A ruff is an item of clothing worn in Western and Northern Europe from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century. The ruff, worn by men and children, evolved from the small fabric ruffle at the drawstring neck of the shirt or chemise, they served as changeable pieces of cloth that could themselves be laundered separately while keeping the wearer's doublet or gown from becoming soiled at the neckline. The stiffness of the garment forced upright posture, their impracticality led them to become a symbol of wealth and status. Ruffs were made from linen cambric, stiffened with starch imported from the Low Countries. Ruffs were sometimes made from lace. However, lace was expensive; the size of the ruff increased. "Ten yards is enough for the ruffs of the neck and hand" for a New Year's gift made by her ladies for Queen Elizabeth in 1565, but the discovery of starch allowed ruffs to be made wider without losing their shape. Ruffs were separate garments that could be washed and set into elaborate figure-of-eight folds by the use of heated cone-shaped goffering irons.
Ruffs were coloured during starching, vegetable dyes were used to give the ruff a yellow, pink or mauve tint. A pale blue colour could be obtained via the use of smalt, although Elizabeth I took against this colour and issued a Royal Prerogative: Setting and maintaining the structured and voluminous shape of the ruff could be difficult due to changes in body heat or weather. For this reason, they could be worn only once before losing their shape. At their most extreme, ruffs were a foot or more wide. Ruffs could make it difficult to eat during mealtimes, similar to the cangue. By the start of the seventeenth century, ruffs were falling out of fashion in Western Europe, in favour of wing collars and falling bands; the fashion lingered longer in the Dutch Republic, where ruffs can be seen in portraits well into the seventeenth century, farther east. It stayed on as part of the ceremonial dress of city councillors in North German Hanseatic cities and of Lutheran clergy in those cities and in Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
The ruff was banned in Spain under Philip IV. Ruffs remain part of the formal attire of bishops and ministers in the Church of Denmark and the Church of the Faroe Islands and are worn for services; the Church of Norway removed the ruff from its clergy uniform in 1980, although some conservative ministers, such as Børre Knudsen, continued to wear them. Ruffs are optional for trebles in Anglican church choirs; the judges of the Constitutional Court of Italy wear a robe with an elementar ruff in the neck. Underground artist Klaus Nomi used a ruff as part of his concert attire toward the end of his life, both to complement the Renaissance-era music he focused on during his late career, to hide the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions on his neck. In the twentieth century, the ruff inspired the name of the Elizabethan collar for animals. Piccadill a similar clothing fashion. 1550-1600 in fashion 1600-1650 in fashion Janet Arnold: Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, W. S. Maney and Son Ltd. Leeds 1988. How To Starch a Ruff Part I of IV Portraiture illustrating development from modest 1530s ruffs to the gigantic ruffs of the 1590s 17th century millstone ruff at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam
Gerard Johnson the elder
Gerard Johnson the elder is the Anglicised form of Gheerart Janssen, a Dutch sculptor who operated a monument workshop in Elizabethan and Jacobean England and the father of Gerard Johnson the younger, thought to have created Shakespeare's funerary monument. He and Cornelius Cure became the leaders of the so-called Southwark school of monument design, which dominated the English market in the late-sixteenth century. Johnson was born in Amsterdam and emigrated to England from the Gelderland province around 1567 as a Protestant refugee, he Anglicized his name. Forbidden as an alien to live in the City of London, he settled across the Thames River in Southwark in the Bankside area, in which communities of Dutch and Flemish refugees flourished. Johnson married an English woman and had a family of five sons and a daughter. Two of the sons and Gerard, became sculptors and continued their father's monument business. Johnson's workshop became a major monument supplier. In 1593 his workshop employed an apprentice, as well as an English assistant.
He was buried on 30 July at St Saviour's, Southwark. Although it is known that he made some garden sculptor and a chimney piece, none of which survives, in his will he described himself as a "tombemaker". Johnson's clientele included several important patrons, such as the earls of Rutland, the earls of Southampton, Sir John Gage, the Tudor politician, in 1595. In 1591, Johnson was commissioned, ostensibly by Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland, but in practicality his mother, to erect two monuments in St Mary the Virgin's Church at Bottesford, commemorating the 3rd and 4th earls and John Manners; the surviving financial papers paint a detailed picture of how such commissions were negotiated and carried out. Johnson received £200 plus expenses for the complete job; the monuments were made in the Southwark yard, carried by ship to Boston and from there transported on 15 carts to Bottesford. Johnson and his son Nicholas stayed in Bottesford to supervise the assembly of the monuments from late September, using local carpenters and masons to alter the church floor and walls to accommodate the structures.
