Doctor of Law
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor juris, Doctor of Philosophy, Juris Doctor, Legum Doctor. In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence. To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.. The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow: Doctorate in Law Doctorate in Criminal Law Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences Doctorate in Juridical Sciences Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences Doctorate in Private Law Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries.
However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies within the institution granting it. In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; the doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are required to earn a minimum number of credits. Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library.
Doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title. If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees. Admission to doctoral courses is universally reserved to holders of a master's degree. Therefore, a bachelor of Laws, seeking the degree of doctor must complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws, only after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course. There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances.
Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws, can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. One is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course. Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study. In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws; the Doctor of Jurisprudence is the professional doctorate degree, required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until as the Bachelor of Laws. However, since law schools in Canada insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.
B. degrees awarded by programs abroad. The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL. B.. B. with a J. D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL. B. is equivalent to the J. D. All Canadian J. D. programs are three years, all have similar mandatory firs
Henry Pellew, 6th Viscount Exmouth
Henry Edward Pellew, 6th Viscount Exmouth was a British peer and a naturalised United States citizen who inherited the title of Viscount Exmouth at the age of 94 from a cousin, held the title for less than a year before his own death. Although born and educated in England, he moved to America in 1873 shortly after his second marriage and lived there for the rest of his life, carrying out charitable works. Henry Pellew was born on 26 April 1828 in Canterbury, England, his father, George Pellew, Dean of Norwich, was the third son of Edward Pellew, 1st Viscount Exmouth, a British admiral who saw action in the American War of Independence and the Napoleonic Wars. Henry was his only son, his mother was the daughter of Viscount Sidmouth. Pellew was educated at Eton College, before studying at Trinity College, obtaining a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1850. Whilst at Cambridge University, he won his "Blue" by rowing for the University Boat Club against Oxford in the Boat Race in 1849, he was one of the founders of Keble College and served on the Council of the college from its foundation in 1870 until 1873.
He was a magistrate for the county of Middlesex, serving on the boards of various charities and schools in and around London. He married, on 5 October 1858 in Bedford, New York, Eliza Jay, the daughter of a judge from New York and a descendant of John Jay, the Van Cortlandt family, the Livingston family, the Schuyler family, she died in 1869 in England. They had three children: George who died in 1892. On 14 May 1873 in Vienna, he married her youngest sister, Augusta Jay, a marriage, not recognized as valid at that time in English law. In the same year he moved to New York City, to Washington, D. C, he became a naturalised citizen of the United States on September 25, 1877. One daughter, was born to this marriage. Pellew carried on working for various good causes in America, as he had in England after his ninetieth birthday, he helped to organise the Bureau of Charities in New York, working with the future President Theodore Roosevelt. He helped to set up coffee houses for poor people, a free lending library, night shelters, as well as helping improve housing conditions.
He was President of the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor and of the St George Society, an Anglo-American group in New York. He helped with the plans for Washington National Cathedral. In August 1922, Edward Pellew, 5th Viscount Exmouth, a distant cousin, died without descendants and his titles passed to Pellew as the closest male relative, he attempted to renounce the peerage in favour of his son Charles Pellew, but was told by the British Embassy in Washington that this was not possible. In any event, he preferred to remain known as "Mr Henry Edward Pellew" rather than use the title of Viscount, he died in Washington on 4 February 1923, funeral services were held at St. John's Church on 7 February 1923, he was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D. C. A memorial plaque was erected in St. James Church in Christow, England, it states in part, "Kind and generous, he never forgot his duty to his neighbour, wherever he lived, he made the community happier and better for his presence and his influence."
He was succeeded in his titles by his son, Charles Pellew, a former professor of chemistry at Columbia University. Notes
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
SS Servia known as RMS Servia, was a successful transatlantic passenger and mail steamer of revolutionary design, built by J & G Thomson of Clydebank and launched in 1881. She was the first large ocean liner to be built of steel instead of iron, the first Cunard ship to have an electric lighting installation. For these and other reasons, maritime historians consider Servia to be the first "modern" ocean liner. In 1878, Samuel Cunard's British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company was reorganised into limited company and named Cunard; this capitalisation allowed it to use shareholder money to build more expensive ships. A new policy to this end was put into effect by Cunard's new chairman, John Burns, announced in the London Times. Launched on 1 March 1881, Servia was the first of Cunard's new breed of ocean liners, she was the second largest ship in the world at 515 feet long and 52.1 feet wide, surpassed only by Brunel's SS Great Eastern. With her design and construction guided by admirality specifications, Servia had many features that satisfied the requirements for her to be placed high on the admiralty's reserve list of the armed auxiliary cruisers, where she could be called into service in times of war.
