Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Karl Gerhardt was a United States sculptor, best known for his death mask of President Ulysses S. Grant and a portrait bust of Mark Twain. Karl Gerhardt was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 7, 1853, he attended Phillips School in Boston. By 1870 he was apprenticed to a house painter in Chicopee, where he became a machinist at Ames Foundry, he showed considerable talent in mechanics, became a designer of machinery at Hartford, Connecticut. In 1874, he went to California. By 1880, he had returned east to Hartford, married Harriet Josephine Gloyd, he worked for a spell as chief machinist at the Pratt and Whitney Machine Tool Company in Hartford and pursued sculpting in his leisure hours. His first known sculpture was a bust of his wife, titled, A Startled Bather. On Feb 21, 1881, Harriet Gerhardt knocked on Samuel Clemens's door and asked Clemens to come to their home to view a sculpture that Gerhardt had completed. Clemens went to the couple's home and was surprised to see that the sculpture was a life sized depiction of Josie, nude to the waist.
Clemens asked painter James Wells Champney and prominent portrait bust sculptor, John Quincy Adams Ward to evaluate Gerhardt's work. After consulting with the art experts and his wife Olivia decided to finance Gerhard's art education in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts. With the support of Clemens's prominent artist friends, including Ward, Augustus St. Gaudens and Olin Warner, Gerhardt sailed to Paris with his wife in March 1881. Gerhardt passed the entrance examination to the École des Beaux-Arts on his first attempt and was enrolled in classes by August 1881. Gerhard soon requested additional money from Clemens to pay for living models and private art instruction. Clemens agreed to the extra funding and offered drawing lessons for Gerhardt's wife, whom Clemens affectionately called "Mrs Joe". By 1883, the Gerhardts sent letters to Clemens asking for more funds. Clemens helped Gerhard in getting commissions, was instrumental in Gerhard being given the commission for a Nathan Hale statute for the Connecticut Capitol in Hartford in 1885.
A photograph of the portrait bust of Clemens, that Gerhardt created, was used on the frontispiece of Clemens's first edition of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Over time, Clemens became dissatisfied with Gerhardt's constant demands for funds and his lack of gratitude. Putting his disappointment aside, Clemens passed along Gerhardt's request to Adam Badeau, Grant's military secretary, to cast the death mask of the terminally ill President Grant. Grant's son Fred agreed to the request. After President Grant had died and the death mask had been cast, Gerhardt refused to give the mask to Grant's family, asserting that the mask was his personal property. Clemens was dismayed by Gerhardt's refusal, intervened when the family threatened Gerhardt with a lawsuit. Clemens agreed to forgive all debts that Gerhard owed to Clemens and his wife, an amount of $17,000, in return for returning the mask to Grant's family, it is not known if Clemens was aware at the time that Gerhardt had secretly made a second death mask of Grant.
In the mid- to late 1880s, Gerhardt received commissions for memorial statues in New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Gerhardt's wife gave birth to a son, Lawrence, in 1890. In the late 1880s, Clemens faced financial difficulties of his own due to investment failures, he moved with his family to Europe. Gerhard's sole patron would no longer be able to help him find work. Gerhardt's commissions had decreased by 1891 and he sought work as a draftsman and machinist. In 1897, Gerhardt was working for Pope Manufacturing Company in Hartford. Gerhardt's wife died in 1897 succumbing to tetanus after being injured by a rusty nail. By 1906, Gerhardt had moved to New Orleans. In 1909, it was reported by the New Orleans Times Democrat that the famous sculptor was struggling financially and working as a manual laborer. By 1920, Gerhardt had moved to Shreveport and was working as a tailor. Gerhardt died May 1940, in Shreveport. Statuette of Mercury, Mark Twain House, Connecticut, 1883. A copy after a statue at the Naples National Archaeological Museum, in Naples Italy.
Statuette of Echo, Mark Twain House, Connecticut, 1883. Bust of Samuel L. Clemens, Mark Twain House, Connecticut, 1884. Bust of Henry Ward Beecher, Mark Twain House, Connecticut, 1885. Bust of Ulysses S. Grant, Connecticut State Library, Connecticut, 1885. Statue of Nathan Hale, Connecticut State Capitol, Connecticut, 1885–86. Equestrian statue of General Israel Putnam, South Cemetery, Connecticut, 1887–88. Statue of Josiah Bartlett, Huntington Square, Massachusetts, 1888. A signer of the Declaration of Independence. Memorial tablet to John Fitch, Connecticut State Capitol, Connecticut, 1888. Carrie Welton Fountain, The Green, Connecticut, 1888. Statue of Seth Boyden, Washington Park, New Jersey, 1890. Statue of Governor Richard Hubbard, Connecticut State Capitol, Connecticut, 1890. Statue of General George J. Stannard, Lakeview Cemetery, Vermont, 1891. Sculpture group: Pioneers of the Territory, Iowa State Capitol, Des Moines, Iowa, 1892. Statue of Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, Military Park, New Jersey, 1894–1904.