He was paid off in November. John Matthews, a painter from Nottingham, was paid £20 in installments from February through November 1592 for "inricheinge" the two tombs, his son Nicholas was co-executor of his father's estate and worked with him on the Southampton memorial at Titchfield. He collaborated with other tombmakers on major commissions: with Nicholas Stone the elder in 1615 on the tomb of Thomas Sutton at the Charterhouse School and in 1618–19 with William Cure the younger on the tomb of Bishop Montague in Bath Abbey. In 1618-19 he built the third tomb at Bottesford for the Rutlands commemorating Roger Manners, the fifth earl, his wife, he was buried on 16 November at St Saviour's, Southwark. Whinney, Margaret. Sculpture in Britain 1530-1830. 2nd ed. Penguin Books. Pp. 45-51. ISBN 0-14-0560-23-8. White, Adam. "Johnson family". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 16 Feb 2013
Dictionary of National Biography
The Dictionary of National Biography is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives. Hoping to emulate national biographical collections published elsewhere in Europe, such as the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, in 1882 the publisher George Smith, of Smith, Elder & Co. planned a universal dictionary that would include biographical entries on individuals from world history. He approached Leslie Stephen editor of the Cornhill Magazine, owned by Smith, to become the editor. Stephen persuaded Smith that the work should focus only on subjects from the United Kingdom and its present and former colonies. An early working title was the Biographia Britannica, the name of an earlier eighteenth-century reference work; the first volume of the Dictionary of National Biography appeared on 1 January 1885.
In May 1891 Leslie Stephen resigned and Sidney Lee, Stephen's assistant editor from the beginning of the project, succeeded him as editor. A dedicated team of sub-editors and researchers worked under Stephen and Lee, combining a variety of talents from veteran journalists to young scholars who cut their academic teeth on dictionary articles at a time when postgraduate historical research in British universities was still in its infancy. While much of the dictionary was written in-house, the DNB relied on external contributors, who included several respected writers and scholars of the late nineteenth century. By 1900, more than 700 individuals had contributed to the work. Successive volumes appeared quarterly with complete punctuality until midsummer 1900, when the series closed with volume 63; the year of publication, the editor and the range of names in each volume is given below. Since the scope included only deceased figures, the DNB was soon extended by the issue of three supplementary volumes, covering subjects who had died between 1885 and 1900 or, overlooked in the original alphabetical sequence.
The supplements brought the whole work up to the death of Queen Victoria on 22 January 1901. Corrections were added. After issuing a volume of errata in 1904, the dictionary was reissued with minor revisions in 22 volumes in 1908 and 1909. In the words of the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, the dictionary had "proved of inestimable service in elucidating the private annals of the British", providing not only concise lives of the notable deceased, but additionally lists of sources which were invaluable to researchers in a period when few libraries or collections of manuscripts had published catalogues or indices, the production of indices to periodical literatures was just beginning. Throughout the twentieth century, further volumes were published for those who had died on a decade-by-decade basis, beginning in 1912 with a supplement edited by Lee covering those who died between 1901 and 1911; the dictionary was transferred from its original publishers, Elder & Co. to Oxford University Press in 1917.
Until 1996, Oxford University Press continued to add further supplements featuring articles on subjects who had died during the twentieth century. The supplements published between 1912 and 1996 added about 6,000 lives of people who died in the twentieth century to the 29,120 in the 63 volumes of the original DNB. In 1993 a volume containing missing biographies was published; this had an additional 1,000 lives, selected from over 100,000 suggestions. This did not seek to replace any articles on existing DNB subjects though the original work had been written from a Victorian perspective and had become out of date due to changes in historical assessments and discoveries of new information during the twentieth century; the dictionary was becoming less and less useful as a reference work. In 1966, the University of London published a volume of corrections, cumulated from the Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research. There were various versions of the Concise Dictionary of National Biography, which covered everyone in the main work but with much shorter articles.
The last edition, in three volumes, covered everyone who died before 1986. In the early 1990s Oxford University Press committed itself to overhauling the DNB. Work on what was known until 2001 as the New Dictionary of National Biography, or New DNB, began in 1992 under the editorship of Colin Matthew, professor of Modern History at the University of Oxford. Matthew decided that no subjects from the old dictionary would be excluded, however insignificant the subjects appeared to a late twentieth-century eye. Suggestions for new subjects were solicited through questionnaires placed in libraries and universities and, as the 1990s advanced and assessed by the editor, the 12 external consultant editors and several hundred associate editors and in-house staff. Digitization of the DNB was performed by the Alliance Photosetting Company in India; the new dictionary would cover British history, "broadly defined", up to 31 December 2000. The research project was conceived as a collaborative one, with in-house staff co-ordinating the work of
Sir Thomas Bromley was a 16th-century lawyer and politician who established himself in the mid-Tudor period and rose to prominence during the reign of Elizabeth I. He was successively Solicitor Lord Chancellor of England, he died three months after her execution. Thomas Bromley was born around 1530, he was the second son of George Bromley of Hodnet, close to Market Drayton in Shropshire, the son of William Bromley of Mitley and Beatrix Hill. Jane Lacon, daughter of Sir Thomas Lacon of Willey, Shropshire; the Bromleys had acquired estates in neighbouring counties. They were of the middling landed gentry, like their allies and neighbours the Hills: the two families were to prosper together by seeking new sources of income, the Hills from commerce and the Bromleys through the law. George Bromley was a prominent member of the Inner Temple, serving as Autumn Reader for 1508 and Lent Reader for 1509, although he refused the honour for Lent 1515. Another Thomas Bromley, George's younger cousin, was made Chief Justice of the King’s Bench by Mary I.
The young Thomas Bromley had an elder brother, another George Bromley, the heir to the family estates, himself to become a notable lawyer and politician. The family tree illustrates Thomas Bromley's relationship to the rest of the Bromley dynasty and to their main allies, the Hill and Newport families. Both Thomas Bromley and his elder brother, were trained in law and called to the bar at the Inner Temple. By 1555, Thomas had gained some trust and prestige at his Inn of Court and was appointed as one of the auditors of the steward. In that year his namesake, the chief justice, bequeathing the young Thomas an allowance of 40 shillings a year for ten years, on condition he continue his legal studies; this he did, as he received the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law from Oxford University in 1560 He rose at his Inn: by February 1563 he was a member of the parliament of the Inner Temple, like his brother George. In 1565 he was appointed attendant on the Reader for the first time, accompanying Richard Onslow, a contemporary from Shropshire who officiated with him.
Bromley is variously stated to have been Reader at the Inner temple in 1566 for Lent, autumn although the Inn's records only mention his selection as attendant on the Lent Reader, Francis Gawdy. ODNB states that he lectured on the Statutes of Attaints, he is listed as a double reader, along with his brother George, in a state paper from about 1579. In 1567 the parliament of the Inn had to rectify a number of anomalies relating to chambers held by Onslow and Gawdy, making clear that Bromley had been admitting trainee lawyers of his own for some years before he became a bencher. On 25 October 1573 Bromley was chosen to be Lent Reader for the following year but the honour was deferred until 1575 because of the pressure of parliamentary business, with Edmund Anderson standing in for him. A week Bromley was elected Treasurer of the Inner Temple, with power to choose his own assistants, he seems to have taken his post seriously, found the Inn's finances in crisis. On 19 November a levy was imposed on all members clear immediate debts, graded according to status, with Bromley and his fellow-benchers paying 13s.
4d. While junior barristers paid 6s. 8d. It was not enough, in January 1574 the parliament noted that the House at this present is indebted and far behindhand, by reason whereof it is the worse served both of bread, drink and divers other things, for that the creditors are not in any reasonable and convenient time paid such sums of money as are due unto them for their wares. A butler was deputed to persecute members for their outstanding fees, on pain of physical exclusion from the premises, a few months pleading inflation of food prices, the members were made chargeable for their actual consumption. Bromley continued in office the following year. Financial reform continued, with the cook made chargeable for future losses of pewter dishes – a major expense in the past. Bromley's appointment for a third term was noted in November 1575. Colleagues and patrons Bromley sat as a member of the Parliament of England three times, all early in his career, before he achieved major promotion as a judge. In 1558 Bromley was MP for the Shropshire borough of Bridgnorth in the last parliament of Mary's reign.
At this point he had not completed his education, although he was about 28 years old and a recognised lawyer. He owed his election to family connections, his mother's family had numerous links in the Bridgnorth area. The High Sheriff of Shropshire had a considerable say in elections, in that year was Richard Newport, son-in-law of the chief justice Thomas Bromley and another Inner Templar; the town's elector's, a council of bailiffs, had a predilection for lawyers. Their other choice was John Broke, a young Middle Templar and the son of the Shropshire jurist Robert Broke. However, the election seems to have been delayed for want of nominations, until 18 January, only two days before the opening of parliament. In 1559 Bromley was returned to parliament by Wigan; this was dominated by the Earl of Derby. Although it is not known how Bromley obtained the seat, the duchy too had a preference for lawyers, it secured the return of a member of the Gerard family, another gentry-lawyer dynasty, Bromley's colleague on this occasion was William Gerard.
It is much clearer how Bromley came to be MP for Guildford in the parliament which assembled in January 1563. The seat was in the gift o
John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland
John Manners, 4th Earl of Rutland was the son of Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland, Lady Margaret Neville, daughter of Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland. He married daughter of Francis Charlton of Apley Castle, they had ten children: Lady Bridget Manners married Robert Tyrwhitt of Kettleby 1594 Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland married Elizabeth Sidney. Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland married twice, first to Frances Knyvett, secondly to Cecily Tufton. George Manners, 7th Earl of Rutland married Frances Cary. Sir Oliver Manners Lady Frances Manners married William Willoughby, 3rd Baron Willoughby of Parham Lady Mary Manners Lady Elizabeth Manners Edward Manners died young Lady Anne Manners.
Earl of Sussex
Earl of Sussex is a title, created several times in the Peerages of England, Great Britain, the United Kingdom. The early Earls of Arundel were also called Earls of Sussex; the fifth creation came in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1717 in favour of Talbot Yelverton, 2nd Viscount Longueville. The Yelverton family descended from Sir Christopher Yelverton, Speaker of the House of Commons from 1597 to 1598. Sir Christopher's grandson and namesake, Christopher Yelverton, was created a baronet, of Easton Mauduit in the County of Northampton, in the Baronetage of England in 1641, he was succeeded by Sir Henry, the second Baronet. He married Susan Longueville, suo jure 13th Baroness Grey de Ruthyn, their eldest son, succeeded in both the baronetcy and barony. However, he died young and was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifteenth Baron. In 1690 he was created Viscount Longueville in the Peerage of England, his son, the aforementioned second Viscount, was created Earl of Sussex in 1727. Henry's two sons and Henry, both succeeded in the earldom.
The baronetcy and earldom became extinct on Henry's death in 1799. He was succeeded in the barony of Grey de Ruthyn by his grandson, the nineteenth Baron, the son of his daughter Lady Barbara Yelverton by Colonel Edward Thoroton Gould. See Baron Grey de Ruthyn for further history of this title. John de Warenne, 1st Earl of Sussex John de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Sussex Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex Henry Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex Henry Radclyffe, 4th Earl of Sussex Robert Radclyffe, 5th Earl of Sussex Edward Radclyffe, 6th Earl of Sussex Subsidiary titles: Viscount FitzWalter, Baron FitzWalter John Savile, 1st Baron Savile of Pontefract Thomas Savile, 2nd Baron Savile of Pontefract Thomas Savile, 1st Earl of Sussex James Savile, 2nd Earl of Sussex Subsidiary titles: Viscount Savile, Baron Castlebar Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex Subsidiary title: Baron Dacre Sir Christopher Yelverton, 1st Baronet Sir Henry Yelverton, 2nd Baronet Sir Charles Yelverton, 3rd Baronet Charles Yelverton, 14th Baron Grey de Ruthyn Henry Yelverton, 15th Baron Grey de Ruthyn Henry Yelverton, 1st Viscount Longueville Talbot Yelverton, 2nd Viscount Longueville Talbot Yelverton, 1st Earl of Sussex George Augustus Yelverton, 2nd Earl of Sussex Henry Yelverton, 3rd Earl of Sussex Talbot Yelverton HRH The Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, 1st Earl of Sussex Prince Arthur of Connaught Alastair Arthur Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, 2nd Earl of Sussex Duke of Sussex Earl of Arundel Yelverton baronets Baron Grey de Ruthyn Earl of Sussex Sussex, Earl of Sussex, Earl of Sussex, Earl of
Nottingham Castle, a castle in Nottingham, England, is located in a commanding position on a natural promontory known as "Castle Rock", with cliffs 130 feet high to the south and west. In the Middle Ages it was occasional royal residence. In decline by the 16th century, it was demolished in 1649; the Duke of Newcastle built a mansion on the site, burnt down by rioters in 1831 and left as a ruin. It was rebuilt to house an art gallery and museum, which remain in use. Little of the original castle survives, but sufficient portions remain to give an impression of the layout of the site; the first Norman castle on Castle Rock was a wooden structure of a motte-and-bailey design, begun in 1068, two years after the Battle of Hastings, on the orders of William the Conqueror. This wooden structure was replaced by a far more defensible stone castle during the reign of King Henry II, of an imposing and complex architectural design, which comprised an upper bailey at the highest point of the castle rock, a middle bailey to the north containing the main royal apartments, a large outer bailey to the east.
