Charles Melvin Price
Melvin Price was a longtime member of the United States House of Representatives. Most notably, he served as the chairman of the United States House Committee on Armed Services between 1975 and 1985, he lost this position at the beginning of the 99th United States Congress. Overthrowing a committee chairman was not a common occurrence at that time, but a majority of the House Democratic Caucus seemed to feel that the aged Price was no longer up to the job. In addition, while liberal on domestic issues, was notably more supportive of defense spending than most Democrats; when it came to choosing Price's successor, the Caucus bypassed several other old hawkish members of the committee in favor of Les Aspin, not only much younger than Price and other more senior members, but seemed closer in his defense policy preferences to the majority of the Democratic Caucus. Price was born in East St. Louis and graduated from St. Louis University High School and Saint Louis University. After graduating, he worked for several years as a journalist before taking work as a secretary for Congressman Edwin Schaefer in 1933.
He served there for ten years, after which he joined the U. S. Army in 1943, at the height of World War II, he was elected to Congress in his own right in 1944. During his time in Congress, he chaired the Ethics Committee and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, he remained in Congress until his death. Congressman Price is most famous for his role in enacting the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act, he died in 1988 of pancreatic cancer. Price is the namesake of the Melvin Price Locks and Dam, near Alton, Illinois on the Upper Mississippi River, the Melvin Price Federal Building and United States Courthouse in East St. Louis. List of United States Congress members who died in office Congressional Biographical Dictionary entry Charles Melvin Price at Find a Grave Louisa H. Bowen Special Collections and University Archives at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville houses Congressman Price's papers Appearances on C-SPAN
Lincoln is a city in Logan County, United States. It is the only town in the United States, named for Abraham Lincoln before he became president. First settled in the 1830s, Lincoln is home to two prisons; the two colleges are Lincoln Christian University. It is the home of the world's largest covered wagon and numerous other historical sites along the Route 66 corridor; the population was 14,504 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Logan County; the town was named on August 27, 1853, in an unusual ceremony. Abraham Lincoln, having assisted with the platting of the town and working as counsel for the newly laid Chicago & Mississippi Railroad which led to its founding, was asked to participate in a naming ceremony for the town. On this date, the first sale of lots took place in the new town. Ninety were sold at prices ranging from $40 to $150. According to tradition Lincoln was present. At noon he carried one under each arm to the public square. There he invited Latham and Gillette, proprietors, to join him, saying, "Now we'll christen the new town," squeezing watermelon juice out on the ground.
Legend has it that when it had been proposed to him that the town be named for him, he had advised against it, saying that in his experience, "Nothing bearing the name of Lincoln amounted to much." The town of Lincoln was the first city named after Abraham Lincoln, while he was a lawyer and before he was President of the United States. Lincoln College, a private four-year liberal arts college, was founded in early 1865 and granted 2 year degrees until 1929. News of the establishment and name of the school was communicated to President Lincoln shortly before his death, making Lincoln the only college to be named after Lincoln while he was living; the College has an excellent collection of Abraham Lincoln–related documents and artifacts, housed in a museum, open to the general public. The City of Lincoln was located directly on U. S. Route 66 from 1926 through 1978; this is its secondary tourist theme after the connection with Abraham Lincoln. American author Langston Hughes spent one year of his youth in Lincoln.
On, he was to write to his eighth-grade teacher in Lincoln, telling her his writing career began there in the eighth grade, when he was elected class poet. American theologians Reinhold Niebuhr and Helmut Richard Niebuhr lived in Lincoln from 1902 through their college years. Reinhold Niebuhr first served as pastor of a church when he served as interim minister of Lincoln's St. John's German Evangelical Synod church following his father's death. Reinhold Niebuhr is best known as the author of the Serenity Prayer; the City of Lincoln features three-story, domed Logan County Courthouse. This courthouse building replaced the earlier Logan County Courthouse where Lincoln once practiced law. In addition, the Postville Courthouse State Historic Site contains a 1953 replica of the original 1840 Logan County courthouse. Lincoln was the site of the Lincoln Developmental Center. Founded in 1877, the institution was one of Logan County's largest employers until closed in 2002 by former Governor George Ryan due to concerns about patient maltreatment.
Despite efforts by some Illinois state legislators to reopen LDC, the facility remains shuttered. Lincoln is located between Bloomington and Springfield. In addition Illinois Route 10 and Illinois Route 121 run into the city and Illinois Route 121 now ends in Lincoln. According to the 2010 census, Lincoln has a total area of all land. Amtrak serves Lincoln Station daily with its Lincoln Texas Eagle routes. Service consists of four Lincoln Service round-trips between Chicago and St. Louis, one Texas Eagle round-trip between San Antonio and Chicago. Three days a week, the Eagle continues on to Los Angeles. Lines of the Union Pacific and Canadian National railroads run through the city. Salt Creek and the Edward R. Madigan State Fish and Wildlife Area are nearby. According to the 2010 United States Census, Lincoln had 14,504 people. Among non-Hispanics this includes 13,262 White, 528 Black, 118 Asian, 227 from two or more races; the Hispanic or Latino population included 336 people. There were 5,877 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with children & no husband present, 40.1% were non-families.
