Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Charles J. Carney
Charles Joseph Carney was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Born in Youngstown, Carney attended schools in Youngstown and neighboring Campbell, Ohio, he attended Youngstown State University. Carney was a member of the Ohio Senate from 1950 to 1970, serving as minority leader from 1969 to 1970. Prior to his involvement in public service, Carney was involved with Youngstown-area labor organizations, he served as a staff member of the vice-president, president, of the United Rubber Workers Union Local 102 from 1934 to 1950. He served as staff representative of United Steelworkers of America from 1950 to 1968. Carney served as vice-president of the Mahoning County CIO Industrial Council. Carney was elected as a Democrat in 1970, defeating attorney Richard McLaughlin, to the Ninety-first Congress, by special election, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of United States Representative Michael J. Kirwan, reelected to the four succeeding Congresses, from, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the Ninety-sixth Congress in 1978.
Charles Joseph Carney died on October 1987, in Youngstown, Ohio. He was interred in Calvary Cemetery. United States Congress. "Charles J. Carney". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
35th United States Congress
The Thirty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1857, to March 4, 1859, during the first two years of James Buchanan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. Panic of 1857 March 4, 1857. James Buchanan became President of the United States March 6, 1857: Dred Scott v. Sandford July 18, 1857: Utah Expedition left Fort Leavenworth beginning the Utah War August 21, 1858: First of the Lincoln-Douglas debates was held March 3, 1859: Financial appropriations for the improvement and construction of lighthouses. March 12, 1858: Treaty with the Ponca signed April 19, 1858: Treaty with the Yankton Sioux signed July 29, 1858: Harris Treaty signed with Japan May 11, 1858: Minnesota admitted as the 32nd state February 14, 1859: Oregon admitted as the 33rd state During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Minnesota and Oregon.
During this congress, two House seats were added for the new state of Minnesota and one House seat was added for the new state of Oregon. President: John C. Breckinridge President pro tempore: James M. Mason, March 4, 1857, only Thomas J. Rusk, elected March 14, 1857 Benjamin Fitzpatrick, elected December 7, 1857 Speaker of the House. James L. Orr This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, facing re-election in 1862; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 5 Democrats: no net change Whigs: no net change Republicans: no net change Americans: no net change deaths: 4 resignations: 1 interim appointments: 2 seats of newly admitted states: 4 Total seats with changes: 9 replacements: 10 Democrats: 3 seat net loss Whigs: 3 seat net gain Republicans: 1 seat net gain Independent Democrats: 1 seat net gain deaths: 5 resignations: 6 contested election:1 seats of newly admitted states: 3 Total seats with changes: 14 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Banks of the District of Columbia Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Military Affairs Military Asylum near Washington, D. C. Militia Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Pacific Railroad Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Land Claims Public Lands Retrenchment Revolutionary Claims Tariff Regulation Territories Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Engraving Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol.
Thomas U. Walter Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: none elected Secretary. Asbury Dickens elected December 1836 Sergeant at Arms. Dunning R. McNair Chaplain. William H. Milburn Clerk: James C. Allen Doorkeeper: Robert B. Hackney Messenger: Thaddeus Morrice Sergeant at Arms: Adam J. Glossbrenner Postmaster: Michael W. Cluskey Reading Clerks: United States elections, 1856 United States presidential election, 1856 United States Senate elections, 1856 and 1857 United States House of Representatives elections, 1856 United States elections, 1858 United States Senate elections, 1858 and 1859 United States House of Representatives elections, 1858 and 1859 Specific citations General references Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Congressional Directory for the 35th Congress, 1st Session
Ellsworth Raymond Bathrick
Ellsworth Raymond Bathrick was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Born January 6, 1863 near Pontiac, Michigan to Sumner Bathrick and Louisa Bathrick, he married May L. Clark in 1889. Bathrick was graduated from the Pontiac High School, he engaged in the importation of edible oils. In the 1890s, he was a reporter for a Cleveland newspaper, he engaged in the real estate business. Bathrick was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-third Congresses; because of gerrymandering, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1914 to the Sixty-fourth Congress. He resumed his former business pursuits. Bathrick was elected to the Sixty-fifth Congress and served from March 4, 1917, until his death in Akron, December 22, 1917. Though ill Bathrick continued his representation of Ohio for six months until the close of session in October, he died on December 1917 in Akron, Ohio. He was interred in Glendale Cemetery. Martin Luther Davey was elected to fill his congressional term. Bathrick was an ardent advocate for a large Navy, being known on the hill as "Battleship Bath".