Soldiers' Monument, 2nd & Monument Streets, New York, 1887–88. Soldiers' Monument, Stevens Park, New Jersey, 1887–88. Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Oneida Square, New York, 1887–91, George Keller, architect. Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Brooklyn Post Office, Connecticut
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
The Cutts–Madison House is an American colonial-style historic home located at 1520 H Street NW in Washington, D. C; the house is best known for being the residence of former First Lady Dolley Madison, who lived there from November 1837 until her death in July 1849. The Cutts–Madison House is part of the Lafayette Square Historic District, a National Historic Landmark District. On March 31, 1793, the U. S. Commissioners in charge of selling federally-owned lots in the District of Columbia agreed to sell square 221 to Samuel Davidson. Davidson died in 1810, his son and two daughters inherited the property. Richard Cutts purchased lots 12, 13, 14, 15 of square 221 from the Davidson heirs on October 3, 1818; the house was constructed in 1818–1819 by Richard Cutts, who built the house for himself and his wife, Anna Payne Cutts. The house had two stories, a gabled roof, dormer windows, chimneys at the north and south ends of the house; the exterior was grey stucco. The front of the house faced Lafayette Square.
The lot on which the house sat was a large one, with extensive space on all sides. Dirt roads bordered the house on the west and north sides, a large garden with flowers and fruit trees occupied the east and south sides of the house; the garden extended south as far as the Tayloe House on the south end of the block. The home was considered one of the more "pretentious" domiciles in the city at the time; the city gravelled the street in front of the house in 1823. Cutts secured a mortgage to build the house, on August 22, 1828, the bank holding the mortgage sold it to ex-President James Madison for $5,750; when James Madison died in 1836, Dolley Madison held the mortgage. Her husband's death had left Dolley Madison in a financially difficult position, so to reduce her expenses she took up residency in the house in November 1837. Presidents James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor all visited her in the home, as did John C.
Calhoun, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster. Dolley Madison's financial difficulties continued, however, she owned Montpelier, her husband's country estate and farm in the Piedmont of Virginia. But Montpelier's finances were in poor condition, Dolley moved out of the Cutts–Madison House in 1839 to live once more at Montpelier and see if she could save the estate, she was unable to stabilize Montpelier. She moved back to the Cutts–Madison House in 1843, sold Montpelier in 1844. In 1844 or 1845, after her return to the Cutts–Madison House, arsonists put lit matches into the shutters in the rear of the house, Dolley Madison had to be wakened and saved from death by a servant; the fire was put out, the damage to the building not extensive. Dolley Madison lived in the house on Lafayette Square until her death on July 12, 1849, her only surviving child, John Payne Todd, inherited the property. On April 3, 1851, Todd sold the property to Charles Wilkes. Rear Admiral Charles Wilkes purchased the home in 1851. Wilkes moved the entrance from Madison Place NW to H Street NW, turned the porch on the west side of the house into a window.
The gable roof was eliminated and a flat roof installed, an out-building added in the rear, a bay window added on the south side. Wilkes cut all windows on the first floor down so that they now reached the floor. During the 1850s and 1860s, the house had a number of notable occupants in addition to the Wilkeses. After being named Special Envoy to Central America, Sir William Gore Ouseley rented the house in 1858 on his way to the region and entertained lavishly while living at the Cutts–Madison House. General George B. McClellan used the house as his Washington-based headquarters after the First Battle of Bull Run during the Civil War. McClellan first occupied the house on July 26, 1861, left in late October for new headquarters at a house at the corner of H Street NW and 15th Street NW. After the Civil War, the Cutts–Madison House was used by the French Claims Commission. Wilkes mortgaged in the house in 1855, the mortgage passed through several hands over the next 15 years until George B. Warren secured it in 1870.
Upon Warren's death in 1880, the mortgage was assigned to Phebe Warren Tayloe. She died in 1882, her niece Elizabeth H. Price came to hold the mortgage. Price sold the mortgage in December 1884 to Edward Tayloe Perry. Meanwhile, Charles Wilkes deeded the house over to his wife and three daughters in 1870. Wilkes died in 1877, in 1886 the Wilkes family sold the house to the Cosmos Club for the sum of $40,000; the Cosmos Club improved the height of the third floor by raising the roof, added a large meeting hall by building a single-story 23'8" extension to the south side of the house. The Cosmos Club made further improvements in 1893. Electricity was installed, the heating system upgraded, general refurbishing of commons areas completed. Two additional stories were built over the assembly hall: The second story consisting of one large room, a third story consisting of four meeting rooms. A bathroom was added to the third floor of the old building, above the existing second-floor bathroom; the eastern garden was removed, a three-story addition built.
