance of the election, with many arguing that it marked the beginning of modern American politics with the decisive establishment of democracy and the permanent establishment of a two-party electoral system. Andrew Jackson won a plurality of electoral votes in the election of 1824, but still lost to John Quincy Adams when the election was deferred to the House of Representatives. Henry Clay, unsuccessful candidate and Speaker of the House at the time, despised Jackson, in part due to their fight for Western votes during the election, he chose to support Adams, which led to Adams being elected president. A few days after the election, Adams named Clay his Secretary of State, a position which at that time led to the presidency. Jackson and his followers accused Clay and Adams of striking a "corrupt bargain," and they continued to lambaste the president until the 1828 election. In the aftermath of the 1824 election, the national Democratic-Republican Party collapsed as national politics became polarized between supporters of Adams and supporters of Jackson.
In a prelude to the presidential election, the Jacksonians bolstered their numbers in Congress in the 1826 Congressional elections. Within months after the inauguration of John Quincy Adams in 1825, the Tennessee legislature re-nominated Jackson for president, thus setting the stage for a re-match between these two different politicians three years thence. Congressional opponents of Adams, including former William H. Crawford supporter Martin Van Buren, rallied around Jackson's candidacy. Jackson's supporters called themselves Democrats, would formally organize as the Democratic Party shortly after his election. In hopes of uniting those opposed to Adams, Jackson ran on a ticket with sitting Vice President John C. Calhoun. Calhoun would decline the invitation to join the Democratic Party and instead formed the Nullifier Party after the election. No congressional nominating caucus or national convention was held. President Adams and his allies, including Secretary of State Clay and Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, became known as the National Republicans.
The National Republicans were less organized than the Democrats, many party leaders did not embrace the new era of popular campaigning. Adams was re-nominated on the endorsement of partisan rallies; as with the Democrats, no nominating caucus or national convention was held. Adams chose Secretary of the Treasury Richard Rush, a Pennsylvanian known for his protectionist views, as his running mate. Adams, popular in New England, hoped to assemble a coalition in which Clay attracted Western voters, Rush attracted voters in the middle states, Webster won over former members of the Federalist Party; the campaign was marked by large amounts of nasty "mudslinging." Jackson's marriage, for example, came in for vicious attack. When Jackson married his wife Rachel in 1791, the couple believed that she was divorced, however the divorce was not yet finalized, so he had to remarry her once the legal papers were complete. In the Adams
James K. Polk
James Knox Polk was the 11th president of the United States from 1845 to 1849. He was speaker of the House of Representatives and governor of Tennessee. A protégé of Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Democratic Party and an advocate of Jacksonian democracy. Polk is chiefly known for extending the territory of the United States during the Mexican–American War. After building a successful law practice in Tennessee, Polk was elected to the state legislature and to the United States House of Representatives in 1825, becoming a strong supporter of Andrew Jackson. After serving as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, he became Speaker in 1835, the only president to have been Speaker. Polk left Congress to run for governor, he was a dark horse candidate for the Democratic nomination for president in 1844. In the general election, Polk defeated Henry Clay of the rival Whig Party. Polk is considered by many the most effective president of the pre–Civil War era, having met during his four-year term every major domestic and foreign policy goal he had set.
After a negotiation fraught with risk of war, he reached a settlement with the United Kingdom over the disputed Oregon Country, the territory for the most part being divided along the 49th parallel. Polk achieved a sweeping victory in the Mexican–American War, which resulted in the cession by Mexico of nearly all the American Southwest, he secured a substantial reduction of tariff rates with the Walker tariff of 1846. The same year, he achieved his other major goal, re-establishment of the Independent Treasury system. True to his campaign pledge to serve only one term, Polk left office in 1849 and returned to Tennessee. Scholars have ranked Polk favorably for his ability to promote and achieve the major items on his presidential agenda, but he has been criticized for leading the country into war against Mexico and for exacerbating sectional divides. A slaveholder for most of his adult life, he owned a plantation in Mississippi and bought slaves while President. A major legacy of Polk's presidency is territorial expansion, as the United States reached the Pacific coast and became poised to be a world power.
