House of York
The House of York was a cadet branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet. Three of its members became Kings of England in the late 15th century and it is based on these descents that they claimed the English crown. Compared with the House of Lancaster, it had a claim to the throne of England according to cognatic primogeniture. The reign of this dynasty ended with the death of Richard III of England in 1485 and it became extinct in the male line with the death of Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick in 1499. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, KG was a son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard to Anne Mortimer that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne. The other party in the Wars of the Roses, the Lancasters, were descendants of Edmunds elder brother, Edmund had two sons and Richard of Conisburgh. Edward succeeded to the dukedom in 1402, but was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, Richard married Anne Mortimer, a great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, the second son of Edward III.
Furthermore, Annes son Richard became heir general to the earldom of March, after her brother, Edmund, 5th Earl. Richard of Conisburgh was executed following his involvement in the Southampton Plot to depose Henry V of England in favour of the Earl of March, the dukedom of York therefore passed to his son, Richard Plantagenet. Through his mother, Richard Plantagenet inherited the lands of the earldom of March, although he served as Protector of the Realm during Henry VIs period of incapacity in 1453-54, his reforms were reversed by Somersets party once the king had recovered. The Wars of the Roses began the year, with the First Battle of St Albans. Initially, Richard aimed only to purge his Lancastrian political opponents from positions of influence over the king and it was not until October 1460 that he claimed the throne for the House of York. In that year the Yorkists had captured the king at the battle of Northampton and his second son Edmund were killed at the battle of Wakefield on 30 December.
Richards claim to the throne was inherited by his son Edward, with the support of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, already showing great promise as a leader of men, defeated the Lancastrians in a succession of battles. While Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou were campaigning in the north, Edward strengthened his claim with a decisive victory at the Battle of Towton in the same year, in the course of which the Lancastrian army was virtually wiped out. The early reign of Edward IV was marred by Lancastrian plotting, Warwick himself changed sides, and supported Margaret of Anjou and the kings jealous brother George, Duke of Clarence, in briefly restoring Henry in 1470-71. However, Edward regained his throne, and the House of Lancaster was wiped out with the death of Henry VI himself, in the Tower of London in 1471
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland
Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, was the fourth of the four children of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, and his mistress, Katherine Swynford. In her widowhood, she was a landowner in the North of England. She was probably born at the Swynford manor of Kettlethorpe in Lincolnshire and her surname probably reflects her fathers lordship of Beaufort in Champagne, where she might have been born. In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallée and they had two daughters before he died in about 1395. Along with her three brothers, Joan had been privately declared legitimate by their cousin Richard II of England in 1390 and her parents were married in Lincoln Cathedral in February 1396. Joan was already an adult when she was legitimized by the marriage of her mother and father with papal approval. Soon after the legitimation, on 3 February 1397, when she was eighteen, Joan married Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, who had been married once before.
When Ralph de Neville died in 1425, his lands and titles should, by law of rights, have passed on to his grandson through his first marriage, another Ralph Neville. Instead, the bulk of his estate went to his wife, Joan Beaufort, even though the title Earl of Westmorland. Joan, with her blood and connections, was far too powerful to be called to account. Inevitably, when Joan died, the lands would be inherited by her own children, Joan died on 13 November 1440 at Howden in Yorkshire. Rather than be buried with her husband Ralph, she was entombed next to her mother in the magnificent sanctuary of Lincoln Cathedral. A1640 drawing of them survives, showing what the tombs looked like when they were intact, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and their son became Henry VIII of England. Henry VIIIs sixth wife, Catherine Parr, was a descendant of Joan through Joan and Ralphs eldest son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, the Earl of Salisbury was father to Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker.
In 1391, at the age of twelve, Joan married Robert Ferrers, 5th Baron Boteler of Wem, at Beaufort-en-Vallée and they had 2 children, Elizabeth Ferrers, 6th Baroness Boteler of Wem. She is buried at Black Friars Church and she married John de Greystoke, 4th Baron Greystoke, on 28 October 1407 in Greystoke Castle, Greystoke and had issue. She married her stepbrother, Sir Ralph Neville, son of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmoreland, had issue. com The Katherine Swynford Society Katherine Swynford
Philippa Gregory is an English historical novelist who has been writing since 1987. The best known of her works is The Other Boleyn Girl, audioFile magazine has called Gregory the queen of British historical fiction. Philippa Gregory was born on 9 January 1954 in Nairobi, the daughter of Elaine and Arthur Percy Gregory. When she was two old, her family moved to Bristol, England. She is not related to novelist, Susanna Gregory and she was a rebel at Colstons Girls School where she obtained a B grade in English and two E grades in History and Geography at A-level. She worked in BBC radio for two years attending the University of Edinburgh, where she earned her doctorate in 18th-century literature. Gregory has taught at the University of Durham, University of Teesside, and the Open University and they divorced before the book was published. Following the success of Wideacre and the publication of The Favoured Child, she moved south to near Midhurst, West Sussex, here she married her second husband Paul Carter, with whom she has a son.
She divorced for a time and married Anthony Mason, whom she had first met during her time in Hartlepool. Gregory now lives on a 100-acre farm in the North York Moors National Park, with her husband and her interests include riding, walking and gardening. She has written novels set in different historical periods, though primarily the Tudor period. Reading a number of set in the 17th century led her to write the best-selling Lacey trilogy – Wideacre. This was followed by The Wise Woman, a Respectable Trade, a novel of the slave trade in England, set in 18th-century Bristol, was adapted by Gregory for a four-part drama series for BBC television. Gregorys script was nominated for a BAFTA, won an award from the Committee for Racial Equality, and she has written for children. Some of her novels have won awards and have been adapted into television dramas, the most successful of her novels has been The Other Boleyn Girl, published in 2001 and adapted for BBC television in 2003 with Natascha McElhone, Jodhi May and Jared Harris.
Miramax bought the rights to The Other Boleyn Girl and released a film of the same name in February 2008. Gregory has published a series of books about the Plantagenets, the houses that preceded the Tudors. Her first book The White Queen, published in 2009, centres on the life of Elizabeth Woodville the wife of Edward IV, the Red Queen, published in 2010, is about Margaret Beaufort the mother of Henry VII and grandmother to Henry VIII
George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence
He played an important role in the dynastic struggle between rival factions of the Plantagenets known as the Wars of the Roses. Though a member of the House of York, he switched sides to support the Lancastrians and he was convicted of treason against his brother, Edward IV, and was executed. He appears as a character in William Shakespeares plays Henry VI, Part 3 and Richard III, George was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father, the Duke of York, had begun to challenge Henry VI for the crown. His godfather was James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond and he was the third of the four sons of Richard and Cecily who survived to adulthood. In 1461 his elder brother, became King of England as Edward IV, despite his youth, he was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the same year. Clarence joined Warwick in France, taking his pregnant wife and she gave birth to their first child, a girl, on 16 April 1470, in a ship off Calais. Warwicks efforts to keep Henry VI on the ultimately failed.
The re-instated King Edward IV restored his brother Clarence to royal favour, Edward intervened and eventually divided the estates between his brothers. Clarence was created first Earl of Warwick on 25 March 1472, in 1475 Clarences wife Isabel gave birth to a son, Earl of Warwick. Isabel died on 22 December 1476, two months after giving birth to a son named Richard, and they are buried together at Tewkesbury Abbey in Gloucestershire. Their surviving children and Edward, were cared for by their aunt, Anne Neville, until she died in 1485 and she was hanged immediately after trial with John Thursby, a fellow defendant. Clarences mental state, never stable, deteriorated from that point, in 1477 Clarence was again a suitor for the hand of Mary, who had just become duchess of Burgundy. Edward objected to the match, and Clarence, jealous of Gloucesters influence and he implicated one Thomas Burdett, and one Thomas Blake, a chaplain at Staceys college. All three were tried for treason and condemned to be drawn to Tyburn and hanged, Blake was saved at the eleventh hour by a plea for his life from James Goldwell, Bishop of Norwich, but the other two were put to death as ordered.
This was a warning to Clarence, which he chose to ignore. He appointed Dr John Goddard to burst into Parliament and regale the House with Burdett, Goddard was a very unwise choice, as he was an ex-Lancastrian who had expounded Henry VIs claim to the throne. Edward summoned Clarence to Windsor, severely upbraided him, accused him of treason, shakespeare portrays Clarence as weak-willed and changeable, his initial defection from Edward IV to Warwick is prompted by outrage at Edward IVs unwise marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Several lines reference his penchant for wine, Gloucester nimbly stage-manages Clarences death, fast-tracking the order of execution and intercepting Edward IVs pardon when he changes his mind
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The municipality is the county town of Yorkshire to which it gives its name. The city has a heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD and it became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network, in recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, from 1996, the term City of York describes a unitary authority area which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, the word York derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland, the toponymy of Eboracum is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population was never recorded. They are thought to have spoken a Celtic language related to modern Welsh, in his Historia Regum Britanniae the 12th century chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus. Alternatively, the word already existed as an Old English word for wild swine. The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the part as eofor, and -rac as ric, while -um was a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem. To them, it sounded as a home rich in boar, as is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded, eoforic.
When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík, the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as Everwic in works such as Waces Roman de Rou. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century, many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name. The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature, archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a known to the Romans as the Brigantes
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Wensleydale is the dale or upper valley of the River Ure on the east side of the Pennines, one of the Yorkshire Dales in North Yorkshire, England. The dale takes its name from the village of Wensley, once the town for the dale. Wensley derives from Wodens ley, or meadow of the pagan god Woden, the valley is famous for its cheese, with the main commercial production at Hawes. Most of the dale is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park, part of lower Wensleydale, below East Witton, is within the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Wensleydale was the home of one of Yorkshires most famous clans, the Metcalfe Society hold records dating back to Metcalfes living in the area during the 14th century. They were one of the most prominent families in Yorkshire for over five centuries, sir James Metcalfe, who was born and lived in Wensleydale, was a captain in the army which fought with King Henry V in the battle of Agincourt in 1415. Metcalfe is still one of the most common surnames in Yorkshire, Bolton Castle in the village of Castle Bolton is a notable local historic site.
Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned here, wensleydales principal settlements are Hawes and Leyburn, Aysgarth and Middleham are well-known villages. The shortest river in England, the River Bain, links Semerwater to the River Ure, at Bainbridge, Hardraw Force, the highest above-ground unbroken waterfall in England, is located at Hardraw, near Hawes. Aysgarth Falls are famous for their beauty, attracting visitors, they were featured in the film Robin Hood. Other notable waterfalls are at West Burton, and Whitfield Gill Force, Wensleydale stretches some 25 miles from west to east. It lies between Wharfedale, and the quieter Swaledale, on the way it collects the waters of the River Swale, River Nidd, River Wharfe, River Aire, River Derwent and River Trent. Wensleydale is a popular destination in its own right, enhanced by its central location between two other well-known tourist dales and the quieter Swaledale. Wensleydale is a destination for visitors who like walking on mountains, dale-sides.
Hawes and Leyburn are popular because of their age, Hawes is the home of a rope-makers, where visitors can see the manufacturing process. The Wensleydale Railway operates in Wensleydale and it currently runs between Leeming Bar, the A1 and Redmire, near Castle Bolton. It is hoped this may help some of the current traffic congestion that the valley suffers from during the busiest months. Some visitors come to Wensleydale due to its connection with Richard III, Middleham itself is a pleasant village with pubs and horse-racing connections
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485, at the age of 32, in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty and his defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare, when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edwards son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed the claims. The following day, Richard III began his reign, and he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richards orders, there were two major rebellions against Richard.
The first, in October 1483, was led by allies of Edward IV and Richards former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor landed in southern Wales with a small contingent of French troops and marched through his birthplace, recruiting soldiers. Henrys force engaged Richards army and defeated it at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Richard was struck down in the conflict, making him the last English king to die in battle on home soil and the first since Harold Godwinson. Henry ascended the throne as Henry VII, after the battle Richards corpse was taken to Leicester and buried without pomp. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the Reformation, in 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on a city council car park on the site once occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church. Richards remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015 and they returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton and participated in the coronation of Richards eldest brother as King Edward IV in June 1461.
At this time Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath, by the age of seventeen, he had an independent command. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, while at Warwicks estate, he probably met Francis Lovell, a strong supporter in his life, and Warwicks younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match, during Warwicks lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the kings permission. George joined his father-in-laws revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward, in 1468, Richards sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. Although only eighteen years old, Richard played crucial roles in the battles of Barnet, during his adolescence, Richard developed idiopathic scoliosis.
Following a decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard married Anne Neville, by the end of 1470 Anne had previously been wedded to Edward of Westminster, only son of Henry VI, to seal her fathers allegiance to the Lancastrian party
Middleham /ˈmɪdləm, -dələm/ is a small market town and civil parish in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England. It lies in Wensleydale, in the Yorkshire Dales, on the side of the valley just above the junction of the River Ure. There has been a settlement there since Roman times and it was recorded in the Domesday Book as Medelai. The name means middle ham or village, the first known settlement at Middleham was during the Roman Era. The IXth Legion of the Roman Army conquered York in 69 AD, a branch road from the Great North Road passed through Middleham to the Roman fort at Bainbridge. Near Middleham, the Romans built a station to control traffic on the River Ure. Before the Norman Conquest the lands in this area were controlled by Gilpatrick, in 1069, William the Conqueror granted the land around Middleham to his Breton double-second cousin Alan Rufus who built a wooden motte-and-bailey castle above the town. By the time of the Domesday Inquest in 1086, Alan had given this castle to his brother Ribald and its earthworks are still visible at Williams Hill.