The addition consisted of a ground floor with an entrance to the building on H Street NW, a cloakroom, a connecting do
Bristol, Rhode Island
Bristol is a town in Bristol County, Rhode Island, as well as the county seat. It is a deep-water seaport named after England; the population of Bristol was 22,954 at the 2010 census. Major industries include boat building and related marine industries and tourism; the town's school system is united with Rhode Island. Prominent communities include Luso-Americans Azorean, Italian-Americans. Before the Pilgrims arrived in 1620, the Wampanoags occupied much of New England, including Plymouth, Cape Cod, Narragansett Bay; the Wampanoags had suffered from a series of plagues which killed off large segments of their population, Wampanoag leader Massasoit befriended the early settlers. King Philip's War was a conflict between the Plymouth settlers and the Wampanoags, it began in the neighboring area of Swansea, Massachusetts. Metacomet made nearby Mount Hope his base of operations. "King Philip's Chair" is a rocky ledge on the mountain, a lookout site for enemy ships on Mount Hope Bay. After the war concluded, four colonists purchased a tract of land known as "Mount Hope Neck and Poppasquash Neck" as part of the Plymouth Colony.
Other settlers included Richard Smith. A variant of the Indian name Metacomet is now the name of a main road in Bristol: Metacom Avenue. Bristol was a town of Massachusetts until the Crown transferred it to the Rhode Island Colony in 1747; the DeWolf family was among the earliest settlers of Bristol. Bristol and Rhode Island became a center of slave trading. James DeWolf, a leading slave trader become a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Quakers from Rhode Island were involved early in the abolition movement. During the American Revolutionary War, the British Royal Navy bombarded Bristol twice. On October 7, 1775, a group of ships led by Captain Wallace and HMS Rose sailed into town and demanded provisions; when refused, Wallace shelled the town. The attack was stopped when Lieutenant Governor William Bradford rowed out to Rose to negotiate a cease-fire, but a second attack took place on May 25, 1778; this time, 500 British and Hessian troops marched through the main street and burnt 30 barracks and houses, taking some prisoners to Newport.
Until 1854, Bristol was one of the five state capitals of Rhode Island. Bristol is home to Roger Williams University, named for Rhode Island founder Roger Williams; the southerly terminus of the East Bay Bike Path is located at Independence Park on Bristol Harbor. The bike path continues north to East Providence, R. I. constructed on an old abandoned railway. Some of the best views of Narragansett Bay can be seen along this corridor; this path is a valued commodity to Bristol. The construction of the East Bay Bike Path was contested by Bristol residents before construction because of the potential of crime, but it has become a welcome asset to the community and the anticipated crime was non-existent; the Bristol-based boat company Herreshoff built five consecutive America's Cup Defenders between 1893 and 1920. The Colt Estate, now known as Colt State Park, was home to Samuel P. Colt, nephew of the man famous for the arms company, founder of the United States Rubber Company called Uniroyal and the largest rubber company in the nation.
Colt State Park lies on manicured gardens abutting the West Passage of Narragansett Bay, is popular for its views of the waterfront and sunsets. Bristol is the site of the National Historic Landmark Joseph Reynolds House built in 1700; the Marquis de Lafayette and his staff used the building as headquarters in 1778 during the Battle of Rhode Island. Bristol has the oldest continuously celebrated Independence Day festivities in the United States; the first mention of a celebration comes from July 1777, when a British officer noted sounds coming from across Narragansett Bay: This being the first anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the Rebel Colonies, they ushered in the morning by firing 13 cannons, one for each colony, we suppose. At sunset, the rebel frigates fired another round of each one after the other; as the evening was still and fine the echo of the guns down the Bay had a grand effect. The annual official and historic celebrations were established in 1785 by Rev. Henry Wight of the First Congregational Church and veteran of the Revolutionary War, by Rev. Wight as the Parade, continue today, organized by the Bristol Fourth of July Committee.