James Knox Polk was born on November 1795 in a log cabin in Pineville, North Carolina. He was the first of 10 children born into a family of farmers, his mother Jane named him after James Knox. His father Samuel Polk was a farmer and surveyor of Scots-Irish descent; the Polks had immigrated to America in the late 1600s, settling on the Eastern Shore of Maryland but moving to south-central Pennsylvania and to the Carolina hill country. The Knox and Polk families were Presbyterian. While Polk's mother remained a devout Presbyterian, his father, whose own father Ezekiel Polk was a deist, rejected dogmatic Presbyterianism, he refused to declare his belief in Christianity at his son's baptism, the minister refused to baptize young James. James' mother "stamped her rigid orthodoxy on James, instilling lifelong Calvinistic traits of self-discipline, hard work, individualism, a belief in the imperfection of human nature," according to James A. Rawley's American National Biography article. In 1803, Ezekiel Polk led four of his adult children and their families to the Duck River area in what is now Maury County, Tennessee.
The Polk clan dominated politics in the new town of Columbia. Samuel became a county judge, the guests at his home included Andrew Jackson, who had served as a judge and in Congress. James learned from the political talk around the dinner table. Polk suffered from frail health as a particular disadvantage in a frontier society, his father took him to see prominent Philadelphia physician Dr. Philip Syng Physick for urinary stones; the journey was broken off by James's severe pain, Dr. Ephraim McDowell of Danville, operated to remove them. No anesthetic was available except brandy; the operation was successful, but it might have left James impotent or sterile, as he had no children. He recovered and became more robust, his father offered to bring him into one of his businesses, but he wanted an education and enrolled at a Presbyterian academy in 1813. He became a member of the Zion Church near his home in 1813, enrolled in the Zion Church Academy, he entered Bradley Academy in Murfreesboro, where he proved a promising student.
In January 1816, Polk was admitted into the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as a second-semester sophomore. The Polk family had connections with the university a small school of about 80 students. Polk's roommate was William Dunn Moseley. Polk joined the Dialectic Society where he took part in debates, became its president, learned the art of oratory. In one address, he warned that some American leaders were flirting with monarchical ideals, singling out Alexander Hamilton, a foe of Jefferson. Polk graduated with honors in
Robert Moses was an American public official who worked in the New York metropolitan area. Known as the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, Westchester County, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, was one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban development in the United States, his decisions favoring highways over public transit helped create the modern suburbs of Long Island and influenced a generation of engineers and urban planners who spread his philosophies across the nation despite his not having trained in those professions. Moses would call himself a "coordinator" and was referred to in the media as a "master builder". Robert Moses at one point held twelve titles, but was never elected to any public office, he created and led numerous public authorities that gave him autonomy from the general public and elected officials. Through these authorities, he controlled millions of dollars in income from his projects, such as tolls, he could issue bonds to borrow vast sums for new ventures with little or no input from legislative bodies.
This removed him from the power of the purse as it functioned in the United States, from the process of public comment on major public works. As a result of Moses' work, New York has the United States' greatest proportion of public benefit corporations, which are the prime mode of infrastructure building and maintenance in New York and account for most of the state's debt. Moses' projects were considered by many to be necessary for the region's development after the Great Depression. During the height of his powers, New York City built campuses to host two World's Fairs: one in 1939 and the other in 1964. Moses helped persuade the United Nations to locate its headquarters in Manhattan, instead of Philadelphia, by helping the state secure the money and land needed for the project. Moses' reputation was lastingly damaged by Robert Caro's Pulitzer-winning biography The Power Broker, which highlighted Moses's lust for power and racist tendencies, but the recognition of the lasting impact and audacity of his achievements has, in more recent years, led to another reappraisal of his legacy.
Moses was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to assimilated German Jewish parents and Emanuel Moses. He spent the first nine years of his life living at 83 Dwight Street in New Haven, two blocks from Yale University. In 1897, the Moses family moved to New York City, where they lived on East 46th Street off Fifth Avenue. Moses's father was a successful department store owner and real estate speculator in New Haven. In order for the family to move to New York City, he sold his real estate holdings and store and retired from business for the rest of his life. Moses's mother was active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building. Robert Moses and his brother Paul attended several schools for their elementary and secondary education, including the Dwight School and the Mohegan Lake School, a military academy near Peekskill. After graduating from Yale University and Wadham College and earning a Ph. D. in political science from Columbia University, Moses became attracted to New York City reform politics.