It was named after historical English name for country Serbia. Servia’s engine was similar to the one installed on the Guion Line’s crack passenger liner SS Alaska of 1881, it was a triple-crank compound steam engine with one 72 in high-pressure cylinder, two 100 in low-pressure cylinders, a stroke of 6.5 ft. The steam was supplied at 90 lbf by seven Scotch boilers, each of which were 18 ft in diameter and contained six furnaces. Six of these boilers were double-ended, while the seventh was single-ended and contained three furnaces; the power developed was 10,300 ihp. Servia's maximum recorded speed during her trials was 17.85 knots, her average speed during a crossing was around 16 knots. Although Servia did not achieve any speed records, she was a competitive liner that performed well, in 1884 she managed to make a crossing in less than seven days, averaging at 16.7 knots. Servia differed from earlier Atlantic liners in a number of significant ways, but most notably, she was the first liner to specialise in passenger transportation, due to her cargo space being sacrificed for her large power-plant.
This sacrifice was viable because at that time, tramp steamers had taken over much of the freight across the Atlantic, while the demand for passenger transportation had increased. Because of her passenger specialisation, Servia is considered to be first liner of what became known as the Express Transatlantic Service. Servia had a number of innovative technical features which are noteworthy in the history of ocean-going liners; the following list is a summary of those features: Servia was the first major ocean liner to be built of steel, which gave her large hull the advantage of additional strength while at the same time making her lighter. She was the first liner to re-introduce the cellular double-bottom design which Brunel had invented 20 years earlier for the Great Eastern; the double-bottom was 4' 8" deep, could be flooded with 800 tons of water ballast. Because Servia was built to admirality specifications, she incorporated several safety features, the most notable being the sub-division of her hull into 12 transverse water-tight compartments, fitted with water-tight doors.
She could remain afloat with any two of these compartments flooded. The water-tight doors between the boiler and engine room were fail-safe and could be closed from any deck. Servia was the first Cunarder to introduce electric lighting, using Edison's invented incandescent lamp, proven successful on ship usage by its first commercial installation on board the American passenger liner Columbia; the lamps were installed in engineering spaces. Servia was fitted with a new type of compass and deep-sea sounding device. Servia had public rooms of a scale and luxury greater than known. Of the three decks, the upper deck consisted of deck-houses that included a first-class smoking room, a luxuriously fitted ladies drawing room and a music room; the entrance and grand staircase was the largest that had appeared on a liner, was panelled in polished maple and ash. It led down to the a landing on the main deck. Twenty-four first-class state-rooms were situated aft of this landing, while the first-class dining salon was situated forward.
The dining salon could sit 220 of Servia's 480 first-class passengers on five long tables, was richly decorated with carved panels and carpets. In the centre was an open well that rose 17 ft to a skylight. Forward of the dining salon were a further 58 staterooms, followed by crew accommodation areas. On the lower deck was a servants dining room and a further 82 first-class staterooms; the forward section of this deck was reserved for 730 steerage passengers. This section was a large area of about 150 feet long, included a dining area; the berths were grouped into separate male and female areas. With the appearance of the crack Cunard liners RMS Campania and RMS Lucania in 1893, Servia was relegated to intermediate service, she was used to transport troops to South Africa during the Boer war. She was broken up in 1902 by Thos W Ward. Writers Jane Addams and Henry James both sailed on a crossing aboard Servia in August 1883, though it does not appear they met. Edward Pellew, 4th Viscount Exmouth, Vicountess Exmouth sailed aboard the Servia leaving New York City for Liverpool on 1 Octobe
Chicago Inter Ocean
The Chicago Inter Ocean known as the Chicago Inter-Ocean, is the name used for most of its history for a newspaper published in Chicago, from 1865 until 1914. Its editors included Byron Andrews; the history of the Inter Ocean can be traced back to 1865 with the founding of the Chicago Republican, a partisan newspaper that supported the Republican party. Jacob Bunn, a prominent Illinois financier and industrialist, was the principal founder, at one time the sole owner, of the Chicago Republican Company, cooperated with several other Illinois financiers to establish the newspaper company in 1865. After enjoying both economic success and the chaotic blow of the 1871 Chicago Fire, the Republican was relaunched in 1872 as the Chicago-based Inter Ocean, a newspaper intended to appeal to an upscale readership. William Penn Nixon became president of the Inter-Ocean in 1876 and remained there as editor-in-chief, until his death in 1912. With the building of transcontinental railroads, it was possible to deliver periodical newspapers by mail throughout the central and western U.