The festivities start on June 14, Flag Day, beginning a period of outdoor concerts, soap-box races and a firefighters' muster at Independence Park. The celebration climaxes on July 4 with the oldest annual parade in the United States, "The Military and Firemen's Parade", an event that draws over 200,000 people from Rhode Island and around the world; these elaborate celebrations give Bristol its nickname, "America's most patriotic town". Bristol is represented in the parade with hometown groups like the Bristol Train of Artillery and the Bristol County Fifes and Drums. Bristol is situated on 10.1 square miles of a peninsula, with Narragansett Bay on its west and Mount Hope Bay on its east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.6 square miles, of which, 10.1 square miles of it is land and 10.5 square miles of it is water. Bristol's harbor is home to over 800 boat moorings in seven mooring fields; as of the 2010
Meadville is a city in and the county seat of Crawford County, United States. The city is within 90 miles of Pittsburgh, it was the first permanent settlement in northwest Pennsylvania. The population was 13,388 at the 2010 census; the city of Meadville is the principal city of PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. As well as one of two cities, the other being Erie, that make up the larger Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area. Meadville was settled on May 1788, by a party of settlers led by David Mead, its location was chosen well, for it lies at the confluence of Cussewago Creek and French Creek, was only a day's travel by boat to the safety of Fort Franklin. Their settlement was in a large meadow, first cleared by Native Americans led by Chief Custaloga, well suited for growing maize; the village Custaloga built here was known as Cussewago. Custaloga's name first appeared in western Pennsylvania's history in George Washington's journal of 1754; when Washington arrived in the village of Venango, Custaloga was in charge of the wampum of his nation.
This wampum was a message, sent to the Six Nations if the French refused to leave the land. Custaloga was the chief of the Munsee or Wolf Clan of Delawares and he ruled over the Delawares at the town of Cussewago, at the present site of Meadville; the neighboring Iroquois and Lenape befriended the isolated settlement, but their enemies, including the Wyandots, were not so amiable. The threat of their attacks caused the settlement to be evacuated for a time in 1791. Around 1800, many of the settlers to the Meadville area came after receiving land bounties for service in the Revolutionary War. Meadville became an important transportation center after construction of the French Creek Feeder Canal in 1837 and of the Beaver and Erie Canal it connected to at Conneaut Lake and subsequent railroad development. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries Meadville played a small part in the Underground Railroad helping escaping slaves to freedom. An event in September 1880 led to the end of segregation by race in the state's public schools.
At the South Ward schools, Elias Allen tried unsuccessfully to enroll his two children. He appealed to the Crawford County Court of Common Pleas, Judge Pearson Church declared unconstitutional the 1854 state law mandating separate schools for Negro children; this law was amended, effective July 1881, to prohibit such segregation. By the late 19th century, Meadville's economy was driven by logging and iron production; the Talon Corporation, headquartered in Meadville, played a major role in the development of the zipper. Since the clothing industry was unaffected by the Great Depression, the community saw a population boom at that time. During World War II, the nearby Keystone Ordnance plant brought additional jobs to the area; the high demand for zippers created favorable conditions for the Talon Company, so became Meadville's most crucial industry. The company encountered significant difficulties after it was absorbed by Textron industries in 1968 ending up bankrupt. Today, nothing remains of Talon in Meadville except for a few run down buildings.
However, as a result of the need for close tolerances and tool and die makers, a cottage industry of tool and die shops was established which resulted in Meadville, earning the city the nickname Tool City with more tool shops per capita than any place else in the United States. In 1886, a blacksmith from Evansburg, George B. DeArment, began hand-forging farrier's tools and selling them from town to town out of the back of a wagon; the business became known as the Champion Bolt and Clipper Company. In 1904, now named Channellock, the company moved to a 12,000-square-foot facility in Meadville and added nippers and open-end wrenches to its product line. George B. DeArment’s two sons, Almon W. and J. Howard DeArment, became partners in the company in 1911 and expanded the product line again to include hammers. In 1923, the company moved again to a 33,000-square-foot facility at its current location. Four years the name of the company was changed to the Champion–DeArment Tool Company. Talon remained a major employer, along with the Erie Railroad, American Viscose Corporation, Channellock tools, Dad's Pet Food.
The area saw an increase in population during the Great Depression and the economy continued to grow past World War ll. In the 1980s, the Great Lakes region saw a decline in heavy industry. By the early 1990s, Channellock and Dad's were the only large companies operating in Meadville; this blow to the local economy was softened by subsequent surge in light industry tool and die machine shops. The area has seen growth in the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century; the song "Bittersweet Motel" by Vermont jam band, was inspired when keyboardist Page McConnell left a wedding in Meadville and drove to the Pittsburgh Airport. In addition to the Meadville Downtown Historic District, several buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Baldwin-Reynolds House, Bentley Hall, Independent Congregational Church, Dr. J. R. Mosier Office, Roueche House, Ruter Hall, Judge Henry Shippen House. Meadville, Pennsylvania, is a charming city in Crawford County and was the first permanent settlement in northwestern PA.
The Baldwin Reynolds house is an attraction in Pennsylvania. It was built in 1843 by United States Supreme Court Justice Henry Baldwin. Just a few months after the house was complete, Henry Baldwin passes away in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. After his death, the house became a girls’ school for three years until it was so
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil