George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death on 6 February 1952. He was the first Head of the Commonwealth. Known publicly as Albert until his accession, "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort; as the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York, he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never overcame. George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936; however that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson.
British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor. During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated; the parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948.
Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth, he was beset by smoking-related health problems in the years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II. George was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk, during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, his father was Prince George, Duke of York, the second and eldest-surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales. His mother was the Duchess of York, the eldest child and only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck, his birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days he wrote again: "I think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albert to her".
Queen Victoria was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, wrote to the Duchess of York: "I am all impatience to see the new one, born on such a sad day but rather more dear to me as he will be called by that dear name, a byword for all, great and good". He was baptised "Albert Frederick Arthur George" at St. Mary Magdalene's Church near Sandringham three months later. Within the family, he was known informally as "Bertie", his maternal grandmother, the Duchess of Teck, did not like the first name the baby had been given, she wrote prophetically that she hoped the last name "may supplant the less favoured one". Albert was fourth in line to the throne at birth, after his grandfather and elder brother, Edward, he suffered from ill health and was described as "easily frightened and somewhat prone to tears". His parents were removed from their children's day-to-day upbringing, as was the norm in aristocratic families of that era, he had a stammer. Although left-handed, he was forced to write with his right hand, as was common practice at the time.
He suffered from chronic stomach problems as well as knock knees, for which he was forced to wear painful corrective splints. Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, the Prince of Wales succeeded her as King Edward VII. Prince Albert moved up to third in line after his father and elder brother. From 1909, Albert attended Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth; when his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, Albert's father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada, he was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913, spent three months in the Mediterranean. His fellow officers gave him the nickname "Mr. Johnson"; the First World War broke out a year after his commission. Three weeks after the outbreak of war he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch.
He was mentioned in despatches for his action as a turret officer aboard Collingwood i
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Empire Gallantry Medal
The Medal of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire for Gallantry known as the Empire Gallantry Medal, was a British medal awarded for acts of the gallantry that did not reach the standard required for the Albert Medal and the Edward Medal. King George V introduced it on 29 December 1922. Recipients were entitled to use the post-nominal letters "EGM" and as a Medal of the Order of the British Empire it was divided into military and civil divisions. Unlike appointments to the Order of the British Empire it could be awarded posthumously. In 1922, the original Medal of the Order of the British Empire was split into two, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire for Gallantry awarded for acts of gallantry, the Medal of the Order of the British Empire for Meritorious Service, known as the British Empire Medal awarded for meritorious services and was the lower level award of the Order of the British Empire; the EGM was awarded until 1940. Shortly after the commencement of the Blitz, King George VI created the George Cross to recognise gallantry by men and women in all walks of civilian life.
It was to rank after the Victoria Cross. The Empire Gallantry Medal was revoked by Royal Warrant on 24 September 1940. All living recipients and the next-of-kin of recipients, posthumously awarded the medal after 3 September 1939 were obliged to exchange the Empire Gallantry Medal for the George Cross, it was only in 1971, that living recipients of the Albert Medal and Edward Medal were deemed to be George Cross recipients. Most former Albert Medal and Edward Medal recipients accepted the invitation to change their original insignia for the George Cross but unlike the Empire Gallantry Medallists they were not obliged to exchange their original insignia; the medal and ribbon were designed first by Langford Jones, though it was changed throughout its existence. The phrase "For the Empire" was inscribed round the upper side of the obverse; the first type of reverse had six lions, with the Royal Cypher centred. The 2nd type of reverse had two on either side of the Royal Cypher; the original ribbon was plain purple, with the addition of a thin vertical red stripe for military awards.
A silver laurel branch was added diagonally to the ribbon for both types of award in 1933. The ribbon changed to rose pink with pearl grey edges in July 1937, with an addition pearl grey vertical stripe for military awards, stayed in this version until its revocation. Civil Division 64 Military Division 62 Honorary awards 4The four honorary awards were not able to be exchanged for the George Cross and neither were the four posthumous awards prior to 3 September 1939. Of the remaining 122 awards, 112 were exchanged including four Military Division posthumous awards gazetted after the start of World War II; the following list is in part extracted from the fuller list at List of George Cross recipients. Intended to be included here are 18 awards of the EGM that were not exchanged for the George Cross. Where present in the table below, these are marked. Information on the Empire Gallantry Medal Imperial War Museum. "George Cross and Empire Gallantry Medal". Archived from the original on 6 January 2009.
Retrieved 21 April 2013
Albert Medal for Lifesaving
The Albert Medal for Lifesaving was a British medal awarded to recognise the saving of life. It has since been replaced by the George Cross; the Albert Medal was first instituted by a Royal Warrant on 7 March 1866 and discontinued in 1971 with the last two awards promulgated in the London Gazette of 31 March 1970 to the late First Officer Geoffrey Clifford Bye of Boolaroo, New South Wales, on 11 August 1970 to the late Kenneth Owen McIntyre of Fairy Meadow, New South Wales, Australia. The medal was named in memory of Prince Albert and was awarded to recognise saving life at sea; the original medal had a blue ribbon 5⁄8" wide with two white stripes. A further Royal Warrant in 1867 created two classes of Albert Medal, the first in gold and bronze and the second in bronze, both enamelled in blue, the ribbon of the first class changed to 1 3⁄8" wide with four white stripes; the first recipient of the medal was Samuel Popplestone, a tenant farmer, who on 23 March 1866 helped to rescue four men after the cargo ship Spirit of the Ocean lost its battle with force eleven gales and was torn apart as it was swept onto the notorious Start Point rocks in Devon.
Witnessing the accident, Popplestone paused only to raise the alarm before setting off alone for the wreck, armed with just a small coil of rope. He clambered out onto the rocks and although swept off several times, he managed to lift four men out of the water and drag them up the cliff to safety; as the story of Popplestone's bravery became known through the press, he was hailed as a hero and as a result of his heroism he became the first recipient of the brand new award for civilian gallantry. In 1877, the medal was extended to cover saving life on land and from this point there are two medals with different inscriptions to depict which they were awarded for; the land version was enamelled with a red ribbon. The titles of the medals changed in 1917, the gold "Albert Medal, first class" becoming the "Albert Medal in gold" and the bronze "Albert Medal, second class" being known as just the "Albert Medal"; the event that led to the introduction of the Albert Medal for Gallantry on Land was the Tynewydd Colliery disaster which occurred on 11 April 1877.
In many ways, although it was tragic the disaster at Tynewydd was, by the standards of the time when single mining accidents claimed hundreds of lives unremarkable. However, as the enthralling saga of the determined and stoic rescue of the surviving colliers was and episodically reported in the press it captured the imagination of the public and MPs. Released from Windsor Castle on 25 April 1877, it was announced that "the Albert Medal, hitherto only bestowed for gallantry in saving life at sea, shall be extended for similar actions on land, that the first medals struck for this purpose shall be conferred on the heroic rescuers of the Welsh miners". In 1911, second class honours were awarded to an Indigenous Australian prisoner; the Albert Medal in gold was abolished in 1949, being replaced by the George Cross, the second class of Albert Medal was only awarded posthumously. In 1971, the Albert Medal was discontinued and all living recipients were invited to exchange the award for the George Cross.
From the total of 64 eligible to exchange, 49 took up the option. The medal was made of gold, enamelled blue. Miniatures of all four types are known to exist, with the gold awards believed to be gilt. Albert Medal and Edward Medal George Cross and Albert Medal at Sea in World War 2
Order of Saint John (chartered 1888)
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem and known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria. The Order traces its origins back to the Knights Hospitaller in the Middle Ages, known as the Order of Malta. A faction of them emerged in France in the 1820s and moved to Britain in the early 1830s, after operating under a succession of grand priors and different names, it became associated with the founding in 1882 of the St John Ophthalmic Hospital near the old city of Jerusalem and the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887; the order is found throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, the United States of America, with the worldwide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and injury, to act to enhance the health and well-being of people anywhere in the world." The order's 25,000 members, known as confrères, are of the Protestant faith, though those of other Christian denominations or other religions are accepted into the order.