He was a great advocate of Rural Credits, though the legislation was passed during the Sixty-fourth Congress, he was credited by his peers as being a great influence in the legislation. In his youth, Bathrick was a reporter for a Cleveland Newspaper. While a reporter, he turned his hand to writing children's stories. Being dissatisfied with the story, he placed it in a trunk, only to find it again around 1911. A friend convinced him to send it to a publisher, who made a few recommendations for changes and recommending it for publication. Bathrick, being ill, retired for the winter in Florida for his health. While there, he reworked the story and sent it back to the publisher, who published it not long after he died. Please Don't Worry The Magic Salt: The Fairy People The Magic Salt: The Soldier Bees The Magic Salt: The Wand of Power The Magic Salt: The Great Day United States Congress. "Ellsworth Raymond Bathrick". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.
List of United States Congress members who died in office
Woodland Cemetery (Cleveland)
Woodland Cemetery is a historic secular, public cemetery located at 6901 Woodland Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. Established in 1853, it became Cleveland's main public cemetery after its founding and remained so for the next half-century, it fell into extreme disrepair, most of its outstanding architectural features dismantled or demolished. In 1986, Woodland Cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the cemetery has since undergone moderate restoration. In 1832, Colonel George Bomford purchased 200 acres of land in Newburgh Township, a civil township on the outskirts of Cleveland, Ohio. Bomford sold 100 acres to John Whipple, 60 acres to Benjamin Franklin Butler, the United States Attorney General. In 1848, the Erie Street Cemetery was Cleveland's main public cemetery. Once located on the edge of the city, Erie Street Cemetery was now nearly enclosed by city streets. There was no room for expansion, the cemetery was filling. City officials began looking to purchase land in July 1848.
The city twice made offers to buy land at Kelly Street and Kinsman Avenue from owner J. W. Allen, but he refused to sell. City officials twice reached a tentative agreement to buy part of the land owned by W. H. Otis, but the city council declined to act on either agreement. A cholera epidemic in 1849 led to many deaths in Cleveland, which heightened the need for a new city cemetery; the Plain Dealer newspaper reported on June 14, 1851, that the city was close to reaching a deal to purchase 60 acres on the north side of Kinsman Avenue just east of St. John Cemetery. A "level plain of wood land", the burial ground was to be called Green Lawn Cemetery; the report proved accurate: On July 22, 1851, Butler offered to sell his land to the city. After further negotiations, Butler sold the land to the city on August 20, 1851, for $13,639.50. The city paid Butler half the price in cash, half in 10-year, 7 percent bonds; the total cost of the land was $23,189. By the beginning of January 1852, the city had hired landscape architect H. H. Blackmore to survey the cemetery grounds.
Design work appeared to be complete by the end of February, at which time Blackmore was paid $40 for his work. The city council approved the sale of timber from the land in April in order to finance improvements, by July work on grading roads and pathways and landscaping were well under way. A second landscape architect, Howard Daniels, was hired in October 1852 to complete the design of the cemetery. Paid $22 a day, Daniels employed a civil engineer, two drafters, an assistant while working on the property. Daniels designed Woodland to be a rural cemetery, with winding paths, plenty of trees, room for monumental funerary monuments. By April 1853, the entire 60 acres had been cleared of nearly all trees, 20 acres of the site enclosed by a split-rail fence. A boxwood hedge was planted along the fence. Of the enclosed area, 12 acres were ready for burials; the burial area was broken down into four sections, 1 mile of road wound through the site. A small gate was placed in the middle of the eastern side of the cemetery.
Wells were dug to provide water to the site. Two circles were established in the cemetery. One of the smaller circles was on Main Drive near the Kinsman Avenue entrance, with another small circle to its west. A much larger circle was in the center of the cemetery, officials intended to build a chapel there at a future date. A small mausoleum-like receiving vault, Gothic Revival in design, was built just east of the Kinsman Avenue entrance. On May 18, the city council tentatively decided on the name "Woodland Cemetery" for the new burying ground because of the wooded nature of the land; the name was formally adopted on June 8. Woodland Cemetery was opened and dedicated on June 14, 1853. More than 2,000 people attended the ceremony, among them Cleveland Mayor Abner C. Brownell, the entire city council, most of the city's clergy. Samuel Starkweather, attorney for Benjamin Butler attributed the cemetery's existence to council member Staughton Bliss, city cemetery sexton James A. Craw, architect Howard Daniels.
The total cost of the burial ground's construction was about $4,430. Prices for burial plots at the new cemetery ranged from $8 to $400; the first burial at Woodland Cemetery was that of 15-month-old Fanny Langshaw on June 23, 1853. A large number of monuments and mausoleums, many of which received high praise from The Plain Dealer for their aesthetic beauty, were erected in the cemetery in its first two years; the first major improvements to Woodland Cemetery came in 1855, when the city erected a wooden visitors' and office building on the grounds. Located near the Kinsman Avenue entrance, it consisted of a cemetery office, as well as a reception room and waiting rooms for use by the public; the total cost of the structure was $515. That same year, the city sexton began work on an extensive fresh water project in the cemetery; the sexton planned for several fountains to be added to Woodland, set aside the large circle in the middle of the cemetery for the largest fountain. A fish pond was envisioned for the as-yet undeveloped northern section of Woodland.
A committee of the city council began studying the cost and feasibility of piping water to the cemetery in 1863. In 1859, plans for a streetcar line to serve Woodland Cemetery began to be laid; the Woodland Avenue Street Railway, which utilized horse-drawn cars, began operation in 1859, with service to
W. Aubrey Thomas
William Aubrey Thomas was a U. S. Representative from Ohio. Born in Y Bynea, near Llanelly, Thomas immigrated to the United States in 1868 with his parents, who settled in Niles, Ohio, he attended the public schools of Niles, Mount Union College, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, where he majored in metallurgical chemistry. He was an analytical chemist in Niles from 1886 to 1888, was engaged in the iron and steel business, he served as president of The Mahoning Valley Steel Company. And as Secretary and director of the Niles Firebrick Co. Thomas was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-eighth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Charles W. F. Dick on this election to the Senate, he was reelected to the Fifty-ninth and Sixty-first Congresses and served from November 8, 1904, to March 3, 1911. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1910 to the Sixty-second Congress, he moved to Alabama in 1918, continued his interest in the manufacture of iron and firebrick. He served as president of the Jenifer Iron Co.
He died in Talladega, Alabama on September 8, 1951, aged 85. He was interred in Oak Hill Cemetery in Youngstown. Thomas became a Mason in 1887, was the youngest Master in Ohio when he led his lodge for two terms, he became a member of the Elks in 1892, was a Presbyterian. United States Congress. "W. Aubrey Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Charles W. F. Dick
Charles William Frederick Dick was a Republican politician from Ohio. He served in the United States House of Representatives and U. S. Senate. Born in Akron, his parents were Gottlieb Dick, Magdalena or "Lena" Dick, who immigrated to the United States from Heidelberg, Germany. On June 30, 1881, Dick married Carrie May Peterson, the daughter of Dr. James Holman Peterson and Caroline Van Evera, they had five children. James, Carl and Dorothy. Dick was a Scottish Rite Mason, Odd Fellow, Knight of Pythias. "Charley" Dick was educated in Akron, worked at several stores and banks. In 1886, he was the successful Republican nominee for Summit County Auditor, he was re-elected in 1888, he read law, was admitted to the bar in 1894. Dick was a delegate to the 1896 and 1900 Republican National Conventions, he was elected Chairman of the Ohio Republican Party in 1887 and 1891, served as the Secretary of the Republican National Committee from 1896 to 1900. In November 1885 Dick joined the Ohio Army National Guard as a private in Company B, 8th Ohio Infantry Regiment, he was commissioned as a first lieutenant a few days later.
His regiment volunteered for service in the Spanish–American War, Dick served in Cuba as a major and lieutenant colonel. He continued his military service after the war, attained the rank of major general as head of the Ohio National Guard. From 1902 to 1909 he was president of the National Guard Association of the United States, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives by a special election in 1898 to fill a vacancy created by the death of Stephen A. Northway, serving the 19th district. Dick was Chairman of the Militia Committee, sponsored the Militia Act of 1903; this act codified the circumstances under which the National Guard in each state could be federalized, provided federal resources for equipping and training the National Guard, required National Guard units to organize and meet the same readiness requirements as the regular Army. Dick served until he resigned in 1904, having been elected to the Senate to fill the vacancy created by the death of Marcus A. Hanna.
In the Senate he served as Chairman of the Mining Committee and the Committee on Indian Depredations. He was the head of a Congressional Committee which investigated hazing at the United States Military Academy, he served until 1911. While in Congress, he became one of the largest stockholders in the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, served as a Vice President and member of the Board of Directors. Dick practiced law after leaving the Senate, pursued a successful business career, including ownership of the Franklin Square Hotel in Washington, D. C. and the Hotel Chatham in New York City. He ran unsuccessfully for the U. S. House in 1918, losing to Martin L. Davey. In 1922 he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican U. S. Senate nomination. From 1941 until his death in Akron on March 13, 1945, Dick was the oldest living former US Senator, he was buried in Akron's Glendale Cemetery. Since 1988 the National Guard Association of the United States presents the annual Charles Dick Medal of Merit to recognize support for the National Guard by state and federal legislators.
United States Congress. "Charles W. F. Dick". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-05-16 "Charles W. F. Dick". Find a Grave. Retrieved May 16, 2009