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Edward VI of England

Edward VI was the King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine. Edward was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a regency council; the council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, who from 1551 was Duke of Northumberland. Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that in 1549 erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace; the transformation of the Church of England into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.

It was during Edward's reign that Protestantism was established for the first time in England with reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and the Mass, the imposition of compulsory services in English. In February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill; when his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a "Devise for the Succession", to prevent the country's return to Catholicism. Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir, excluding his half-sisters and Elizabeth; this decision was disputed following Edward's death, Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen. During her reign, Mary reversed Edward's Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mother's room inside Hampton Court Palace, in Middlesex, he was the son of King Henry VIII by Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, "whom we hungered for so long", with joy and relief.

Te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, "their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes". Queen Jane, appearing to recover from the birth, sent out signed letters announcing the birth of "a Prince, conceived in most lawful matrimony between my Lord the King's Majesty and us". Edward was christened on 15 October, with his half-sisters, the 21-year-old Lady Mary as godmother and the 4-year-old Lady Elizabeth carrying the chrisom; the Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, died the following night. Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that "Divine Providence... hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness". Edward was a healthy baby who suckled from the outset, his father was delighted with him. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported vigour; the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a life-threatening "quartan fever", despite occasional illnesses and poor eyesight, he enjoyed good health until the last six months of his life.

Edward was placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, "lady mistress" of the prince's household. She was succeeded by Lady Troy; until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, "among the women". The formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymour's wife, Anne Stanhope. Henry demanded exacting standards of security and cleanliness in his son's household, stressing that Edward was "this whole realm's most precious jewel". Visitors described the prince, lavishly provided with toys and comforts, including his own troupe of minstrels, as a contented child. From the age of six, Edward began his formal education under Richard Cox and John Cheke, concentrating, as he recalled himself, on "learning of tongues, of the scripture, of philosophy, all liberal sciences", he received tuition from Elizabeth's tutor, Roger Ascham, Jean Belmain, learning French and Italian. In addition, he is known to have studied geometry and learned to play musical instruments, including the lute and the virginals.

He collected globes and maps and, according to coinage historian C. E. Challis, developed a grasp of monetary affairs that indicated a high intelligence. Edward's religious education is assumed to have favoured the reforming agenda, his religious establishment was chosen by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a leading reformer. Both Cox and Cheke were "reformed" Catholics or Erasmians and became Marian exiles. By 1549, Edward had written a treatise on the pope as Antichrist and was making informed notes on theological controversies. Many aspects of Edward's religion were Catholic in his early years, including celebration of the mass and reverence for images and relics of the saints. Both Edward's sisters were attentive to their brother and visited him – on one occasion, Elizabeth gave him a shirt "of her own working". Edward "took special content" in Mary's company, though he disapproved of her taste for foreign dances. In 1543, Henry invited his children to spend Christmas with him, signalling hi

Jack Boddy

Jack Richard Boddy was a British trade union leader. Born in Norwich to a Quaker family, Boddy was educated at the City of Norwich School, he hoped to become a veterinary surgeon, but his parents could not afford the tuition, so he instead became a cowhand on a local farm. He became active in the National Union of Agricultural and Allied Workers, in 1943 he was promoted to become farm supervisor. In 1953, Boddy was appointed as the NUAAW's full-time organiser for Lincolnshire. In 1960, he moved to become the Norfolk district organiser, serving until 1978, when he was elected as the union's general secretary, defeating Arthur Leary, Len Pike and Jim Watts in a keenly-fought contest. In contrast to his predecessors, he was seen as a left-winger. On taking over, he realised, he focused on recruiting new members while cutting costs without laying off staff. However, these measures were insufficient, he negotiated a merger with the Transport and General Workers' Union. During this period, Boddy was active in local politics, representing the Labour Party on Norfolk County Council.

He served on the General Council of the Trades Union Congress from 1978 until 1983, on the European Economic and Social Committee, on the Industrial Injuries Advisory Committee. The merger took place in 1982, Boddy became the Group Secretary of the TGWU's new Agricultural and Allied Workers Trade Group, he retired in 1987, returning to local politics by serving on Breckland District Council and Swaffham Town Council. He served as Mayor of Swaffham in 1991/1992, only retired from the council in 2003. Disillusioned by the Iraq War, he resigned from the Labour Party, he died the following year

Wei├čer See (Berlin)

Weißer See is a lake in the Weissensee district of Berlin, Germany. Its surface area is 8.3011ha and volume 360,606m3. With a depth of 10.64m it is one of the deepest areas of water in Berlin. Its dimensions are approx. 300m East-West by 350m North-South. The lake and its surrounding landscape were shaped by the Weichsel ice age, it is embedded in the ground moraines of Niederbarnimer. During the melting of the ice a huge block of ice remained; this was the origin of today's Weisser See. Over the centuries settlements developed around the lake based on agriculture. During the past 150 years, through development of the near shore, the water balance and catchment area have been disturbed; as a reminder of the cultural heritage of the Sterneckerschen establishment, there still exists the Strandbad Weissensee, dating from 1912. In addition to its role as a bathing and recreation area, the Weisser See functions as an overflow lake for the Weissensee storm sewers; the water level in the lake is regulated by the Berlin water company and measured at the bathing place.

During times of low rainfall water from nearby sources can be pumped into the lake underneath the observation deck. Since the expense of the pumping is met by the surrounding district of Pankow, this additional water supply is limited by financial considerations. Notable in the Weisser See is a centre fountain of considerable height, which with the help of the Young Pioneers Diving Club is put into operation each year; the Weissensee Park surrounds the lake. On the banks of the lake there is a boat rental station and the historic Milchhäuschen, a café, well known in DDR times. Media related to Weißer See at Wikimedia Commons