Alan built the castle at Richmond, the castle that currently dominates the town, Middleham Castle, was started in 1190. The Nevilles, Earls of Westmoreland, acquired it through marriage with a descendant of Ribald in the 13th century. It was called the Windsor of the North, the castle was in the possession of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick when his cousin Richard, Duke of Gloucester came there to learn the skills of knighthood in 1462. During the Wars of the Roses, both Edward IV and Henry VI were held prisoner here, Duke of Gloucester became master of the castle in 1471 after Warwicks death at the Battle of Barnet. Richard used the castle as his base as he administered the North for his brother Edward IV. Richard married Warwicks daughter, Anne Neville, in 1472, Middleham Castle is where their son Edward was born and where he died in April 1484. Richard III died in August 1485 in the Battle of Bosworth and he was the last reigning King of England to die in battle. At the time of Richard III, Middleham was a market town.
As early as 1389 the lord of Middleham Manor received a grant from the crown to hold a market in the town. The town is built around two marketplaces, the larger, lower market is dominated by a cross which is topped by a modern iron cross in the Celtic style
The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second-highest office of the Church of England, and is the church for the Diocese of York. It is run by a dean and chapter, under the Dean of York, the title minster is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, and serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum, the minster has a very wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic Quire and east end and Early English North and South transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, and over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, in the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 52 feet high.
The south transept contains a window, while the West Window contains a heart-shaped design colloquially known as The Heart of Yorkshire. York has had a verifiable Christian presence from the 4th century, there is circumstantial evidence pointing to much earlier Christian involvement. Tradition speaks of 28 British bishops, one for each of the greater British cities, over whom presided the Archbishops of London and Caerleon-on-Usk. The first recorded church on the site was a structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptise Edwin. Moves toward a substantial building began in the decade of the 630s. A stone structure was completed in 637 by Oswald and was dedicated to Saint Peter, the church soon fell into disrepair and was dilapidated by 670 when Saint Wilfrid ascended to the See of York. He repaired and renewed the structure, the attached school and library were established and by the 8th century were some of the most substantial in Northern Europe. In 741 the church was destroyed in a fire and it was rebuilt as a more impressive structure containing thirty altars.
The church and the area passed through the hands of numerous invaders. There was a series of Benedictine archbishops, including Saint Oswald of Worcester and Ealdred, Ealdred died in 1069 and was buried in the church. The church was damaged in 1069 during William the Conquerors harrying of the North, the Danes destroyed the church in 1075, but it was again rebuilt from 1080. Built in the Norman style, it was 111 m long and rendered in white, the new structure was damaged by fire in 1137 but was soon repaired. The choir and crypt were remodelled in 1154, and a new chapel was built, the Gothic style in cathedrals had arrived in the mid 12th century
Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Cornwall is a title in the Peerage of England, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch, previously the English monarch. The Duchy of Cornwall was the first duchy created in England and was established by charter in 1337. The present duke is the Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and his wife, Camilla, is the current Duchess. According to legend, Duke of Cornwall under King Uther Pendragon, Uther killed Gorlois and took Igraine, the result of their union was the future King Arthur. Edward, the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III, was made the first Duke of Cornwall in 1337, after Edward predeceased the King, the duchy was recreated for his son, the future Richard II. Under a charter of 1421, the passes to the sovereigns eldest son. Cornwall was the first dukedom conferred within the Kingdom of England, the dukedom of Cornwall can only be held by the oldest living son of the monarch who is heir apparent. In the event of a Duke of Cornwalls death, the title merges in the Crown even if he left surviving descendants, the monarchs grandson, even if he is the heir apparent, does not succeed to the dukedom.
Similarly, no female may ever be Duke of Cornwall, even if she is heir presumptive or heir apparent to the throne. However, if a Duke of Cornwall should die without descendants and has no sister, his next brother obtains the duchy. It is possible for an individual to be Prince of Wales, the title Prince of Wales is the traditional title of the heir apparent to the throne, granted at the discretion of the Sovereign, and is not restricted to the eldest son. For example, King George IIs heir apparent, the future George III, was Prince of Wales, James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James II, was born Duke of Cornwall in 1688. Although his father lost the throne, James Francis Edward was not deprived of his own honours, on a Jacobite perspective, on his fathers death in 1701 the duchy of Cornwall was merged in the Crown. On a Hanoverian perspective, it was as a result of his claiming his fathers lost thrones that James was attainted for treason on 2 March 1702, the current Duke of Cornwall is Charles, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, the reigning monarch.
Charles was officially proclaimed Duke of Cornwall at Launceston Castle in 1973. As part of his feudal dues there was a pair of gloves, gilt spurs and greyhounds, a pound of pepper and cumin, a bow, one hundred silver shillings, wood for his fires. The Dukes second wife, whom he married on 9 April 2005 at the Guildhall in Windsor, is the current Duchess of Cornwall and she is Princess of Wales but does not use that title. Should there be no Duke of Cornwall at any time, the income of the Duchy goes to the Crown, the Duchy includes over 570 square kilometres of land, more than half of which lies in Devon