A committed idealist, he developed several plans to rid New York of patronage hiring practices, including being the lead author of a 1919 proposal to reorganize the New York state government. None went far, but Moses, due to his intelligence, caught the notice of Belle Moskowitz, a friend and trusted advisor to Governor Al Smith; when the state Secretary of State's position became appointive rather than elective, Smith named Moses. Moses rose to power with Smith, elected as governor in 1922, set in motion a sweeping consolidation of the New York State government. During that period Moses began his first foray into large scale public work initiatives, while drawing on Smith's political power to enact legislation; this helped create the State Council of Parks. This centralization allowed Smith to run a government used as a model for Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal government. Moses received numerous commissions that he carried out extraordinarily well, such as the development of Jones Beach State Park.
Displaying a strong command of law as well as matters of engineering, Moses became known for his skill in drafting legislation, was called "the best bill drafter in Albany". At a time when the public was accustomed to Tammany Hall corruption and incompetence, Moses was seen as a savior of government. Shortly after President Franklin D. Roosevelt's inauguration in 1933, the federal government found itself with millions of New Deal dollars to spend, yet states and cities had few projects ready. Moses was one of the few local officials. For that reason, New York City was able to obtain significant Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, other Depression-era funding. Moses was a great political talent who demonstrated great skill when constructing his roads, playground and house projects. One of his most influential and longest-lasting positions was that of Parks Commissioner of New York City, a role he served from January 18, 1934 to May 23, 1960; the many offices and professional titles that Moses held gave him unusually broad power to shape urban development in the New York metropolitan region.
1856 Democratic National Convention
The 1856 Democratic National Convention was the seventh political convention of the Democratic Party. Held from June 2 to June 6, 1856, at Smith & Nixon's Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio, it was the first nominating convention to be held both in a city other than Baltimore and outside the original thirteen states. Incumbent President Franklin Pierce was denied renomination, becoming the only elected incumbent president to lose renomination in American history; the party nominated James Buchanan, U. S. Ambassador to Great Britain, for President, former Representative John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for Vice President; the Democratic Party was wounded from its devastating losses in the 1854–1855 midterm elections. The party faced continued North-South sectional division over slavery-related issues the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 and subsequent violence known as "Bleeding Kansas" from the civil strife in the Kansas Territory during its campaign for statehood. Two notable Democratic politicians, President Pierce and Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, were seen as being at the center of the controversies, which led many party members to look elsewhere for a new compromise candidate for president.
Called to order at noon on Monday, June 2, by the National Committee chair Robert Milligan McLane, Samuel Medary was made the temporary president. The first day, the convention did little more than appoint committees on credentials and resolutions. On the second day the organization committee report was adopted and John Elliot Ward of Georgia was made the convention's president; the committee on credentials settled a dispute over the Missouri delegation, but needed more time for the thorny problem of competing delegations from New York. June 4 saw the adoption of a platform. A separately reported plank on a railroad to the Pacific coast failed by a vote of 120 to 154. On June 5, the New York problem was settled by seating half of each of the competing delegations. Nominations for President were made; the four men nominated were all at one time or another nominated by the party for the Chief Executive office: James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, President Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan.
On the first ballot, Buchanan led with 135½ votes. Pierce had 122½, Douglas 33, Cass 5; the fourteen ballots taken that day saw Pierce's totals fall to the benefit of Senator Douglas. On June 6, Pierce's name was withdrawn; as a result, Pierce became the first and only person elected to the presidency to be denied renomination by his party. On the 15th ballot, most of Pierce's delegates shifted to Douglas in an attempt to stop Buchanan. However, Douglas decided to withdraw from the uphill contest against Buchanan because he feared prolonged participation might endanger the party's chances in the general election. William A. Richardson, the delegate who had nominated Douglas, withdrew the Senator's name and Buchanan was nominated on the 17th ballot. Eleven candidates were nominated for the vice presidency, but a number of them attempted to withdraw themselves from consideration, among them the eventual nominee, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky. Breckinridge supported fellow Kentuckian Linn Boyd for the vice presidential nomination.