Except via appointment to certain government or ecclesiastical offices in some realms, membership is by invitation only and individuals may not petition for admission. The Order of St John is best known for the health organisations it founded and continues to run, including St John Ambulance and St John Eye Hospital Group; as with the Order, the memberships and work of these organizations are not constricted by denomination or religion. The Order is a constituent member of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem, its headquarters are in London and it is a registered charity under English law. In 1823, the Council of the French Langues—a French state-backed and hosted faction of the Order of Malta —sought to raise through private subscription sufficient money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta and aid the Greek War of Independence; this was to be achieved by issuing bonds in London to form a mercenary army of demobilized British soldiers using available, cheap war surplus.
A deal transferring various islands to the Order of Malta, including Rhodes when captured, was struck with the Greek rebels, but the attempt to raise money failed when details leaked to the press, the French monarchy withdrew its backing of the council, the bankers refused the loan. The council was reorganised and the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In June 1826, a second attempt was made to raise money to restore a Mediterranean homeland for the order when Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, was appointed by the council to negotiate with supportive persons in Britain. Scotsman Donald Currie was in 1827 given the authority to raise £240,000. Anyone who subscribed to the project and all commissioned officers of the mercenary army were offered the opportunity of being appointed knights of the order. Few donations were attracted and the Greek War of Independence was won without the help of the knights of the Council of the French Langues. De Castellane and Currie were allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue, inaugurated on 12 January 1831, under the executive control of Alejandro, conde de Mortara, a Spanish aristocrat.
It was headquartered at what Mortara called the "Auberge of St John", Clerkenwell. This was the Old Jerusalem Tavern, a public house occupying what had once been a gatehouse to the ancient Clerkenwell Priory, the medieval Grand Priory of the Knights Hospitaller, otherwise known as the Knights of Saint John; the creation of the langue has been regarded either as a revival of the Knights Hospitaller or the establishment of a new order. The Reverend Sir Robert Peat, the absentee perpetual curate of St Lawrence, Brentford, in Middlesex, one of the many former chaplains to Prince George, had been recruited by the council as a member of the society in 1830. On 29 January 1831, in the presence of Philip de Castellane and the Agent-General of the French Langues, Peat was elected Prior ad interim, he and other British members of the organisation, with the backing of the Council of the French Langues on the grounds that he had been selling knighthoods, expelled Mortara, leading to two competing English chivalric groups between early 1832 and Mortara's disappearance in 1837.
On 24 February 1834, three years after becoming prior ad interim, in order to publicly reaffirm his claim to the office of prior and in the hope of reviving a charter of Queen Mary I dealing with the original English branch of the Order of Malta, took the oath de fideli administratione in the Court of the King's Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice. Peat was thus credited as being the first grand prior of the association, however, "W. B. H." wrote in January 1919 to the journal Notes & Queries: "His name is not in the knights' lists, he was never'Prior in the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem': he became an ordinary member of that Order on Nov. 11, 1830." Sir Robert Peat died in April 1837 and Sir Henry Dymoke was appointed grand prior and re-established contact with the knights in France and Germany, into which the group had by that time expanded. However, until the late 1830s, the British arm of the organisation had only considered itself to be a grand priory and langue of the Order of St John, having never been recognized as such by the established order.