S. The Inter Ocean developed a family of semi-weekly and Sunday editions that were intended to become a definitive source of news for businesspeople throughout the American West, in fact fulfilled that role for several decades; the growth of linotype newspapers printed on inexpensive newsprint in the 1890s led to another upheaval in the newspaper industry. Many non-Chicago subscribers to the Inter Ocean no longer needed the weekly paper and dropped their subscriptions; the weakened paper fell in 1895 into the hands of Charles Yerkes, the notorious Chicago streetcar boss, who returned the newspaper to the partisan, subordinate role it had fulfilled in its youth. George Wheeler Hinman bought a controlling interest in the paper in 1906 and sold it to H. H. Kohlsaat in 1912; the paper stopped publication in 1914. Hinman bought back the paper at a receiver's sale in May 1914 and sold it to James Keeley general manager of the Chicago Tribune, who bought the Chicago Record Herald at the same time. Readers decided that Keeley's new consolidated newspaper should be named The Chicago Herald, which name it held until it was bought by William Randolph Hearst's Chicago Examiner in 1918.
This further consolidation created the Chicago Herald-Examiner. The Inter Ocean was published in three locations during its career. From 1873 to 1880, it stood at 119 Lake Street, from 1880 to 1890 it stood at 85 West Madison; the Inter-Ocean Building sat on the northwest corner of Dearborn in Chicago's Loop. In 1889 Adler & Sullivan designed the steel-framed building to be constructed on a small corner lot and united it with the legs of the 5-storey L-shaped, stone-front Dearborn Building that sat behind; the then-famous clock-spire — with its steep hip roof and its strings of colored lights — singled out this building from its fellows in the block. The clock-tower was removed sometime before the building’s demolition; the Inter-Ocean Building was converted into the Hotel Grant sometime around 1895, when the Inter-Ocean newspaper fell on hard times. It was considered a second-class Chicago hotel; the building was razed in either 1940 or 1941. Its replacement sat there until 1981, when a new skyscraper was built on the site — Three First National Plaza.
H. T. Webster Eunice Eloisae Gibbs Allyn Media related to Chicago Inter Ocean at Wikimedia Commons
Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, it operated a syndicate, the Ledger Syndicate, from 1915 until 1946. Founded by William Moseley Swain, Arunah S. Abell, Azariah H. Simmons, edited by Swain, the Public Ledger was the first penny paper in Philadelphia. At that time most papers sold for five cents or more, a high price which limited their appeal to only the reasonably well-off. Swain and Abell drew on the success of the New York Herald, one of the first penny papers and decided to use a one cent cover price to appeal to a broad audience, they mimicked the Herald's use of bold headlines to draw sales. The formula was a success and the Ledger posted a circulation of 15,000 in 1840, growing to 40,000 a decade later. To put this into perspective, the entire circulation of all newspapers in Philadelphia was estimated at only 8,000 when the Ledger was founded.
The Ledger was a technological innovator as well. It was the first daily to make use of a pony express, among the first papers to use the electromagnetic telegraph. From 1846, it was printed on the first rotary printing press. By the early 1860s, The Ledger was a money-losing operation, squeezed by rising paper and printing costs, it had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union, although there was a strong contingent of Southern sympathizers and families with ties to the South, as Southerners had long had second homes in Philadelphia and sent their daughters to finishing schools there. In the face of declining circulation, publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost, although it was needed to cover the costs of production. In December 1864, the paper was sold to George William Childs and Anthony J. Drexel for a reported $20,000.
Upon buying the paper, Childs changed its policy and methods. He changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher-end readership. Childs's efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities. Designed by architect John McArthur, Jr. the building had at its corner a larger-than-life-sized statue of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph A. Bailly, which Childs had commissioned; the quality and profitability of the Ledger improved dramatically. By 1894, The New York Times described it as "...the finest newspaper office in the country." Toward the end of Child's leadership, the Ledger was estimated to generate profits of $500,000 per year.
In 1870, Mark Twain mocked the Ledger for its rhyming obituaries, in a piece entitled "Post-Mortem Poetry", in his column for The Galaxy: There is an element about some poetry, able to make physical suffering and death cheerful things to contemplate and consummations to be desired. In 1902, Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times, bought the paper from Drexel's estate for a reported $2.25 million. He merged it with the Philadelphia Times, installed his brother George as editor. Oakes served as editor until 1914. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor. Curtis was owner of Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, his intention was to establish the Ledger as Philadelphia's premier newspaper, which he achieved by buying and closing several competing papers: the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, the Philadelphia North American, The Philadelphia Press among them. Philadelphia went from a peak of 13 papers in 1900 to seven in 1920, a time when the newspaper industry in the United States was consolidating in general.
Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century. Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers via his Ledger Syndicate. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public; the Ledger suffered by competition from an ascendant The Evening Bulletin, which under publisher William L. McLean grew in size from 12 pages in 1900 to 28 pages in 1920, from circulation of 6,000 to a leadership position of over 500,000 readers in the same time; the Bulletin's bolder and more commercial approach attracted additional advertising, which in turn drew more readers.
Advertising, which comprised only 1/3 of the Bulletin in 1900, grew to nearly 3/4 of its pages in 1920. At the same time, the circulation at the Ledger stagnated. Curtis built a new Public Ledger