However, following a draft effort led by the delegation from Vermont, Breckinridge was nominated on the second ballot. As Vermont's David Allen Smalley stated, "No Democrat has a right to refuse his services when his country calls." The Buchanan-Breckinridge ticket went on to win the 1856 presidential election, defeating John C. Fremont with William L. Dayton from the new Republican Party, a strong third party showing from the American Party of the "Know Nothings" represented by former President Millard Fillmore and Andrew J. Donelson. History of the United States Democratic Party 1856 Republican National Convention 1856 Whig National Convention List of Democratic National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention United States presidential election, 1856 Official proceedings of the National Democratic convention, held in Cincinnati, June 2–6, 1856 Democratic Party Platform of 1856 at The American Presidency Project Franklin Pierce at History.com
1852 Democratic National Convention
The 1852 Democratic National Convention nominated the dark horse candidate Franklin Pierce for President on the 49th ballot, passing over better known candidates Lewis Cass of Michigan, James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, it was held at the Maryland Institute in the eastern downtown business district of Baltimore, just two weeks before the opposing Whig Party met in the same hall for their nominating convention. This convention was notable for the hostility between several groups within the party, divided over the "Compromise of 1850"; the convention was called to order by Democratic National Committee chairman Benjamin F. Hallett. Romulus M. Saunders served as the temporary convention chairman and John W. Davis served as the permanent convention president; the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts an academic institution founded 1825-1826 with a variety of curriculums including mechanical arts along with visual art and design, was located on the second floor of their constructed 1851 landmark structure with two clock towers at each end of the long structure set atop arched and brick piers which covered the ancient "Centre Market", founded in the 1760s as the original main marketplace of old Baltimore Town.
Located at Market Place and South Frederick Street between East Baltimore Street on the north and Water Street to the south. It was known as "Marsh Market" because of the old colonial marsh of Thomas Harrison located along the western bank of the Jones Falls stream which flowed through downtown Baltimore to the Harbor, east of "The Basin" along the northern shore of the Patapsco River's Northwest Branch. 16th President Abraham Lincoln spoke at the Institute a decade with his "Liberty Address" or "Baltimore Address" during the Sanitary Fair to raise money to benefit orphans and widows of Union Army soldiers and sailors, held by the United States Sanitary Commission in April 1864. Old Maryland Institute and the Centre Market buildings perished in the Great Baltimore Fire of February 1904; the Institute's buildings were rebuilt with three new parallel structures here for the marketplace and the second floors for the M. I.'s mechanical arts along with another "Main Building" at Mount Royal Avenue in northwestern city in 1906.
They were razed in the 1980s for an entranceway into the new Baltimore "Metro" subway system, one building was renovated as the "Port Discovery" children's museum, part of the new "Power Plant Live!" entertainment complex of the 1990s. As Democrats convened in Baltimore in June 1852, four major candidates vied for the nomination- Lewis Cass of Michigan, the nominee in 1848, who had the backing of northerners in support of the Compromise of 1850. Throughout the balloting, numerous favorite son candidates received a few votes. Cass led on the first 19 ballots, with Buchanan second, Douglas and Marcy exchanging third and fourth places. Buchanan retained it on each of the next nine tallies. Douglas managed a narrow lead on the 31st ballots. Cass recaptured first place through the 44th ballot. Marcy carried the next four ballots. Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, a former Congressman and Senator, did not get on the board until the 35th ballot, when the Virginia delegation brought him forward as a compromise choice, selecting Pierce as their dark horse by one vote over former New York Congressman and Brooklyn Mayor Henry C.
Murphy, supporting him as a unit. After being nominated by the Virginia delegation, Pierce's support remained steady until the 46th ballot, when it began to increase at Cass's expense. Pierce's support was consolidated in subsequent voting, he was nominated nearly unanimously on the 49th ballot. According to Edward Stanwood, there was "no doubt that the nomination of General Pierce was planned before the convention met; the originator of the scheme was James W. Bradbury a senator from Maine, a college mate and lifelong friend of Pierce." Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns.. In a peace gesture to the Buchanan wing of the party, Pierce's supporters allowed Buchanan's allies to fill the second position, knowing that they would select Alabama Senator William R. King, to whom Pierce had no objections. King won the nomination on the second ballot. During the ensuing campaign, King's tuberculosis, which he believed he had contracted while living in Paris, denied him the active behind-the-scenes role that he might otherwise have played, although he worked hard to assure his region's voters with the statement that New Hampshire's Pierce was a "northern man with southern principles."
Source: US Vice President - D Convention. Our Campaigns.. History of the Democratic Party 1852 Whig National Convention List of Democratic National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention United States presidential election, 1852 Proceedings of the Democratic national convention held at Baltimore, June 1-5, 1852 Democratic Party Platform of 1852 at The American Presidency Project