The Century Association is a private club in New York City. It evolved out of an earlier organization – the Sketch Club, founded in 1829 by editor and poet William Cullen Bryant and his friends – and was established in 1847 by Bryant and others as a club to promote interest in the fine arts and literature, open to "Artists, Literary Men, Physicians, Officers of the Army and Navy, members of the Bench and Bar, Clergymen, Representatives of the Press and men of leisure." It was intended to have a limited membership of 100 men. Its early members included Bryant. However, by the middle 1850s, the membership consisted of merchants, businessmen and doctors; the Century possesses a notable art collection, including important works by Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, other Hudson River School painters. It is an important venue for the exhibition of contemporary art created by its members; the club agreed to start admitting women members in 1989, after a strenuous legal battle. The Century Association resulted from the merger of two earlier private clubs for men "of similar social standing or shared interests."
The Sketch Club had focused on literature and the arts, while the Column Club had been a Columbia University alumni organization. The initial invitation for the combined club was sent to one hundred men, which became the basis for the name "The Century" slightly altered to the Century Association; the club rented a variety of temporary locations in Manhattan, gravitating to the area around Union Square and Madison Square. Among these locations were over Del Vecchio's picture store at 495 Broadway, 435 Broome Street, over a millinery shop at 575 Broadway, 24 Clinton Place. Rapid growth in membership to 250 led the club to incorporate and purchase a permanent location in 1857; the club's first permanent headquarters was an existing two-and-one-half-story residence at 42 East 15th Street redesignated 109-111, between Union Square East and Irving Place. Built in about 1847 and purchased by the Century Association in 1857 for $24,000, the dwelling was extensively remodeled four times during its 34 years as a clubhouse.
The first time was upon purchase under the direction of New York architect Joseph C. Wells, a Centurion. Expanded at a cost of $11,000, the renovated building was more than twice the size of the original house and styled like an Italian palazzo with facing of ashlar or stucco treated to resemble ashlar masonry. Continuing its growth in both membership and programs during and after the Civil War, the Century Association required larger facilities. Although the club's members considered moving, financial constraints led them in 1867 to ask member and architect Charles D. Gambrill to enlarge their existing structure. Gambrill's plans called for internal alterations, an expansion to the rear to accommodate an art gallery on the second floor and a billiard room on the main floor, a mansard roof, a new unified, brick exterior trimmed with Lockport limestone; the rear extension was promptly completed, but for reasons no longer understood the rest of work was delayed until 1869. By the time construction began again, Gambrill had replaced his previous partner, George B.
Post, with noted young architect Henry Hobson Richardson, who had returned from his architectural training in France and joined the Century Association. It appears that Richardson helped change Gambrill's initial plans, making this one of his early works, before he became one of the most influential architects in the United States; the 1869 remodeling cost $21,000, included an upwards expansion into a mansard-covered third floor. Eliminating the prior palazzo feel, it featured a unified neo-Grec style. Although Richardson would develop a personal Romanesque style, his training at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris equipped him to design in neo-Grec with its abstracted classical features that worked well in modern materials such as the brick employed here. In 1878, Gambrill and Richardson dissolved their partnership, in the same year Richardson made yet further modifications to the clubhouse; the building is the oldest surviving clubhouse in Manhattan, has been a New York City landmark since 1993.
The exterior was restored and the interior converted in 1996–97 by Beyer Blinder Belle, in recent years it has been the Century Center for the Performing Arts, which had a 248-seat theatre, a ballroom and a studio. As of 2006 it is the New York production facility for Trinity Broadcasting Network, a religious television company. In 1891, The Century Association left 15th Street for its current location, an Italian Renaissance-style palazzo at 7 West 43rd Street. At the time of the move the club had about 800 members. McKim, Mead & White was retained; the structure was designated a New York City Landmark in 1967, has been on the National Register of Historic Places since 1982. The clubhouse was restored by the architect Jan Hird Pokorny in 1992. In late 2010 members of the Century Association – which had only begun admitting female members in 1989, by court order – were embroiled in a hotly contested internal debate, that involved an "unusual vote of the entire membership". At issue wa
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim American nationality; the United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance. English-speakers, speakers of many other languages use the term "American" to mean people of the United States; the word "American" can refer to people from the Americas in general. The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Philippine Islands, who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century, additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U. S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists and immigrants. It includes influences of African-American culture. Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics. In addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally; as many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, make up the American diaspora.
The United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Six races are recognized by the U. S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, people of two or more races. "Some other race" is an option in the census and other surveys. The United States Census Bureau classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation. People of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa. Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial. Additionally, there are Latinos.
Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, New Mexico, Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority; the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe; this includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population. The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents. In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans and Italian Americans were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as "Americans" due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is over-represented in the Upland South, a region, settled by the British. Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income, median personal income of any racial demographic in the nation. According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries. Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition, a few were taken to the Americas as slaves. In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations. According to the Arab American Institute, Arab
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Herbert Adams (sculptor)
Samuel Herbert Adams was an American sculptor. Herbert Adams was born at Vermont. In 1863, at the age of five, he moved to Fitchburg, Massachusetts, so his father could take a job at the Putnam Machine Co, his family purchased a home on 26 Chestnut Street. He attended the Fitchburg public schools, the Academy and was influenced by Fitchburg’s first Art teacher, Louise Haskell, to pursue a career in Art, he got a teaching certificate. Herbert Adams taught Art in the Fitchburg Public schools from 1878–1882, but left Fitchburg for Paris France in 1885 to pursue his interest in sculpture, he was educated at the Massachusetts Normal Art School enrolling in 1877 at 18 years of age, in 1885-1890 he was a pupil of Antonin Mercié in Paris. In 1889 Rodney Wallace, James Phillips, Henry Willis donated money for an ornamental fountain to grace the Upper Common of Fitchburg, MA and the City accepted the idea; this 26 foot in diameter granite and bronze fountain depicting two playful boys and a family of turtles was the first public commission awarded to Adams and was created in his Paris studio.
This was the large sculpture, done in the "lost-wax" process, brought to America. During Adams lifetime he completed over 200 major public works of art, is considered to be one of the most important American sculptors. In 1890-1898 he was an instructor in the art school of Pratt Institute, New York, he was elected into the National Academy of Design in 1898, in 1906 was elected vice-president of the National Academy of Design, New York. Adams served as President from 1917-1920, he experimented with some polychrome busts and tinted marbles, notably in the Rabbi's Daughter, a portrait of the actress Julia Marlowe. He was at his best in his portrait busts of women, the best example being the study, completed in 1887, of Miss Adeline Pond, whom he married, he was a member of the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1915 to 1920, serving as vice chairman from 1918 to 1920. Adams died in New York City in 1945. Works by Adams are held by numerous American museums, including the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
1887-1889 – Bust of Adeline Valentine Pond, Hispanic Society of America, New York, New York. 1888 – Boys and Turtles Fountain, Massachusetts. 1894 – The Rabbi's Daughter, private collection. 1896-98 – Two bronze doors: Truth, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. Begun by Olin Levi Warner in 1895. 1897 – Bust of Professor Joseph Henry, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 1898 – Bust of Julia Marlowe as Juliet, Museum of the City of New York, New York, New York. 1898 – Memorial Tablets, Massachusetts State House, Massachusetts. 1898-1905 – Vanderbilt Memorial bronze doors, St. Bartholomew's Church, New York, New York. 1899-1900 – La Jeunesse, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New York. 1899-1901 – Richard Smith, Smith Memorial Arch, Fairmount Park, Pennsylvania. 1900 – Jonathan Edwards Memorial, First Congregational Church, Massachusetts. 1902 – William Ellery Channing, Boston Public Garden, Massachusetts. 1902-05 – Matthias William Baldwin, City Hall, Philadelphia. 1912 – McMillan Fountain, Washington, D.
C. 1916 - Michigan Memorial, Mississippi 1919-23 – James Scott Memorial Fountain, Belle Isle Park, Michigan. 1926-28 – World War Memorial, Massachusetts. 1928 – Girl with Water Lilies, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 1928 - Annual Medal of Honor Plaquette for the City Gardens Club of New York 1934 - Ninth issue of the Society of Medalists, First Little Shiner. Adams did a statue of Jerome Wheelock, located in Grafton MA in 1907. American National Biography, vol. 1, pp. 96–97. Profile of Herbert Adams 1858-1945 Sculptor, by Marilyn Gage Hyson c. 2000, pp. 9–10, 29-30, 59-60. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Adams, Herbert". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Reading Public Museum
The Reading Public Museum, in West Reading, has displays featuring science and civilizations, a planetarium and a 25-acre arboretum. It offers educational programs for families and children. Galleries feature an eclectic variety from art and artifacts of world civilizations, to natural history and the cultures of Native Americans and Pennsylvania Germans. While the art of many nations and people is represented in the permanent collection, special emphasis has been placed on painting; the fine art collection includes more than seven hundred oil paintings by American and foreign artists such as Benjamin West, Milton Avery, John Singer Sargent, N. C. Wyeth, George Bellows, Raphaelle Peale, Frederic Church, Joshua Reynolds, Edgar Degas. In addition, the Reading Public Museum possesses over one hundred sculptures, thousands of graphics, more than two hundred water colors. Modern and Contemporary art in the collection includes works by Dale Chihuly, Chuck Close, Keith Haring Art objects of importance have come to the Reading Museum from all over the world.
The series of Greek vases contain some excellent examples of the various periods and techniques which illustrate the development of this art form. The museum features a real mummy from the Ptolemaic period in ancient Egypt; the natural history collection includes hundreds of thousands of insects, thousands of birds and mammals, more than 25,000 specimens that document the mineral wealth of our planet. Over 30,000 objects are included in the anthropological and historical collections, including sculpture from Southeast Asia and jade from China, Roman glass, Pre-Columbian gold and a large and comprehensive collection of sculpture and textile work of American Indians, much of, unique to the Museum. Many of the works in the collection have been generously donated by public-spirited citizens; the Reading Museum contains many priceless collections. Over 11,000 first class specimens, the best of several old collections purchased by Levi Walter Mengel in the first half of this century, make up the collection of Berks County Indian relics.
Dr. Mengel's personal collections, donated during his lifetime, formed the nucleus of the present Museum; the first important teaching exhibits of museum calibre were obtained at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. Nearly 2,000 items were obtained from China, India, the Philippines and the Central and South American Republics. With this as a beginning, the third floor of the Reading School District administration building at Eighth and Washington Streets was converted into a museum in 1907. In 1913, the first suggestion was made. Several paintings were presented and the name of the infant museum became the READING PUBLIC MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY, it was in 1924 that the Reading School District asked the citizens of Reading to approve a loan to provide certain needed school buildings. Included in this were provisions for a modern museum building. After a campaign in which the school children took an active part, the loan was passed and the plans for the Museum were drawn up; the present site was selected and donated to the Reading School District by Ferdinand Thun, Henry Janssen, Gustav Oberlaender, three Wyomissing textile magnates, friends of Dr. Mengel, breaking ground in 1925.
By 1928 the current Museum building opened to the public and the collections continued to grow. As with most museums, a comparatively small part of the collection is on exhibit at any one time. Much of the material is held in reserve to permit changes in the displays from time to time, while others are educational collections which may never be exhibited, but are preserved for scholarly study; the Levi W. Mengel Memorial Trust was established to provide funds to make possible the purchase of some of the many fine and desirable articles which are available from time to time. Increasing the amount of money in the endowment fund is a constant challenge, gifts or bequests are earnestly solicited. In 1992 governance of the museum was transferred from the Reading School District to a private, non-profit foundation. With the Foundation's leadership and partnership with the County of Berks, Reading School District, the City of Reading, there has been a rededication to the Museum's Mission; as a result of this restructuring, the Reading Public Museum is enjoying a renewed vitality.
The 25-acre Arboretum at the Reading Public Museum has been a gem of Berks County since the current Museum building opened in 1928. In many ways, these grounds have functioned as Reading’s beloved backyard. For over 80 years the Arboretum has been the home of many events: from light-hearted lilac festivals to educational tree walks. Concerned for the future of the grounds, the Museum and its supporters commissioned Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC, an award-winning independent firm of landscape architects, urban designers, planners, to help create a Landscape Master Plan; the result is a restoration guide that will help recapture the Arboretum’s former spirit, to provide a memorable and inspiring visit for Museum visitors. List of botanical gardens in the United States Official website
Hermon Atkins MacNeil
Hermon Atkins MacNeil was an American sculptor born in Everett, Massachusetts. He is known for designing the Standing Liberty quarter, for sculpting Justice, the Guardian of Liberty on the east pediment of the United States Supreme Court building. MacNeil graduated from Massachusetts Normal Art School, now Massachusetts College of Art and Design, in 1886, became an instructor in industrial art at Cornell University from 1886 to 1889, was a pupil of Henri M. Chapu and Alexandre Falguière in Paris. Returning to America, he aided Philip Martiny in the preparation of sketch models for the World's Columbian Exposition, in 1896 he won the Rinehart scholarship, passing four years in Rome. In 1906 he became a National Academician, his first important work was The Moqui Runner, followed by A Primitive Chant, The Sun Vow, all figures of the North American Indian. Several of his earlier American Indian sculptures served as the inspiration for his contribution to the long running Society of Medalists, Hopi Prayer for Rain.
Fountain of Liberty, for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, other Indian themes came later. One of his principal works is the William McKinley Monument sculpture in Columbus, Ohio, in honor of President William McKinley. In 1909 he won in competition a commission for a large soldiers' and sailors' monument in Albany, New York, his best known work is as the designer of the Standing Liberty quarter, minted from 1916 to 1930, carries his initial to the right of the date. He made Justice, the Guardian of Liberty on the east pediment of the United States Supreme Court building. MacNeil was one of a dozen sculptors invited to compete in the Pioneer Woman statue competition in 1927, which he failed to win. One of his last works was the Pony Express statue dedicated in 1940 in Missouri, his wife, Carol Brooks MacNeil a sculptor of distinction, was a pupil of Frederick William MacMonnies and a member of the White Rabbits. The Sun Vow The Moqui Runner Evans, Hilary. "Hermon Atkins MacNeil". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com.
Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 2011-08-17