33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 29.7% had someone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.83. The population was spread out with 78.5% over the age of 18 and 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.0 years. The gender ratio was 47.9% male & 52.1% female. Among 5,877 occupied households, 64.6% were owner-occupied & 35.4% were renter-occupied. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,369 people, 5,965 households, 3,692 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,596.6 people per square mile. There were 6,391 housing units at an average density of 1,079.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.79% White, 2.82% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from ot
Edward Patrick "Slip" Madigan was an American football player and coach of football and baseball. He served as the head coach at Saint Mary's College of California from 1921 to 1939 and at the University of Iowa from 1943 to 1944, compiling a career college football record of 119–58–13. Madigan was the head basketball coach at Saint Mary's from 1921 to 1927 and the head baseball coach at the school from 1926 to 1930, he played football at the University of Notre Dame as a center. Madigan was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1974. Madigan played college football for Knute Rockne at the University of Notre Dame, playing the center position. After his playing days, he took over a floundering football program at Saint Mary's College of California in Moraga, California in 1921. In their final game in 1920, the Gaels lost to California, 127–0. Madigan recruited sixty men and taught them Notre Dame's plays and some tricks of his own, including the "forward fumble." By 1927, Saint Mary's College developed into one of the strongest football programs on the West Coast.
They defeated programs such as USC, UCLA, Stanford. The Stanford team they defeated in 1927 went on to play in the Rose Bowl, as did the USC team they defeated in 1931. Though the school's enrollment exceeded 500, the Galloping Gaels of Saint Mary's became a nationally known football powerhouse; the most notable win came in 1930. Fordham was a heavy favorite, as the Rams had won 16 straight games going back to 1928, they featured the first version of a defense known as the "Seven Blocks of Granite," a formidable unit that would include the likes of Vince Lombardi. Saint Mary's recovered from a 12–0 halftime deficit to win, 20–12; the Gaels were known for their flashy style that reflected the personality of their flamboyant coach. Madigan traveled to New York for the Fordham game with 150 fans on a train, labeled "the world's longest bar." To stir up publicity for the game, he threw a party the night before and invited not only sportswriters but such celebrities as Babe Ruth and New York mayor Jimmy Walker.
After the 1938 season, Saint Mary's was invited to the Cotton Bowl Classic, where they defeated Texas Tech, 20–13. After the 1939 season, the successful and controversial Slip Madigan was fired at Saint Mary's after 19 years of coaching, he had a 117–45–12 record at Saint Mary's. Saint Mary's never again came close to the football success they had under Madigan, in 2004, the school dropped football altogether. Madigan was the 16th coach of the Iowa Hawkeyes, where he coached in 1943 and 1944, he was an interim coach for Eddie Anderson, serving in World War II. However, the University of Iowa at that time had to share their athletic facilities with a local military academy, nearly all the able-bodied men in Iowa City found their way into the military school. Madigan's Iowa roster was filled with players with conditions that exempted them from military service. Madigan coached some good performances out of the 1943 Hawkeyes. Though they had a record of just 1–6–1, they played respectably in losses.
As a result, Madigan was retained in 1944. However, the 1944 season was similar to 1943. Madigan suggested that he would be finished with coaching at the end of the year, which may have inspired Iowa to a 27–6 victory over Nebraska, but Iowa ended the year with a 1–7 record. Madigan retired for good. A relative of Alameda County Sheriff Frank Madigan. Slip Madigan died in 1966 and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1974, he is buried at Saint Mary Cemetery in Oakland. Slip Madigan at the College Football Hall of Fame Slip Madigan at Find a Grave
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Thomas Gilbert Loeffler is a Republican former member of the United States House of Representatives from central Texas. He was an advisor and fundraiser to the 2008 presidential campaign of U. S. Senator John McCain of Arizona until resigning on May 19, 2008. Loeffler was born in Fredericksburg in the heart of the Texas Hill Country and attended school in Mason in Mason County, he earned B. B. A. and a Juris Doctor degrees from the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Texas School of Law. In 1971, after just one year of private practice, he was hired by the U. S. Department of Commerce. Republican U. S. Senator John Tower made Loeffler his chief counsel in 1972. Two years he became a deputy for the United States Department of Energy. Loeffler was a legislative assistant to U. S. President Gerald R. Ford, Jr. from 1975 to 1977. He ran for Congress in 1978 against the Democrat Nelson Wolff, now the county judge of Bexar County; the two-term Democratic incumbent, Bob Krueger, gave up the seat to make an unsuccessful run for the Senate.
Loeffler polled 57 percent of the ballots cast in the campaign against Wolff–a sharp turnabout from 1976, in which Krueger took 71 percent of the vote. However, the district had been moving away from its Democratic roots for some time. Loeffler was a delegate to all three Republican National Conventions during the 1980s, he would never face another contest nearly as close as his first one, was reelected three more times by over 70 percent of the vote. After four terms in the House, he stepped down to run for governor of Texas but lost a hard-fought Republican primary election to the eventual winner, Bill Clements. Another losing contender was former U. S. Representative Kent Hance, who had defeated George W. Bush for Congress in 1978 in the Lubbock-based district. After his congressional career, Loeffler was appointed to the Office of Legislative Affairs as the coordinator for Central American policies. In 1989, Loeffler became a University of Texas administrator. Loeffler works in Washington, D.
C. as a lobbyist with Gray Loeffler LLC representing clients including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Like Loeffler, Clements is active in the McCain presidential campaign. Loeffler is the father of long snapper Cullen Loeffler, his other son, Lance "Shooter" Loeffler, is an oil and gas executive with Halliburton in Houston, TX. Lance worked in investment banking, holding senior level positions with both Deutsche Bank in their energy practice and UBS in their energy and healthcare practices. Gray Loeffler LLC Appearances on C-SPAN
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl