Dublin Castle off Dame Street, Ireland, was until 1922 the seat of the United Kingdom governments administration in Ireland, and is now a major Irish government complex. Most of it dates from the 18th century, though a castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland. The Castle served as the seat of English, later British government of Ireland under the Lordship of Ireland, the Kingdom of Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921, the complex was handed over to the newly formed Provisional Government led by Michael Collins. The castle today is a major tourist attraction and conferencing destination, the building is used for State dinners and most significantly, the inauguration of the presidents of Ireland. Dublin Castle fulfilled a number of roles through its history, the second in command in the Dublin Castle administration, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, had his offices there.
Over the years parliament and law courts met at the castle before moving to new purpose-built venues and it served as a military garrison. Castle Catholic was a term for Catholics who were considered to be overly friendly with or supportive of the British administration. Upon formation of the Free State in 1922, the castle assumed for a decade the role of the Four Courts on the Liffey quays which had been damaged during the Civil War. It was decided in 1938 that the inauguration of the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde would take place in the castle, two dedicated conference facilities, The Hibernia Conference Centre and The Printworks, were install for the European Presidencies of 1990 and 2013. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city. The city wall directly abutted the castles northeast Powder Tower, extending north, in 1620 the English-born judge Luke Gernon was greatly impressed by the wall, a huge and mighty wall, and of incredible thickness.
The Poddle was diverted into the city through archways where the walls adjoined the castle, one of these archways and part of the wall survive buried underneath the 18th-century buildings, and are open to public inspection. The building survived until 1673, when it was damaged by fire, the Court of Castle Chamber, the Irish counterpart to the English Star Chamber, sat in Dublin Castle in a room which was specially built for it about 1570. The Castle sustained severe damage in 1684. Extensive rebuilding transformed it from medieval fortress to Georgian palace, United Irishmen General Joseph Holt, a participant in the 1798 Rising, was incarcerated in the Bermingham Tower before being transported to New South Wales in 1799. In 1884 officers at the Castle were at the centre of a homosexual scandal incited by the Irish Nationalist politician William OBrien through his newspaper United Ireland. In 1907 the Irish Crown Jewels were stolen from the Castle, suspicion fell upon the Officer of Arms, Sir Arthur Vicars, but rumours of his homosexuality and links to socially important gay men in London, may have compromised the investigation
Irish House of Lords
The Irish House of Lords was the upper house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from medieval times until 1800. It was modelled on the House of Lords of England, with members of the Peerage of Ireland sitting in the Irish Lords, just as members of the Peerage of England did at Westminster. When the Act of Union 1800 abolished the Irish parliament, a subset of Irish peers sat in the House of Lords of the merged Parliament of the United Kingdom. They sat as a group, not as a separate House, from the establishment of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1542 the Lords included a large number of new Gaelic and Norman lords under the policy of surrender and regrant. By 1632 the Lord Baltimore established colonies in Newfoundland and Maryland, in 1634 the campaign to secure The Graces came to a head. Most of these Catholic lords lost their titles in the ensuing 1641 rebellion and these dispossessed lords were regranted their titles after the Restoration of 1660 by the Act of Settlement 1662. Others took the side in the Williamite War in Ireland.
By the 1790s most of the Lords personified and wanted to protect the Protestant Ascendancy, by the time of its abolition in 1800 some of the peerages were very ancient, such as the lords Kingsale, created in 1397, and the viscounts Gormanston from 1478. The first Earl of Kildare had been created in 1316, following the Act of Union in 1800, the peerage of Ireland elected just 28 of their number to sit in the United Kingdom House of Lords, described as the representative peers. This practice ended in 1922 with the establishment of the Irish Free State. Other newly created Irish peers, such as Clive of India and Lord Curzon, were able to stand for election to the UK House of Commons, without giving them a seat in the British House of Lords. This was a convenient way of giving a title for reasons of prestige to someone who expected to sit in the British House of Commons. Today the 18th century Irish Parliament building on College Green in Dublin is an office of the commercial Bank of Ireland and visitors can view the Irish House of Lords chamber within the building.
The Parliament of Ireland was a legislature, and bills could originate in either the Commons or the Lords. Either house could amend or reject the others proposals, the Lords was the highest court of appeal in Ireland, as the English Lords were in England. However, the controversial British Declaratory Act of 1719 asserted the right of the British Lords to overrule the Irish Lords, the Irish Patriot Party secured the repeal of the Declaratory Act as part of the Constitution of 1782. The House of Lords was presided over by the Lord Chancellor, who sat on the woolsack, sessions were formally opened by the Speech from the Throne by the Lord Lieutenant, who sat on the throne beneath a canopy of crimson velvet. Sessions were generally held at Dublin Castle in the 16th and 17th centuries, until the opening of the Irish Houses of Parliament in the 1730s
The Honorable Society of Kings Inns is the institution which controls the entry of barristers-at-law into the justice system of Ireland. The full title retains the spelling variant honorable in preference to the contemporary Hiberno-English spelling of honourable. The society was created in 1541,51 years before Trinity College, Dublin was founded, the founders named their society in honour of King Henry VIII of England and his newly established Kingdom of Ireland. The society secured a lease of lands at Inns Quay on the bank of the River Liffey in Dublin. The society was reconstituted in 1607, having been inactive for some time, the building was completed by his pupil Henry Aaron Baker. Only from the middle of the century onwards were courses of legal education provided at Kings Inns. Candidates who have a law degree may apply for the Degree of Barrister-at-Law. Alternatively, candidates without a law degree may undertake the societys Diploma in Legal Studies before presenting for the societys degree.
Those who are presented with the degree are entitled to be called to, in 2006, the society had an enrolment of approximately 300 students, whilst there are approximately 2,000 practising barristers. The library collection dates from the end of the 18th century, and was based on part of that of Christopher Robinson, senior judge of the Court of Kings Bench. Books were sold at auction at Sothebys, and a stock of them were sold to clients outside Ireland. This was seen at the time as a major cultural outflow, in addition, the societys library had received an annual grant since 1945 for the upkeep of the books from the Irish Exchequer. A Kings Inns team or individual has often won the prestigious Irish Times National Debating Championship, in 2006 the Inns hurling team competed in and won the Fergal Maher Cup in their inaugural year and have subsequently reached the final and semi-final. After crossing Bolton Street, Henrietta Street runs into Kings Inns Street, the latter was renamed due to its proximity to the Kings Inns.
In 1756, this appears as Turn Again Lane on Rocques map of Dublin. Henrietta Street is thought to have been named by Luke Gardiner in honour of Henrietta Somerset and her portrait by Enoch Seeman survives
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Francis Johnston (architect)
Francis Johnston was an Irish architect, best known for building the General Post Office on OConnell Street, Dublin. Johnston was born in Armagh, son of William Johnston and he studied architecture and practised in Armagh for some years before moving to Dublin about 1793. In 1805 he was appointed to the Board of Works as an architect, in 1824 he was made president of the Royal Hibernian Academy of Arts which had been founded the previous year, and he provided headquarters for the Academy in Lower Abbey Street at his own expense. Two early projects were the completion of Rokeby Hall and Ballymakenny Church, louth, to the designs of Thomas Cooley in whose office he first trained. Townley Hall,5 km west of Drogheda, built between 1794 and 1798, is considered his finest work and he was responsible for the design of Armagh Courthouse built between 1806 and 1809. At a time of rebuilding in Georgian Dublin, Johnston was one of the architects responsible for Sackville Street. The great Pillar and Post Office were designed to harmonise with other in the street adding grandeur.
His work is interesting from a point of view, in that it spans both the Neo-Classical and Neo-Gothic styles. His Chapel Royal in Dublin Castle is an example of an early Gothic revival church in Dublin. On this project he worked closely with the stuccodore George Stapleton, son of the better-known Michael Stapleton, among his other most notable projects were the construction of St. This gateway had to be moved to the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham after the arrival of the railway in 1847 increased traffic congestion, his little trick was uncovered when the gateway was taken down for removal. The coat of arms at present on the gateway is that of the Royal Hospital, the design of Ballynegall House, Co. Westmeath, built in 1808 is attributed to Johnston and this was a detached six-bay two-storey Regency style house, with the central two-bays brought forward as a breakfront and two-bay single-storey wings to north and south of main block. The house was sold to developers in 1962 and abandoned in the 1980s, little now remains except the gate lodge.
In 1813 he began work on Richmond Gaol as a prison to relieve the pressure on Newgate Prison, Dublin and he played a major role in designing Nelsons Pillar in Dublin, the construction of which was started in 1808. The original plans for the Pillar were submitted to the committee by William Wilkins, a London architect, Fellow of Caius College, Cambridge. However, for reason, the committee wrote that they were incapable of executing his design precisely as he had given it. Johnston afforded the necessary assistance with his ability, which. he did with the utmost cheerfulness
Chapel Royal, Dublin
The Chapel Royal in Dublin Castle was the official Church of Ireland chapel of the Household of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1814 until the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The creation of the new Irish state terminated the office of Lord Lieutenant, indeed, so difficult was the nature of the site that the chapel took seven years to build, though a contributory factor in both time and budget was the sheer opulence of its interior. The foundation stone was laid by the Lord-Lieutenant, John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford and it was completed behind schedule and opened on Christmas Day,1814, when Charles Whitworth, 1st Earl Whitworth was Lord-Lieutenant. Lord Whitworth contributed the centre portion of the large window above the altar, which he had purchased while in Paris. The surroundings are painted glass, executed by a Mr. Bradley in Dublin, at the apex of the window are the arms of Lord Whitworth. The decoration of the ceiling of the interior was done by George Stapleton, over the chancel window are three life-size figures representing Faith and Charity.
Over the galleries are heads representing Piety and Devotion, all the interior vaulting and columns are cast in timber and feature a paint wash to give the effect of stone. It was described as having the most flamboyant and luxurious Dublin interior of its era and this was the third chapel in the castle, and the second on this spot, since medieval times. Before the completion of the Chapel Royal the Lord-Lieutenants, their entourage, the enormous pulpit that used to dominate the Chapel Royal has now been removed to St. Werburghs. Behind one of the galleries is a passage leads to the bedrooms in the State Apartments. This was used by the Lord Lieutenant and his entourage when they were staying at the Castle during inclement weather and his pew was in the centre of the right-hand gallery. Directly facing him was the place for the bishop and it might seem as no co-incidence that Lord Whitworths arms appear directly at the Lord-Lieutenants position, a most prominent spot. The large organ, still playable, is said to have been a gift from Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria, the wooden decoration contains a carved head in the centre, which is said to be that of Turlough OCarolan, the famous Irish composer.
As each Lord Lieutenant left office, their coat of arms was carved on the gallery, and and it was noted by Irish nationalists that the last window available was taken up by the man who proved to be the last Lord Lieutenant, Viscount Fitzalan. In 1943, the became the property of the Irish Army. The Stations of the Cross were carved by the monks in Glenstal Abbey, though it has not been deconsecrated, neither Masses nor Divine Services take place there any more. It has however been restored to its nineteenth-century state and is open to the public. The crypt is sometimes used for cultural events, the Chapel was used in the television series The Tudors for scenes including the trial of Thomas More
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt.
/d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish.
Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Parliament House, Dublin
Parliament House in Dublin, was home to the Parliament of Ireland, and now houses the Bank of Ireland. It is located at College Green, construction started in 1729 and it was the worlds first purpose-built two-chamber parliament house. The current parliament building is Leinster House, most famously, the legal documentation facilitating the Plantation of Ulster had been signed in the house on 16 November 1612. Chichester House was in a state, allegedly haunted and unfit for parliamentary use. In 1727 parliament voted to spend £6,000 on the building of a new building on the site and it was to be the first purpose-built two-chamber parliament building in the world. While building was begun, Parliament moved into the Blue Coat Hospital on Dublins Northside, the foundation stone for the new building was laid on 3 February 1729 by Thomas Wyndham, 1st Baron Wyndham, the Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Pearces design for the new Parliament House was revolutionary, the building was effectively semi-circular in shape, occupying nearly 6,000 m² of ground.
Unlike Chichester House, which was set far back from Hoggen Green, the principal entrance consisted of a colonnade of Ionic columns extending around three sides of the entrance quadrangle, forming a letter E. Three statues, representing Hibernia and Commerce stood above the portico, over the main entrance, the royal coat of arms were cut in stone. The building itself underwent extensions by the architect James Gandon, as Pearce had died young, Gandon was responsible for three of Dublins finest buildings, the Custom House, the Four Courts and the Kings Inns. Between 1785 and 1789 he added a new entrance at the east of the building, facing onto Westmoreland Street. Over this, three statues by Edward Smyth were placed, representing Fortitude and Liberty, a curved wall joined the Pearce entrance to Gandons extension. This did not mark the exterior of the building but masked the uneven joins of some of the extension, as shown in the view at the bottom of this page. The wall, built of granite with inset alcoves, although an instantly recognisable aspect of the building today, bears little resemblance to the building as it was in its parliamentary days.
When the Bank of Ireland took over the building, it created an architectural unity by replacing this set of Ionic columns by a curved wall similar to that built on the east side by Gandon. Ionic columns were added to both curved walls, giving the extensions an architectural and visual unity that had been lacking and producing the buildings exterior as it is today. The interior of the house contained one unusual and highly symbolic feature, however, in the new Irish Houses of Parliament the House of Commons was given pride of place, with its octagonal parliamentary chamber located in the centre of the building. In contrast, the smaller House of Lords was given a position nearby
Edward Selby Smyth
General Sir Edward Selby Smyth, KCMG was a British General. He served as first General Officer Commanding the Militia of Canada from 1874 to 1880, educated at Putney College in Surrey, Smyth was commissioned in to the 2nd Queens Royal Regiment in 1841. He went straight to India only returning with his Regiment to England as Adjutant of his Battalion in 1846 and he went to South Africa in 1851 to protect the administration of the Orange River Sovereignty from attack by the Basotho and Khoikhoi people. In 1853 he was made Deputy Adjutant and Quartermaster-General of the 2nd Division in South Africa and Adjutant, in 1861 he was appointed Inspector-General of the Militia in Ireland and was involved in suppressing the early stages of the Fenian Rising. He was appointed General Officer Commanding British Troops in Mauritius in 1870 and he was made General Officer Commanding the Militia of Canada in 1874, he carried out the role successfully and was thanked by the Governor-General of Canada for protecting Montreal from rioting.
In 1848 he married Lucy Sophia Julia Campbell, daughter of Major-General Sir Guy Campbell, 1st Baronet, Sir Edward Selby Smyth at The Canadian Encyclopedia