Nine Years' War
It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, and in North America. Louis XIV of France had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, Louis XIVs decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims. The main fighting took place around Frances borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, the fighting generally favoured Louis XIVs armies, but by 1696 his country was in the grip of an economic crisis. The Maritime Powers were exhausted, and when Savoy defected from the Alliance all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their Barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. In the years following the Franco-Dutch War Louis XIV of France – now at the height of his powers – sought to impose religious unity in France, and to solidify and expand his frontiers.
Louis XIV, along with his chief advisor Louvois, his foreign minister Colbert de Croissy, Vauban had advocated a system of impregnable fortresses along the frontier that would keep Frances enemies out. To construct a system, the King needed to acquire more land from his neighbours to form a solid forward line. The King grabbed the necessary territory through what is known as the Réunions, a strategy that combined legalism, the Treaty of Nijmegen and the earlier Treaty of Westphalia provided Louis XIV with the justification for the Reunions. These treaties had awarded France territorial gains, but because of the vagaries of the language they were notoriously imprecise and self-contradictory, these courts usually found in Louis XIVs favour. By 1680 the disputed County of Montbéliard had been separated from the Duchy of Württemberg, the Chamber of Reunion of Metz soon laid claims to land around the Three Bishoprics of Metz and Verdun, and most of the Spanish Duchy of Luxembourg. The fortress of Luxembourg itself was blockaded with the intention of it becoming part of Louis XIVs defensible frontier.
By forcibly taking the Imperial city the French now controlled two of the three bridgeheads over the Rhine, on the same day that Strasbourg fell French forces marched into Casale in northern Italy. Thus, the Reunions were carving territory from the frontiers of Germany, since Leopold Is intervention in the Franco-Dutch War Louis XIV had considered the Emperor his most dangerous enemy, yet the French king had little reason to fear him. Leopold I was weak in Germany, and was in danger along his Hungarian borders where the Ottoman Turks were threatening to overrun all central Europe from the south. Louis had encouraged and assisted the Ottoman drive against Leopold Is Habsburg lands, when the Turks besieged Vienna in the spring of 1683 Louis did nothing to help the defenders. Taking advantage of the Ottoman threat in the east Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands on 1 September 1683 and renewed the siege of Luxembourg, spains military options were highly limited, yet the Ottoman defeat before Vienna on 12 September had emboldened them.
In the hope that Leopold I would now make peace in the east and come to their assistance, the Emperor had decided to continue the Turkish war in the Balkans and, for the time being, compromise in the west
Kingdom of England
In the early 11th century the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, united by Æthelstan, became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway. The completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown, from the accession of James I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland. Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament and this concept became legally established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its state the United Kingdom. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning land of the English, by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period.
The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French, by the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum, Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first king to call himself King of England. In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with use of Rex Anglie. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum, from the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. In 1604 James VI and I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy, East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex, Sussex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, and native Anglo-Saxon life in general, the English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, the decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful. It absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825, the kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore, in 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he apparently regarded as a turning point in his reign. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred, asser added that Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations armed forces, fire service or police. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different military formations, but is often subdivided into senior and junior ranks, in navies it is often equivalent to the army rank of captain, it may indicate a particular post rather than a rank. The rank is used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services. Lieutenant may appear as part of a used in various other organisations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is second-in-command, and as such, for example, a lieutenant master is likely to be second-in-command to the master in an organisation using both ranks. Political uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, and Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics, in the United Kingdom, a lord lieutenant is the sovereigns representative in a county or lieutenancy area, while a deputy lieutenant is one of the lord lieutenants deputies. However, their efforts failed, and the French word is used, along with its many variations.
The early history of the pronunciation is unclear, Middle English spellings suggest that the /luː-/ and /lɛf-/ pronunciations may have existed even then. The rare Old French variant spelling luef for Modern French lieu supports the suggestion that a final of the Old French word was in certain environments perceived as an, in Royal Naval tradition—and other English-speaking navies outside the United States—a reduced pronunciation /ləˈtɛnənt/ is used. This is not recognised as current by recent editions of the OED, conventionally and other services or branches which use army-style rank titles have two grades of lieutenant, but a few use a third, more junior, rank. Where more junior officers were employed as deputies to the lieutenant, they went by names, including second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant, ensign. The senior grade of lieutenant is known as first lieutenant in the United States, and as lieutenant in the United Kingdom, in countries which do not speak English, the rank title usually translates as lieutenant, but may translate as first lieutenant or senior lieutenant.
The Israel Defense Forces rank segen literally translates as deputy, which is equivalent to a lieutenant, there is great variation in the insignia used worldwide. In most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, as well as a number of European and South American nations, an example of an exception is the United States, whose armed forces distinguish their lieutenant ranks with one silver bar for first lieutenant and one gold bar for second lieutenant. Second lieutenant is usually the most junior grade of commissioned officer, in non-English-speaking countries, the equivalent rank title may translate as second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or junior lieutenant. Non-English terms include alferes, alférez, fänrik, Leutnant, poručík, a few non-English-speaking militaries maintain a lower rank, frequently translated as third lieutenant OF1c. The rank title may translate as second lieutenant, junior lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or ensign. Warsaw Pact countries standardised their ranking systems on the Soviet system, some of the former Soviet and Warsaw Pact nations have now discarded the third rank while many retain it like Bulgaria
First Lord of the Admiralty
The Admiralty Commission was dissolved in 1701, but was reconstituted in 1709 on the death of Prince George of Denmark, who had been appointed Lord High Admiral. The office has held in commission from that time onwards, however. The Board of the Admiralty comprised a number of “Lords Commissioners” headed by a First Lord, from the early 1800s the post was always held by a civilian. In 1832 First Lord Sir James Graham instituted reforms and amalgamated the Board of Admiralty, by the provisions of the Admiralty Act of 1832, two Lords in committee could legalize any action of the Board. In 1868 Prime Minister, William Gladstone appointed Hugh Childers First Lord, however these changes restricted communication between the board members who were affected by these new regulations and the sittings of the Board were discontinued altogether. This situation described was further exacerbated by the disaster of HMS Captain in 1870 a poorly designed new vessel for the navy. However by describing the Lords of the Admiralty as the assistants of the First Lord, in 1931 for the First time since 1709 the First Lord was not a member of the cabinet. M. S.
Pinafore, is Sir Joseph Henry Porter, KCB, the counterparts shared a known lack of naval background. It has been suggested the character was drawn on Smiths actual Radical predecessor of 1868–71, the Making of the Modern Admiralty, British Naval Policy-Making, 1805-1927
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, the second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britains Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and he was replaced by his eldest, Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. James made one attempt to recover his crowns from William. After the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and he lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV. James, the surviving son of King Charles I and his wife. Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud and he was educated by private tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral, the position was honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, as the Kings disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War, James stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, in 1648, he escaped from the Palace, aided by Joseph Bampfield, and from there he went to The Hague in disguise. When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed Jamess older brother as Charles II of England, Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France, like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and against their Spanish allies.
In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he ventures himself, in the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, in consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turennes army. James quarrelled with his brother over the choice of Spain over France. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace, doubtful of his brothers chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position, by the year the situation in England had changed. After Richard Cromwells resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children
William Russell, Lord Russell
For the M. P. murdered in 1840, see Lord William Russell. William Russell, Lord Russell, was an English politician, born Hon. William Russell, he was the third son of William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford, created Duke of Bedford, and Lady Anne Carr. After the death of his elder brother Francis, he gained the title of Baron Russell and was thus referred to as Lord Russell. He and Francis were at Cambridge University in 1654 and they travelled abroad, visiting Lyon and Geneva, residing for a time at Augsburg. Russells account makes for a depiction of his travels. The two made their way to Paris by 1658, and had returned to Woburn Abbey, Woburn by December 1659. At the Restoration in 1660, when Charles II took the throne, Russell was elected as a Member of Parliament for the borough of Tavistock, a seat traditionally held by a member of his family. For many years, Russell appears not to have active in public affairs, but to have indulged in court intrigue. In 1663 and 1664 he was engaged in two duels, he was wounded in the second one, in 1669, at age 30, he married the widowed Lady Vaughn.
He thus became connected with the Earl of Shaftesbury, who had married his wifes cousin and they had a close and affectionate marriage. It was not until the formation of the party, which opposed the policies of the Cabal and Charles IIs Franco-Catholic policies. With a passionate zeal against Roman Catholicism, and a love of political liberty. He supported the proceedings against the Duke of Buckingham, in 1675, Russell moved an address to the king for the removal from royal councils and impeachment of the Earl of Danby. On 15 February 1677, in the debate on the 15 months prorogation, he moved the dissolution of Parliament, the French king therefore found it easy to form a temporary alliance with Russell and the opposition leaders. They sought to cripple the power of hurting France and to compel him to seek Louiss friendship. Russell entered into communication with the Marquis de Ruvigny, who came over to England with money for distribution among members of parliament. By the testimony of Barillon, however, it is clear that Russell himself refused to take any French payments.
Russell threw himself into the party which looked to James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth to take the throne, an son of Charles, as the representative of Protestant interests
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Portsmouth (UK Parliament constituency)
Portsmouth was a borough constituency based upon the borough of Portsmouth in Hampshire. It returned two members of parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the constituency first elected MPs in 1295. It was abolished at the 1918 general election, when the Representation of the People Act 1918 divided it into three new constituencies, Portsmouth North, Portsmouth South and Portsmouth Central. According to Namier and Brooke in The House of Commons 1754–1790, the town was known as an Admiralty borough and at least one MP was usually an Admiral. The Earl of Sandwich was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1771 to 1782 and he imposed tighter Admiralty control over the borough. This change of policy led to an independent element of the local Council supporting challengers to the Admiralty candidates between 1774 and 1780, when party politics re-emerged in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Portsmouth was a predominantly Whig constituency. It only once elected a Tory Member of Parliament between 1790 and 1832, the Reform Act 1832 considerably expanded the electorate of the borough.
The freemen retained their ancient right franchise, but were outnumbered by the new occupier voters amongst the 1,295 electors registered in 1832, as a result of the expanded electorate the borough became more competitive. Contested elections became the norm rather than the exception, as they had been before the Reform Act, candidates with naval connections continued to be frequent in Portsmouth, after the Reform Act. The borough developed into a marginal constituency, particularly in the last half century of its existence, the parliamentary borough of Portsmouth was a major seaport and naval base on the south coast of England. It is situated in the county of Hampshire, from the 1885 general election until the dissolution before the 1918 election the constituency was surrounded by the Fareham seat. Notes The bloc vote system was used in two seat elections and first past the post for single member by-elections. Each voter had up to as many votes as there were seats to be filled, votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings.
Note on percentage change calculations, Where there was one candidate of a party in successive elections, for the same number of seats. Where there was more than one candidate, in one or both successive elections for the number of seats, change is calculated on the individual percentage vote. Note on sources, The information for the results given below is taken from Sedgwick 1715–1754, Namier and Brooke 1754–1790, Stooks Smith 1790–1832. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information or differs from the other sources this is indicated in a note after the result, Stooks Smith was the source for the number of electors voting. He classified Carter and Baring as Whigs, Rowley as a Tory, Stooks Smith gives a registered electorate figure of 1,517, but Craigs figure is used to calculate turnout
Williamite War in Ireland
It is called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland. The cause of the war was the deposition of James as King of the Three Kingdoms in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, James was supported by the mostly Catholic Jacobites in Ireland and hoped to use the country as a base to regain his Three Kingdoms. He was given support by France to this end. For this reason, the war part of a wider European conflict known as the Nine Years War. Some Protestants of the established Church in Ireland fought on the side of King James, James was opposed in Ireland by the mostly Protestant Williamites, who were concentrated in the north of the country. William landed a force in Ireland, composed of English, Dutch and other troops. James left Ireland after a reverse at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, William defeated Jacobitism in Ireland and subsequent Jacobite risings were confined to Scotland and England. However, the War was to have an effect on Ireland, confirming British. The iconic Williamite victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne are still celebrated by unionists in Ireland today, the war in Ireland began as a direct consequence of the Glorious Revolution in England.
James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland, who was a Roman Catholic, attempted to introduce freedom of religion for Catholics and bypass the English Parliament to introduce unpopular laws. For many in England, this was an unpleasant reminder of the rule of Charles I, whose conflict with the Parliament led to the outbreak of the English Civil War. The breaking point in James relationship with the English political class came in June 1688 when his wife gave birth to a son. This fear led some political figures to conspire to invite William III, stadtholder of the provinces of the Dutch Republic. William had indicated that such an invitation would be a condition for a military intervention, the Dutch Republic was at the brink of war with the France of Louis XIV, the greatest military power in Europe. William invaded England in November 1688, Williams invasion fleet was aided by favourable weather that gave him weather gage over the British fleet, allowing him to outmaneuver them and land unopposed.
William landed at Brixham on 5 November 1688 with 18,000 troops, James fled to France after putting up only a token resistance. In 1689, Prince William and his wife Princess Mary Stuart became co-regents as King William III, while James II was unpopular in England, he had widespread popular support in Ireland. They had been defeated by 1652 and were punished by the English Commonwealth regime with land confiscations and they were largely disappointed with the failure of King Charles II to completely reverse this situation in the Act of Settlement 1662
First Sea Lord
The First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff is the professional head of the United Kingdoms Royal Navy and the whole Naval Service, originally the title was the First Naval Lord. The concept of a professional First Naval Lord was introduced in 1805, from 1923 onward, the First Sea Lord was a member of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, he now sits on the Defence Council and the Admiralty Board. The current First Sea Lord is Admiral Sir Philip Jones, the flagship of the First Sea Lord is HMS Victory. Lords High Admiral were appointed from the 15th century until the 18th, from 1683 to 1684, there were seven paid Commissioners and one supernumerary Commissioner who served without salary. The number varied between five and seven Commissioners through the 18th century, the standing of all the Commissioners was in theory the same, although the First Commissioner or First Lord exercised an ascendancy over his colleagues from an early date. The title of the First Naval Lord was changed to First Sea Lord on the appointment of Sir Jackie Fisher in 1904, in 1917, the First Sea Lord was designated as Chief of the Naval Staff.
The title was retained when the Board of Admiralty was abolished in 1964, under the current organisation, the First Sea Lord sits on both the Defence Council and the Admiralty Board. In John Buchans novel, The Thirty-Nine Steps, the First Sea Lord is named as Lord Alloa, the real First Sea Lord at the time the story is set was Prince Louis of Battenberg, coincidentally bearded. Chief of the Defence Staff Second Sea Lord Third Sea Lord Fourth Sea Lord Fifth Sea Lord Heathcote, the British Admirals of the Fleet 1734 -1995. Prince Louis of Battenberg, Admiral of the Fleet, Ruddock F. Fisher of Kilverstone