Nagapattinam is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District. The town came to prominence during the period of Medieval Cholas and served as their important port for commerce and east-bound naval expeditions; the Chudamani Vihara in Nagapattinam constructed by the Srivijayan king Sri Mara Vijayattungavarman of the Sailendra dynasty with the help of Rajaraja Chola I was an important Buddhist structure in those times. Nagapattinam was settled by the Portuguese and the Dutch under whom it served as the capital of Dutch Coromandel from 1660 to 1781. In November 1781, the town was conquered by the British East India Company, it served as the capital of Tanjore district from 1799 to 1845 under Madras Presidency of the British. It continued to be a part of Thanjavur district in Independent India. In 1991, it was made the headquarters of the newly created Nagapattinam District. Nagapattinam is administered by a Selection-grade municipality covering an area of 17.92 km2 and had a population of 102,905 as of 2011.
A majority of the people of Nagapattinam are employed in sea-borne trading, fishing and tourism. Kayarohanaswami Temple and Soundararajaperumal Temple, Nagapattinam are the major Hindu pilgrimage sites. Nagapattinam is the base for tourism for Sikkal, Poompuhar, Vedaranyam and Tharangambadi. Roadways is the major mode of transport to Nagapattinam, while the city has rail and sea transport. Nagapattinam is derived from Nagar referring to people from Sri Lanka who settled here and pattinam referring to town, it was called Cholakula Vallipattinam during the period of Kulottunga I, when it was one of the important ports. Ptolemy refers to Nagapattinam as Nikam and mentions it as one of the most important trade centres of the ancient Tamil country; this view is doubtful as there are no contemporary evidences to prove the existence of a metropolis in the name of "Nikama" or "Nikam". Nagapattinam was referred by early writers and the Portuguese as "the city of Coromandel". Appar and Tirugnanasambandar, the 7th-century saint poets refer to the city as Nagai in their verses in Tevaram.
The town was called "Nagai" and the word Pattinam was attached during the Chola era when it emerged as an important port. There are urn burials in and around the city from the Sangam period indicating some level of human habitation. Except the mention in Ptolemy as'Νίγαμα Μετρόπολις,' there are no direct references to Nagapattinam during the 3rd century BCE to 3rd century CE; the neighbouring port, Kaveripoompattinam, was the capital of the Chola kingdom of the Sangam Age, referred to in Tamil scriptures like Paṭṭiṉappālai. The early works of Tevaram by the 7th-century poets Appar and Tirugnanasambandar mention the town had fortified walls, busy road building and a busy port; the inscriptions from the Kayarohanswami temple indicate the construction was initiated during the reign of the Pallava king, Narasimha Pallava II. A Buddhist pagoda was built under Chinese influence by the Pallava king and the town was frequented by Buddhist travelers. Thirumangai Azhwar, the 9th century vaishnavite saint poet, is believed to have stolen the golden Buddha statue to fund the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam.
In the 11th century CE, Chudamani Vihara, a Buddhist monastery, was built by the Sailendra king of Srivijaya Sri Mara Vijayattungavarman with the patronage of Raja Raja Chola. It was named Chudamani or Chulamani Vihara after the king Sri Mara's father As per the small Leyden grant this Vihara was called Rajaraja-perumpalli during the time of Kulottunga I. Nagapattinam was the prominent port of a conquering gateway to the east. In the early 16th century the Portuguese made commercial contacts with the town and established a commercial centre in 1554 CE; the Portuguese conducted missionary enterprise here. In 1658, the Dutch made an agreement with King Vijaya Nayakkar of Thanjavur on 5 January 1662, by which ten villages were transferred from the Portuguese to the Dutch — Nagapattinam Port, Muttam, Anthanappettai, AzhingiMangalam, Thiruthinamangalam, Nariyankudi. Ten Christian churches and a hospital were built by the Dutch, they released Pagoda coins with the name Nagapattinam engraved in Tamil.
As per agreement between the first Maratta King Egoji of Thanjavur and the Dutch and surrounding villages were handed over to the Dutch on 30 December 1676. In 1690, the capital of Dutch Coromandel changed from Pulicat to Nagapattinam; this town fell into the hands of the British in 1781 after the two naval battles between British and French fleets were fought off the coast of Negapatam, as it was known: the first in 1758 as part of the Seven Years' War and the second in 1782 as part of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The town was taken by the British from the Dutch in 1781; when the Dutch and British reached a peace agreement in 1784, Nagapattinam was formally ceded to the British. 277 villages, with Nagore as the headquarters, were handed over to the East India Company. From 1799 to 1845 CE Nagapttinam was the headquarters of Tanjore district. Nagapattinam and Nagore were incorporated as a single municipality in 1866 CE; the town remained one of the chief ports to the Madras Presidency. The port suffered decline after the inclusion of Tuticorin ports.
After India's independence, Sirkazhi continued to be a part of Thanjavur district until 1991, became part of the newly created Nagapattinam district. Nagapattinam was affec
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres. Its definition can include the northwestern coast of the island of Sri Lanka; the coast has an average elevation of 80 metres and is backed by the Eastern Ghats, a chain of low, flat-topped hills. Coromondel is the Dutch pronunciation of "Karimanal", a village in the Sriharikota island in the north of Pazhavercadu. Pazhavercadu was an early Dutch settlement along with Masoolipatnam in present-day Andhra Pradesh. There is a Dutch Cemetery belonging to the seventeenth Century at Pulecat, it is said that the first Dutch ship stopped here for fresh drinking water, upon asking the name of the place Karimanal was spelled as Corimondal. The land of the Chola dynasty was called Cholamandalam in Tamil translated as The realm of the Cholas, from which the Portuguese derived the name Coromandel.
The name could be derived from Kurumandalam, meaning The realm of the Kurus. Agriculture is the mainstay of the coastal economy. Rice, sugarcane and peanuts are grown. Bananas and betel nuts are grown together with rice in the low-rainfall region of the interior. There are coconut plantations along the coast. Large-scale industries produce fertilizers, film projectors, amplifiers and automobiles. There is a nuclear power station at Kalpakkam. Roads and railways linking Chennai, Chidambaram and Puducherry run parallel to the coast; the coast is low, punctuated by the deltas of several large rivers, including the Kaveri, Palar and Krishna River, which rise in the highlands of the Western Ghats and flow across the Deccan Plateau to drain into the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial plains created by these rivers favour agriculture; the rivers remain dry during most of the year. There is little forest cover, but marshes, scrub woodlands, thorny thickets are common; the coastline forms a part of Andhra Pradesh.
The important ports include Chennai, Nellore and Nagapattinam, which take advantage of their close proximity with regions rich in natural and mineral resources and good transport infrastructure. The Coromandel Coast falls in the rain shadow of the Western Ghats mountain range, receives a good deal less rainfall during the summer southwest monsoons, which contributes heavy rainfall in the rest of India; the region averages 800 mm/year, most of which falls between December. The topography of the Bay of Bengal, the staggered weather pattern prevalent during the season favours northeast monsoons, which have a tendency to cause cyclones and hurricanes rather than a steady precipitation; as a result, the coast is hit by inclement weather every year between October and January. The high variability of rainfall patterns is responsible for water scarcity and famine in most areas not served by the great rivers. For example, the city of Chennai is one of the driest cities in the country in terms of potable water availability, despite high percentage of moisture in the air, due to the unpredictable, seasonal nature of the monsoon.
The Coromandel Coast is home to the East Deccan dry evergreen forests ecoregion, which runs in a narrow strip along the coast. Unlike most of the other tropical dry forest Biome regions of India, where the trees lose their leaves during the dry season, the East Deccan dry evergreen forests retain their leathery leaves year round; the Coromandel Coast is home to extensive mangrove forests along the low-lying coast and river deltas, several important wetlands, notably Kaliveli Lake and Pulicat Lake, that provide habitat to thousands of migrating and resident birds. By late 1530 the Coromandel Coast was home to three Portuguese settlements at Nagapattinam, São Tomé de Meliapore, Pulicat. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Coromandel Coast was the scene of rivalries among European powers for control of the India trade; the British established themselves at Fort St George and Masulipatnam, the Dutch at Pulicat and Covelong, the French at Pondicherry and Nizampatnam, the Danish in Dansborg at Tharangambadi.
