James R. Ramsey
James R. Ramsey is the former president of the University of Louisville, located in Louisville and the former president of the related University of Louisville Foundation. On August 1, 2002, he became the school's acting president and on November 4, 2002 he was named its permanent president. On June 17, 2016, Kentucky Governor Matt Bevin announced that Ramsey would be stepping down as president and that the entire board of trustees of the university would be disbanded and replaced; this was confirmed in a statement issued by Ramsey on the same day. Ramsey offered his resignation at a Board of Trustees meeting on July 27, 2016, accepted by the board, he will remain as head of the University of Louisville Foundation. Ramsey is accused of mismanaging over $55M in University Foundation funds, he is being sued by the institution. The suit says the defendants knowingly caused the foundation to spend endowment funds at an excessive rate and that they took endowment money that should have been invested and diverted it to speculative ventures and gifts that had little realistic chance of repayment.
It alleges that "while engaged in this disloyal conduct and Smith paid themselves excessive compensation out of the foundation." The university outside counsel, Andrew Campbell, managing partner of the Birmingham, Ala. firm Campbell Guin, said the evidence "clearly establishes a pattern of mismanagement in appropriated expenditures and unauthorized acts...mainly through the direction and planning of" Ramsey and Smith." Ramsey resides with his family in Kentucky. Ramsey earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from Western Kentucky University in 1970, a Master of Arts and Ph. D. in Economics from the University of Kentucky in 1972 and 1974, respectively. He served in the United States Army Reserve from 1970 to 1977. Ramsey served twice as Kentucky's budget director under Democrat Governor Paul Patton from 1995-1998 and again from 1999-2002 and worked as the state government's chief economist, he has directed Kentucky's Office of Financial Management, been the state's chief Economic Analyst, worked in the Office of Investment and Debt Management.
He worked as interim commissioner of Kentucky's Office of the New Economy. Ramsey was an economics professor at five other universities: the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Loyola University, the University of Kentucky, Western Kentucky University, Middle Tennessee State University. Since Ramsey became president, his administration's main goals have been to continue the school's large gains in research activity and endowment, to improve infrastructure and aesthetics of the university's Belknap campus. At the suggestion of his wife, Jane, a $1 million campus beautification project was begun, which planted hundreds of trees on the roads around the campus and painted five overpasses with a UofL theme. In addition, he has worked with city and state officials to modify the nearby I-65 area to provide better access to campus, improve Stansbury Park, redevelop vacant industrial buildings near campus into upscale housing or athletic facilities. Major academic accomplishments completed since Ramsey took office include an increase of over $200 million in the schools endowment, the doubling of federal research funding, an increase of two points in the school's average ACT scores among new students, improvements in retention, an increasing enrollment from areas outside the Louisville area.
Major physical projects include the completion of a new nanotechnology research building, an expansion of the Ekstrom Library, three new student residence halls, new natatorium, lacrosse field, Indoor Football practice facility, baseball stadium and adjacent sports medicine complex. Work is ongoing for a new heart disease research building and a state of the art medical laboratory on the school's medical campus; the last several years of Ramsey's tenure as president of the university were marked with "numerous scandals", including an escort sex scandal involving basketball playing recruits between 2010 and 2014 that led to a postseason playing ban for the 2015–16 season, a gaffe involving him and his staff dressing up as stereotypical Mexicans for a Halloween party, his holding dual roles as both president of the university and president of the university's charitable foundation. In October 2015, Ramsey and his wife hosted a Halloween luncheon at the university presidents' mansion, at which he and his staff dressed in costumes as stereotypical Mexicans, wearing sombreros and large fake mustaches.
They posed with Ramsey wearing a colorful striped poncho. Ramsey and his Chief of Staff apologized after this was criticized as being culturally insensitive. Ramsey received criticism for holding the position of president of the University of Louisville while being the president of the University of Louisville Foundation, a $1.1 billion fund-raising entity associated with the university. He received $2.8 million in compensation from the Foundation in 2014. The relationship between the university and the foundation has been under investigation by the Kentucky State Auditor Mike Harmon. Official University of Louisville biography
James Guthrie (Kentucky)
James Guthrie was a Kentucky lawyer, plantation owner, railroad president and Democratic Party politician. He served as the 21st United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Franklin Pierce, became president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. After serving, part-time, in both houses of the Kentucky legislature as well as Louisville's City Council before the American Civil War, Guthrie became one of Kentucky's United States Senators in 1865. Although Guthrie opposed Kentucky's secession from the United States and attended the Peace Conference of 1861, sided with the Union during the Civil War, he declined President Abraham Lincoln's offer to become the Secretary of War; as one of Kentucky's Senators after the war, Guthrie supported President Andrew Johnson and opposed Congressional Reconstruction. Guthrie was a director of the Louisville and Portland Canal Company, the first president of the University of Louisville, presided over the Kentucky Constitutional Convention of 1849.