Dymoke sought to rectify this by seeking acknowledgement fro
Order of the Crown of India
The Imperial Order of the Crown of India is an order in the British honours system. The Order was established by Queen Victoria in 1878; the Order is open only to women. The Order was limited to British princesses, wives or female relatives of Indian princes and wives or female relatives of any person who held the office of: Viceroy of India, Governor-General of India, Governor of Madras, Governor of Bombay, Governor of Bengal, Secretary of State for India, Commander-in-Chief in India; the members of the Order could use the post-nominal letters "CI", but did not acquire any special precedence or status due to it. Furthermore, they were entitled to wear the badge of the Order, which included Queen Victoria's Imperial Cypher, VRI; the letters were set in diamonds and turquoises and were together surrounded by a border of pearls surmounted by a figure the Imperial Crown. The badge was worn attached to a light blue bow, edged in white, on the left shoulder. Queen Elizabeth II and her sister Princess Margaret were appointed to the Order by their father King George VI in June 1947.
Queen Elizabeth II is the last surviving former member of the Order. Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester was the last ordinary member at the time of her death in 2004. 1878: The Princess of Wales 1878: The German Crown Princess 1878: The Grand Duchess of Hesse 1878: Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein 1878: Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lorne 1878: Princess Beatrice 1878: The Duchess of Edinburgh 1878: The Duchess of Cambridge 1878: The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1878: The Duchess of Teck 1878: Maharani Bamba Singh 1878: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal 1878: Maharani Sita Vilas Dawaji Ammani Anaro of Mysore 1878: Maharanee Jumnabai Sahib Gaekwad of Baroda 1878: Dilawar un-Nisa Begum Sahiba, of Hyderabad 1878: Nawab Qudsia, Begum of Bhopal 1878: Vijaya Mohana Muktamba Bai Ammani Raja Sahib of Tanjore 1878: Maharani Swarnamoyee of Cossimbazar 1878: The Duchess of Argyll 1878: The Marchioness of Salisbury 1878: The Marchioness of Ripon, wife of the Viceroy 1878: Lady Mary Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville 1878: The Countess of Elgin 1878: The Countess of Mayo 1878: Lady Susan Bourke 1878: Viscountess Halifax 1878: Lady Hobart 1878: Lady Jane Baring 1878: Anne Napier, Baroness Napier 1878: Edith Bulwer-Lytton, Countess of Lytton 1878: Harriette Lawrence, Baroness Lawrence 1878: Cecilia Northcote, Countess of Iddesleigh 1878: Catherine Frere, Lady Frere 1878: Mary Temple, Lady Temple 1878: Caroline Denison, Lady Denison 1878: Katherine Strachey, Lady Strachey 1878: Jane Gathorne-Hardy, Countess of Cranbrook 1878: Princess Frederica of Hanover 1878: Princess Marie of Hanover 1879: The Duchess of Cumberland 1879: The Duchess of Connaught 1879: Lady Napier of Magdala 1879: Lady Frances Cunynghame 1879: Dowager Lady Pottinger 1881: Bharani Thirunal Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal 1881: Lady Fergusson 1881: Mrs William Patrick Adam 1882: The Duchess of Albany 1883: Lady Grant Duff 1884: Edith Fergusson 1884: The Countess of Dufferin 1885: Lady Randolph Churchill 1885: Lady Reay 1886: Viscountess Cross 1887: Princess Louise of Wales 1887: Princess Victoria of Wales 1887: Princess Maud of Wales 1887: Maharanee Sunity Devee of Kuch Behar 1888: The Marchioness of Lansdowne 1889: Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein 1889: Princess Victoria Mary of Teck 1890: Lady Harris 1891: Maharanee Sakhiabai Raje Sahib Scindia Bahadur, Regent of Gwalior 1891: Lady Wenlock 1892: Maharanee Chimnabai Sahib Gaekwad of Baroda 1892: Lady Nandkuverbai Bhagvatsinh Jadeja, Rani Sahib of Gondal 1893: Vani Vilasa Sannidhana, Maharani of Mysore 1893: The Crown Princess of Romania 1893: Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1893: Princess Aribert of Anhalt 1894: The Countess of Elgin (wife of Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin, Viceroy of India, 1894–18