The Coromandel Coast supplied Indian Muslim eunuchs to the Thai court of Siam. The Thai at times asked eunuchs from China to visit the court in Thailand and advise them on court ritual since they held them in high regard; the British won out, although France retained the tiny enclaves of Pondichéry and Karaikal until 1954. Chinese lacquer goods, including boxes and chests, became known as "Coromandel" goods in the 18th century, because many Chinese exports were consolidated at the Coromandel ports. Two of the famous books on the economic history of the Coromandel Coast are Merchants and commerce on the Coromandel Coast, 1650–1740 and The World of the Weaver in Northern Coromandel, c.1750-c.1850. On 26 December 2004, one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history, the Indian Ocean earthquake, struck off the western coast of Sumatra; the earthquake and subsequent tsunami killed over 220,000 people around the rim of the Indian Ocean. The tsunami devastated the Coromandel Coast, killing many and sweeping away many coastal communities.
Four ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Coromandel after the Indian coast. The Coromandel Peninsula in New
Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais
Bertrand-François Mahé, comte de La Bourdonnais was a French naval officer and administrator, in the service of the French East India Company. La Bourdonnais entered the service of the French East India Company as a lieutenant. In 1724, he was promoted to captain, displayed such bravery in the capture of Mahé on the Malabar Coast that the name of the town was added to his own. For two years he was in the service of the Portuguese Viceroy, but in 1735 he returned to French service as governor of the Isle de France and the Île de Bourbon, his first five years' administration of the islands was successful. B.-F. Mahé de La Bourdonnais: Mémoires historiques de B.-F. Mahé de La Bourdonnais, gouverneur des îles de France et de la Réunion, recueillis et publiés par son petit-fils.... Paris, 1890 Histoire, ou éloge historique de M. Mahé de La Bourdonnais. Île Maurice: Mahé de La Bourdonnais: documents réunis par le comité du bi-centenaire de La Bourdonnais, 11 février 1899, avec des annotations par le comité des souvenirs historiques..
Port-Louis: E. Pezzani, 1899 Étienne Buisson: Le mirage de l'Inde: la dramatique existence d'un grand Français au XVIIIe siècle: Bertrand Mahé de La Bourdonnais. Paris: Hachette, 1937. Pierre Crépin: Mahé de La Bourdonnais, gouverneur général des îles de France et de Bourbon.... Paris: Leroux, n. d. Louis Ducrocq: Une ingratitude nationale: La Bourdonnais, gouverneur des îles de France et de Bourbon, 1735–1746. Arras: Sueur-Charruey, 1902 Philippe Haudrère: La Bourdonnais: marin et aventurier. Paris: Desjonquères, 1992 ISBN 2-904227-63-6 E. Herpin: Mahé de La Bourdonnais et la Compagnie des Indes. Saint-Brieuc: R. Prud'homme, 1905 Alfred de Longpérier-Grimoard: Notice historique sur La Bourdonnais. Paris, 1856 Huguette Ly Tio Fane-Pineo: Île de France, 1715–1746. Tome I. L'émergence de Port Louis. Moka: Mahatma Gandhi Institute, 1993 ISBN 99903-39-00-7 Michel Missoffe: Dupleix et La Bourdonnais: essai critique. Paris: Ligue maritime et coloniale, 1943 Dureau Reydellet: Mahé de La Bourdonnais, gouverneur des Mascareignes.
Saint-Denis: Éd. CNH, 1994 ISBN 2-909471-14-4 Louis Roubaud: La Bourdonnais. Publication: Paris: Plon, 1932 Jackie Ryckebusch: Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais: entre les Indes et les Mascareignes. Sainte-Clotilde: Éd. du CRI, 1989 ISBN 2-907017-05-5 Robert Surcouf: Souvenirs historiques sur Mahé de La Bourdonnais: le combat de La Hogue. Eloge de La Tour d'Auvergne. Portzmoguer. Saint-Malo, 1886 Le Guide de Pondichéry. L'unique guide français de Pondichéry. Editions Presse Bureau 2008/2009. Pondicherry. Pondicherry Heritage Trail. Published by INTACH, Pondicherry. December 2007. Media related to François Mahé de La Bourdonnais at Wikimedia Commons
War of the Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession involved most of the powers of Europe over the issue of Archduchess Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included peripheral events such as King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, the First and Second Silesian Wars; the cause of the war was Maria Theresa's alleged ineligibility to succeed to her father Charles VI's various crowns, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. This was to be the key justification for France and Prussia, joined by Bavaria, to challenge Habsburg power. Maria Theresa was supported by Britain, the Dutch Republic and Saxony. Spain, at war with Britain over colonies and trade since 1739, entered the war on the Continent to re-establish its influence in northern Italy, further reversing Austrian dominance over the Italian peninsula, achieved at Spain's expense as a consequence of Spain's war of succession earlier in the 18th century.
The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, by which Maria Theresa was confirmed as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary, but Prussia retained control of Silesia. The peace was soon to be shattered, when Austria's desire to recapture Silesia intertwined with the political upheaval in Europe, culminating in the Seven Years' War; the immediate cause of the War of the Austrian Succession was the death of Emperor Charles VI and the inheritance of the Habsburg Monarchy collectively referred to as'Austria'. The 1703 Mutual Pact of Succession between Emperor Leopold and his sons Joseph and Charles agreed that if the Habsburgs became extinct in the male line, their possessions would go first to female heirs of Joseph those of Charles. Since Salic law excluded women from the inheritance, this required approval by the various Habsburg territories and the Imperial Diet. Joseph died in 1711, leaving two daughters, Maria Josepha and Maria Amalia and Charles became the last male Habsburg heir in the direct line.
In April 1713, he issued the Pragmatic Sanction, permitting female inheritance but placing his own hypothetical daughters ahead of Joseph's. When Charles' daughter Maria Theresa was born in 1717, ensuring her succession dominated the rest of his reign. In 1719 Charles required his nieces Maria Joseph and Maria Amalia to renounce their rights in Maria Theresa's favour in order to marry Frederick Augustus of Saxony and Charles Albert of Bavaria respectively. Charles hoped these marriages would secure his daughter's position since neither Saxony or Bavaria could tolerate the other gaining control of the Habsburg inheritance but his actions undermined the logic of the settlement. A family issue became a European one due to tensions within the Holy Roman Empire, caused by dramatic increases in the size and power of Bavaria and Saxony, mirrored by the post 1683 expansion of Habsburg power into lands held by the Ottoman Empire. Further complexity arose from the fact that the theoretically elected position of Holy Roman Emperor had been held by the Habsburgs since 1437.
These were the centrifugal forces behind a war that reshaped the traditional European balance of power. Bavaria and Saxony refused to be bound by the decision of the Imperial Diet, while in 1738 France agreed to back the'just claims' of Charles of Bavaria, despite accepting the Pragmatic Sanction in 1735. Attempts to offset this involved Austria in the 1734-1735 War of the Polish Succession and the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739, it was weakened by the losses incurred. Compounded by the failure to prepare Maria Theresa for her new role, many European statesmen were sceptical Austria could survive the contest that would follow Charles' death, which occurred in October 1740; the war can be divided into three distinct conflicts. In the second, France aimed to weaken Austria in Germany, while Spain sought to recapture territories in Italy lost after the War of the Spanish Succession. In the end, French conquest of the Austrian Netherlands gave them clear dominance on land, while Britain's naval victories made it more dominant at sea.
For much of the eighteenth century, France approached its wars in the same way: It would either let its colonies defend themselves, or would offer only minimal help, anticipating that fights for the colonies would be lost anyway. This strategy was, to a degree, forced upon France: geography, coupled with the superiority of the British navy, made it difficult for the French navy to provide significant supplies and support to French colonies. Several long land borders made an effective domestic army imperative for any ruler of France. Given these military necessities, the French government, based its strategy overwhelmingly on the army in Europe: it would keep most of its army on the European continent, hoping that such a force would be victorious closer to home. At the end of the War of Austrian Succession, France gave back its European conquests, while recovering such lost overseas possessions as Louisbourg restoring the status quo ante as far as France was concerned; the British—by inclination as well as for pragmatic reasons—had tended to avoid large-scale commitments of troops on the Continent.
They sought to offset the disadvantage this created in Europe by allying themselves
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
Curtis Barnett, was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the War of the Austrian Succession, commanding ships in the Mediterranean and in the English Channel, before being appointed a commodore in 1744 he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, East Indies, he served with moderate success, but died after a short illness on board a British ship at Fort St. David, Cuddalore in 1746. Barnett was reputedly the son of first lieutenant of HMS Stirling Castle. Benjamin was lost with his ship when she was wrecked on the Goodwin Sands on 27 November 1703, in the Great Storm of 1703. Curtis Barnett's date of birth and his early service is not recorded. In the summer of 1730 Barnett was appointed to command the sloop HMS Spence on the coast of Ireland, early in the following year he was promoted to command the frigate HMS Bideford fitting out for the Mediterranean as part of the fleet under Admiral Sir Charles Wager. In October he was at Leghorn and Wager sent him with despatches for the king of Spain at Seville.
‘The despatches I brought,’ he reported to the Admiralty, ‘gave great satisfaction to the king of Spain, pleased to present me with a diamond ring, ordered his ministers to thank me for my diligence and despatch’. On his return through the Straits on 24 November 1731, he encountered a French merchant ship, which fired at Bideford, taking her for a Sallee rover, only to be forced to apologize after a short action. Barnett continued in Bideford as part of the Mediterranean Fleet for three years, returning home in August 1734. On 1 August 1737 he turned over to the 60-gun HMS Dragon, continued in the English Channel for some time after the declaration of war with Spain, when, in October 1740, he was sent out to join Admiral Nicholas Haddock off Cadiz. In July 1741 he was detached with the 40-gun ships HMS Folkeston and Faversham to cruise in the Straits. Barnett hailed the Aquilon. Barnett suspected. So, after repeated warnings, he fired into the Aquilon; the Folkestone only was in company. Barnett on this sent a boat on board the Borée, to explain to the French commodore, M. de Caylus, that what had happened was due to the captain of the Aquilon, who had behaved with great want of politeness.
M. de Caylus, after some discussion, said that from the manner of the English attack he had concluded there was war between the two countries, desired the Dragon's officer to declare, on his honour, that there was not. It was an unfortunate affair; when Haddock was compelled by ill-health to leave the fleet, the command devolved for a short time on Rear-Admiral Richard Lestock, between whom and Barnett a difference of opinion gave rise to a correspondence which, viewed by the light of after events, seems to have an prophetic significance. It would appear that in manœuvring the fleet, the Dragon and some of the other ships had not got into their station with that quickness which the admiral wished, he accordingly wrote a severe reprimand to their respective captains, on 14 April 1742. Barnett replied. Lestock, in reply, asked, ‘Is it your duty to see two-thirds of the squadron sacrificed to the enemy when you could and did not join in the battle? Such an account ill to our country after the loss of a battle.
A few weeks he turned over to the 50-gun HMS Deptford, was appointed commodore of a small squadron ordered to the East Indies. With this he put to sea on 1 May 1744, on the 26th anchored in Porto Praya. There was in the bay a Spanish privateer, which at first Barnett had no intention of disturbing, out of respect to the neutrality of Portugal; the prizes he restored to their former owners, sold the privateer to the Portuguese for 1,200 dollars. After they had passed St. Paul's the squadron was divided, part of it making for the Strait of Malacca; the governor of Batavia bought them for 92,000l. Cash down, at once shared out amongst the ships' companies, but with these captures the war in Indian seas was for the time ended. The French had n