During the Civil War, Guthrie resisted federal pressure to nationalize the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, but allowed the Union to use it to move troops and supplies. James Guthrie was born on December 5, 1792 near Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky to General Adam Guthrie and his wife, the Pennsylvania-born Hannah Polk. Though his grandparents emigrated from Ireland, Guthrie was of Scottish descent, and his ancestor James Guthrie was a Scottish clergyman executed in 1661 after the Restoration of King Charles I. Adam Guthrie moved from Virginia across the Appalachian Mountains into Kentucky and married Hannah Polk in 1788, they would have five daughters who survived to adulthood. Having fought Native peoples until they left the area after the American Revolutionary War, the senior Guthrie developed a large plantation in Nelson County, twice won election to the Kentucky General Assembly. James Guthrie received some of his early education in a log schoolhouse. During his father's military campaigns, Guthrie studied at McAllister's Military Academy in Bardstown.
In 1812, young James Guthrie took a job on a flatboat transporting goods down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, Louisiana. After three such trips, he decided to change careers, began to study law under Judge John Rowan, along with Ben Hardin and Charles A. Wickliffe. In 1821, Guthrie married Eliza Churchill Prather; the couple had three daughters--Mary Elizabeth, Ann Augusta, Sarah Julia-- before Eliza Prather Guthrie died in 1836. Sarah Julia Guthrie married chemist J. Lawrence Smith, after whom the J. Lawrence Smith Medal is named. Admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1817, Guthrie began his private legal practice in Bardstown. In 1820, Governor John Adair appointed Guthrie as Commonwealth's Attorney for Jefferson County, whereupon Guthrie relocated to what was the town of Louisville. In 1824, he served on a committee which sought to have Louisville recognized by the state legislature as a city; the effort failed, but Guthrie was elected to the town's board of trustees, became its chair.
The following year, Guthrie became a director of the newly formed Louisville and Portland Canal Company. He helped secure federal funding for a bypass around the Falls of the Ohio. However, although Kentucky's long-time Senator Henry Clay supported such internal improvements, his political opponent Andrew Jackson when elected president, cut off these funds shortly after taking office in 1829. Guthrie secured private funds and the canal was completed in late 1830. Within a few years, steamboats became too wide for the canal, their high smokestacks interfedered with bridges, so it became more an impediment than an aid. Jefferson County voters elected Guthrie, who ran as a Democrat, to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1827. In his first year, he chaired the Internal Improvements Committee. In this capacity, he promoted construction of a number of roads and canals, as well as a railroad connecting Louisville to Frankfort. During his service in the House, Guthrie came to chair the Committee on the Courts of Justice.
In 1828, Guthrie mustered enough support to secure city status for Louisville. He was elected to the new city council, became chair of its most powerful committee, the finance committee. Guthrie served in the House until 1831, when he was elected to the Kentucky Senate. Fellow legislators twice chose him President Pro Tempore, he served on the Education Committees. In 1834, Guthrie helped found the State Bank of Kentucky, served as one of its directors, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat in the U. S. Senate in 1835. Back in Louisville, Guthrie advocated constructing a new building to house both city and county government offices. Secretly, he hoped Kentucky's capital would be moved to Louisville and that building would become the state's capitol. However, the Panic of 1837 halted the courthouse's construction, as well as the water works and a bridge over the Ohio River connecting Louisville to Indiana; some called the unfinished courthouse "Guthrie's Folly", but it was still touted as Louisville sought to become the state's capitol in 1842.
All three projects were completed, Guthrie's Folly became the Jefferson County Courthouse. In 1836, a dispute arose among the me
Maysville is a home rule-class city in Mason County, United States and is the seat of Mason County. The population was 9,011 at the 2010 census, making it the 40th-largest city in Kentucky by population. Maysville is on the Ohio River, 66 miles northeast of Lexington, it is the principal city of the Maysville Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Mason and Lewis counties. Two bridges cross the Ohio from Maysville to Aberdeen, Ohio: the Simon Kenton Memorial Bridge built in 1931 and the William H. Harsha Bridge built in 2001. On the edge of the outer Bluegrass Region, Maysville is important in Kentucky's settlement. Frontiersmen Simon Kenton and Daniel Boone are among the city's founders. Maysville became an important port on the Ohio River for the northeastern part of the state, it exported bourbon whiskey and tobacco, the latter two produced by African American slaves before the Civil War. It was once a center of wrought iron manufacture, sending ironwork downriver to decorate the buildings of Cincinnati and New Orleans, Louisiana.
Other small manufacturers located early in Maysville and manufacturing remains an important part of the modern economy. Under the leadership of Henry Means Walker, Maysville was home to one of the largest tobacco auction warehouses in the world for most of the 20th century. Maysville was an important stop on the Underground Railroad, as the free state of Ohio was just across the river. Abolitionist author Harriet Beecher Stowe visited the area in 1833 and watched a slave auction in front of the court house in Washington, the original seat of the county and now a historic district of Maysville, she included the scene in her influential novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1852. Buffalo once forded the Ohio here, beating a broad path into the interior of Kentucky in search of salt licks. For thousands of years, various cultures of indigenous peoples inhabited the area, hunting the buffalo and other game. In the 17th century, the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, based in present-day New York state, drove out other tribes to hold the Ohio Valley as a hunting ground.
European-American settlers traveling down the Ohio in the 18th century and early 19th century found a natural harbor at Limestone Creek. The buffalo trace a well-used trail traveled for centuries by Native Americans, was a natural path into the bluegrass region, extending all the way to Lexington, Kentucky. Frontiersman Simon Kenton made the first settlement in the area in 1775, but temporarily abandoned that to fight in the western battles of the American Revolution. Returning in 1784, Kenton built a blockhouse at the site of Maysville and founded Kenton's Station at a site three miles inland. Kenton met new settlers at Limestone, as the landing place was called, escorted them inland to his station. In 1786 the village which grew up near Kenton's Station was established by act of the Virginia General Assembly as the town of Washington. By this time, John May had acquired the land at Limestone and Daniel Boone established a trading post and tavern there. In 1787 the little settlement was incorporated as Maysville, though the name Limestone persisted well into the 19th century.
In 1788, when Mason County was organized and Washington was named its county seat, Maysville was still a primitive site of warehouses and wharves, with few dwellings. In 1795, the conclusion of the Northwest Indian War reduced the likelihood of Indian attacks from across the Ohio. Maysville began to flourish. Zane's Trace, a road from Wheeling, Virginia, to the bank of the Ohio River opposite Maysville, was completed in 1797 and stimulated ferry traffic across the river. By 1807, Maysville was one of two principal ports in Kentucky. In 1811, the first steamboat came down the Ohio from Pittsburgh, passing Maysville on its way to New Orleans. With the coming of the steamboat, Maysville's population and area expanded rapidly. Southwest from Maysville, the road followed the former buffalo trace and Native American trail to Lexington, it was called both the Limestone Road. It was maintained by the various counties through which it passed with local labor from the county levies; the road was rough and during certain seasons impassable.
In 1829, the Kentucky legislature authorized the Maysville, Washington and Lexington Turnpike Road Company to construct a modern roadway along the route of the old Limestone Road. Users would be charged fees for maintenance and paying off the debt to shareholders; the act set aside blocks of shares for purchase by the federal government. Henry Clay, an influential Kentucky politician and proponent of the American System, argued for the Maysville Road and other infrastructure, noting it would be part of a longer road terminating in New Orleans and proper for federal funding. In 1830, Congress passed a bill authorizing the federal government to purchase shares in the turnpike company. President Andrew Jackson, a bitter rival of Clay, vetoed the bill, arguing that the project was of purely local benefit; the Maysville Road veto was one of Jackson's first acts in aligning the federal government with his principles of Jacksonian democracy. An attempt to override Jackson's veto failed, but the controversy over the Maysville Road veto continued for some time.
The turnpike was completed in 1835 with funding from private investment. It was the first macadamized road in the state. Today it is U. S. Route 68. By the 1830s, Maysville had a population of 3,000 and was the second-most important commercial city in Kentucky after Louisville. Washington, the county seat, had dwindled in importance after a fire i
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Transylvania University is a private university in Lexington, United States. Transylvania was founded in 1780, it offers 36 major programs, as well as dual-degree engineering programs, is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Transylvania's name, meaning "across the woods" in Latin, stems from the university's founding in the forested region of western Virginia known as the Transylvania Colony, which became most of Kentucky in 1792. Transylvania is the alma mater of two U. S. vice presidents, two U. S. Supreme Court justices, 50 U. S. senators, 101 U. S. representatives, 36 U. S. governors, the one Confederate President, 34 U. S. ambassadors, making it a large producer of U. S. statesmen. Its medical program graduated 8,000 physicians by 1859, its enduring footprint, both in national and Southern academia, makes it among the most prolific cultural establishments and the most storied institutions in the South. Transylvania was the first college west of the Allegheny Mountains, was named for the Colony of Transylvania, Latin for across the woods, which aimed to educate good citizens.
Thomas Jefferson was governor of Virginia when the Virginia Assembly chartered Transylvania Seminary in 1780. Called Transylvania University by 1799, its first sponsor was the Christ Episcopal Church's rector, the Reverend Moore; the school became affiliated with the Presbyterian Church. Situated in a log cabin in Boyle County, the school moved to Lexington in 1789; the first site in Lexington was a single building in. By 1818, a new main building was constructed for students' classes. In 1829, that building burned, the school was moved to its present location north of Third Street. Old Morrison, the only campus building at the time, was constructed 1830–34, under the supervision of Henry Clay, who both taught law and was a member of Transylvania's Board. After 1818, the university included a medical school, a law school, a divinity school, a college of arts and sciences. An institution that aided in the development of today's Transylvania University was Bacon College of Georgetown, named after Sir Francis Bacon, a school that would, for a brief time, be known as Kentucky University.
This school was not affiliated with the modern University of Kentucky. Founded by Baptist churches in Kentucky, Bacon College operated from 1837 to 1851, it was distinct from nearby Georgetown College, another Baptist-supported institution. Bacon College closed due to lack of funding, but seven years in 1858, Bacon College's charter was amended to establish Kentucky University when the school had secured significant financial backing and was moved to donated land in Harrodsburg; this school closed in 1860 and its Harrodsburg building burned in 1864. By mutual agreement and an act of the state legislature the college was merged with Transylvania University in 1865. From these early years, Transylvania has dominated academe in the bluegrass region, was the sought-out destination for the children of the South's political and folk leadership, military families, business elite, it attracted many politically ambitious young men including the founder of Texas. Following the devastating Civil War, Kentucky University was hit by a major fire, both it and Transylvania University were left in dire financial straits.
In 1865, both institutions secured permission to merge. The new institution used Transylvania's campus in Lexington while perpetuating the Kentucky University name; the university was reorganized around several new colleges, including the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, publicly chartered as a department of Kentucky University as a land-grant institution under the Morrill Act. However, due to questions regarding having a federally funded land-grant college controlled by a religious body, the A&M college was spun off in 1878 as an independent, state-run institution; the A&M of Kentucky soon developed into one of the state's flagship public universities, the University of Kentucky. Kentucky University's College of the Bible, which traced its roots to Bacon College's Department of Hebrew Literature, received a separate charter in 1878. Transylvania's seminary became a separate institution, but remained housed on the Kentucky University campus until 1950, it changed its name to the Lexington Theological Seminary.
In 1903, Hamilton College, a Lexington-based women's college founded in 1869, merged into Kentucky University. Due to confusion between Kentucky University and its daughter institution, the University of Kentucky, the institution was renamed "Transylvania University," in 1908. In 1988, Transylvania University experienced an infringement on the institution's trademark when Hallmark Cards began selling Transylvania University T-shirts; the product, developed for the 1988 Halloween season, was intended to be a novelty item purporting to be college wear from the fictional Count Dracula's alma mater. When contacted by Transylvania University, Hallmark admitted that they were not aware of the Kentucky-based institution and recalled all unsold product immediately. Transylvania University is now affiliated with the Disciples of Christ. Robert Penn Warren set part of his novel All the King's Men at Transylvania University. Robert Lowell referred to the university in his sonnet "The Graduate." The poem states gleefully that "Transylvania's Greek Revival Chapel is one of the best Greek Revival things in the South."
A 2004 heist at Transylvania University's special collections library was the subject of true-crime drama film American Animals, released in 2018. Transylvania is home to the Judy Gaines Young Book Aw
St. Mary's College of Maryland
St. Mary's College of Maryland, established in 1840, is a U. S. public, secular and co-educational four-year liberal arts college located in St. Mary's City, Maryland. St. Mary's College of Maryland is a public, state-supported honors college which offers an experience similar to that of an elite liberal arts college. With about 1,800 enrolled students, the institution offers bachelor's degrees in 24 disciplines, as well as a master's program and numerous certification programs; the college is located in St. Mary's City and shares much of its campus with Historic St. Mary's City, the site of Maryland's first colony and first capital, it is the site of the fourth colony in British North America. St. Mary's City is considered to be the birthplace of adherents to Catholicism in America seeking to reestablish it as a state religion; this is due to its connection to colonial Maryland being founded as a Catholic colony in opposition to the 1689 Bill of Rights. The British colony of Maryland established Christianity as its state religion.
The Historical Archaeology Field School is jointly operated by St. Mary's College of Maryland and Historic St. Mary's City; the campus and the rest of St. Mary's City combined are considered to be one of the premier archaeological sites in the United States. St. Mary's College of Maryland is located on the original site of Maryland's first colony, St. Mary's City, the first capital of Maryland and is considered to be the birthplace of religious freedom in America. Colonial St. Mary's City was only a town and at its peak had between 500 and 600 residents. However, as the colony expanded and settlements spread throughout the Eastern part of what is now Maryland, the town remained the capital and representatives would travel from all over the colony to participate in the Maryland General Assembly, the colony's first legislative body; the Colony was founded under a mandate by the colonial proprietor, Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore of England, that the new settlers engage in religious tolerance of each other.
The first settlers were both Catholic during a time of persecution of Catholics. This mandate was unprecedented at the time, as England had been wracked by religious conflict for centuries; the following history passed through times of new ideas, times of setbacks, long periods of oppression and times of hope and renewal. The school evolved in response to many milestone events, in some cases the school contributed to history as well as being influenced by it. St. Mary's College of Maryland offers over 31 different undergraduate degrees and minors, it has a masters program in education. St. Mary's College is a public honors college, it is one of only two such Public Honors Colleges in the United States. As such, it maintains a core honors-level curriculum that all of its students, regardless of major, must complete; the school is non-religious and has been since it was started in 1840. The school has been coeducational since 1949; the college community is guided by a set of principles called "The St. Mary's Way".
These principles intend to cultivate a supportive, caring environment where a passion for curiosity and discovery can flourish. This set of principles stresses the importance of making a difference in the world, informed by the natural beauty and historic meaning of the St. Mary's City area; the St. Mary's Way sets a tone for integrity and tolerance of differences in viewpoint and experience; the text of the St. Mary's Way is as follows: The St. Mary's Way St. Mary's College of Maryland lies in a setting of natural beauty and historic meaning which enhances our ability to reflect on our lives in an complex and interdependent world; as a member of St. Mary's College of Maryland, I accept the St. Mary's Way and agree to join in working with others to develop this College as a community: Where people respect the natural environment and the tradition of tolerance, the heritage of this place Where people cultivate a life-long quest for disciplined learning and creativity Where people take individual responsibility for their work and actions Where people foster relationships based upon mutual respect, honesty and trust Where people are engaged in an ongoing dialogue that values differences and the unique contributions of others' talents, backgrounds and world views Where people are committed to examining and shaping the functional, ethical values of our changing world Where people contribute to a spirit of caring and an ethic of service.
By choosing to join this community, I accept the responsibility of helping to build on its past heritage, of living its ideals, contributing to its future. The college has 31 undergraduate programs that allow a choice of 24 majors, leading to a Bachelor of Arts, 26 minors.69% of St. Mary's students major or minor in a second academic discipline. Popular degree programs include biology, English, political science, psychology; the college has the possibility for students to develop their own major, a Student Designed Major. The college offers a Master of Arts in Teaching. Including teacher certification 81% overall graduation rate 70% four-year graduation rate, highest of any public institution in Maryland and third highest in the United States among public colleges. (69% of students pursue dual concurrent degrees or dual minors, which may take longer than fo