For centuries the castle served as one of the most important in England for nobles and royalty alike. In a strategic position due to its location near a crossing of the River Trent, it was known as a place of leisure, being close to the royal hunting grounds at Tideswell, the "Kings Larder" in the Royal Forest of the Peak, close to the royal forests of Barnsdale and Sherwood; the castle had its own deer park in the area to the west, still known as The Park. While King Richard I was away on the Third Crusade, along with a great number of English noblemen, Nottingham Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the heroic outlaw. In March 1194, an historic battle took place at Nottingham Castle, part of the returned King Richard's campaign to put down the rebellion of Prince John; the castle was the site of a decisive attack when King Richard besieged it after constructing some siege machines similar to those used on crusade.
Richard was aided by Ranulph de Blondeville, 4th Earl of Chester, David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon. The castle surrendered after just a few days. Shortly before his 18th birthday, King Edward III, with the help of a few trusted companions led by Sir William Montagu, staged a coup d'état at Nottingham Castle against his mother Isabella of France, her lover, Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March. Both were acting as Regents during Edward's minority following their murder of his father Edward II at Berkeley Castle. William Montagu and his companions were accompanied by William Eland and overseer of Mortimer's castle, who knew the location of a secret tunnel which would take them up to a locked door higher up in the castle to a locked door. In the dark of night on 19 October 1330, Montagu and his companions entered the tunnel, climbed up to the door, which had now been unlocked either by Edward III or a trusted servant, overpowered Mortimer, killing Mortimer's personal guards. Mortimer was led out of the tunnel and arrested, along with Queen Mother Isabella.
Mortimer was sent to the Tower of London, hanged a month later. Isabella of France was forced into retirement at Castle Rising Castle. With this dramatic event the personal reign of Edward began. Edward III held Parliaments. In 1346 King David II of Scotland was held prisoner. In 1365 Edward III improved the castle with a new tower on the west side of the Middle Bailey and a new prison under the High Tower. In 1376 Peter de la Mare, speaker of the House of Commons was confined in Nottingham Castle for having'taken unwarrantable liberties with the name of Alice Perrers, mistress of the king'. In 1387 the state council was held in the castle. Richard II held the Lord Mayor of London with Aldermen and Sheriffs in the castle in 1392, held another state council to humble Londoners; the last visit recorded by Richard II was in 1397. From 1403 until 1437 it was the main residence of Joan. After the residence of Joan maintenance was reduced. Only upon the Wars of the Roses did Nottingham Castle begin to be used again as a military stronghold.
Edward IV proclaimed himself king in Nottingham, in 1476 he ordered the construction of a new tower and Royal Apartments. This was described by John Leland in 1540 as:'the most beautifulest part and gallant building for lodging... a right sumptuous piece of stone work.' During the reign of King Henry VII the castle remained a royal fortress. Henry VIII ordered new tapestries for the castle before he visited Nottingham in August 1511. By 1536 Henry had the castle reinforced and its garrison increased from a few dozen men to a few hundred. In 1538 the Constable, the Thomas Manners, 1st Earl of Rutland, reported on the need for maintenance. A survey in 1525 stated that there was much'dekay and ruyne of said castell' and'part of the roof of the Great Hall is fallen down; the new building there is in dekay of timber and glass'. The castle ceased to be a royal residence by 1600 and was rendered obsolete in the 16th century by artillery. A short time following the outbreak of the English Civil War, the castle was in a semi-ruined state after a number of skirmishes occurred on the site.
At the start of the Civil War, in August 1642, Charles I chose Nottingham as the rallying point for his armies, but soon after he departed, the castle rock was made defensible and held by the parliamentarians. Commanded by John Hutchinson, they repulsed several Ro