Greater St. Louis
Greater St. Louis is a bi-state metropolitan area that surrounds and includes the independent city of St. Louis, it includes parts of both the U. S. states of Illinois. The city core is on the Mississippi Riverfront on the border with Illinois in the geographic center of the metro area; the Mississippi River bisects the metro area in half geographically between Missouri. St. Louis is the second largest in Illinois. St. Louis County is independent of the City of St. Louis and their two populations are tabulated separately; the St. Louis, MO-IL metropolitan statistical area —and the focus of this page—includes the City of St. Louis; the larger St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL combined statistical area includes all of the aforementioned MSA, plus the Farmington, MO micropolitan statistical area, which includes all of St. Francois County and the Centralia, IL micropolitan statistical area, which includes Marion County, Illinois; as of 2017 data, the MSA is the 21st-largest in the country that year with a population of 2,807,338.
Due to nearly zero growth in St. Louis paired with rapid growth in the Sun Belt and Florida, the St. Louis MSA fell out of the Top 20 Largest MSAs in the United States in 2017 for the first time since 1840; as of 2018, Greater St. Louis is home to the headquarters of ten of Missouri's eleven Fortune 500 companies, six Fortune 1,000 companies, two of the top 30 Largest Private Companies in America, as ranked by Forbes; the area received the All-America City Award in 2008. The history of St. Louis, Missouri began with the settlement of the St. Louis area by Native American mound builders who lived as part of the Mississippian culture from the 9th century to the 15th century, followed by other migrating tribal groups. Starting in the late 17th century, French explorers arrived. Spain took over in 1763 and a trading company established the settlement of St. Louis in February 1764; the city became part of the U. S. through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The American Civil War saw St. Louis had a small skirmish on its outskirts, but was held under Union control.
After the war, the city expanded industrial activity. Franklin County MO: Berger, New Haven, Pacific, St. Clair, Union, Washington Jefferson County MO: Arnold, Byrnes Mill, Crystal City, De Soto, Herculaneum, Imperial, Pevely Lincoln County MO: Elsberry, Moscow Mills, Old Monroe, Winfield St. Francois County MO: Bonne Terre, Farmington, Park Hills St. Charles County MO: Cottleville, Dardenne Prairie, Foristell, Lake St. Louis, New Melle, O'Fallon, St. Charles, St. Peters, Weldon Spring, West Alton St. Louis: City of St. Louis St. Louis County MO: Affton, Bel-Nor, Bel-Ridge, Bella Villa, Bellefontaine Neighbors, Berkeley, Beverly Hills, Black Jack, Breckenridge Hills, Bridgeton, Calverton Park, Charlack, Clarkson Valley, Cool Valley, Country Club Hills, Country Life Acres, Creve Coeur, Crystal Lake Park, Des Peres, Ellisville, Fenton, Flordell Hills, Frontenac, Glen Echo Park, Grantwood Village, Green Park, Hanley Hills, Hillsdale, Kinloch, Jennings, Lakeshire, Maplewood, Maryland Heights, Moline Acres, Northwoods, Norwood Court, Olivette, Pacific, Pasadena Hills, Pasadena Park, Pine Lawn, Richmond Heights, Rock Hill, St. Ann, St. John, Spanish Lake, Sunset Hills, Sycamore Hills, Town & Country, Twin Oaks, University City, Uplands Park, Valley Park, Velda City, Velda Village Hills, Vinita Park, Warson Woods, Webster Groves, Westwood, Wilbur Park, Winchester, Woodson Terrace Warren County MO: Foristell, Truesdale, Wright City Bond County IL: Greenville, Sorento Calhoun County IL: Brussels, Kampsville Clinton County IL: Aviston, Breese, Centralia, New Baden, Trenton Jersey County IL: Grafton, Jerseyville Macoupin County IL: Benld, Bunker Hill, Gillespie, Mt. Olive, Virden Madison County IL: Alhambra, Bethalto, East Alton, Godfrey, Glen Carbon, Granite City, Hartford, Livingston, Marine, New Douglas, Pontoon Beach, South Roxana, St. Jacob, Venice, Wood River, Worden Monroe County IL: Columbia, Valmeyer, Waterloo St. Clair County IL: Alorton, Brooklyn, Caseyville, Dupo, East Carondelet, East St. Louis, Fairmont City, Fairview Heights, Freeburg, Marissa, Millstadt, New Athens, O'Fallon, Shiloh, Smithton, St. Libory, Washington ParkAs noted above, the Greater St. Louis area includes two cities named O'Fallon and two cities named Troy.
The nearby Hannibal–Quincy micropolitan areas are technically not located within the metropolitan, but are regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Gr
Edward Coles was a planter and politician, elected as the second Governor of Illinois. From an old Virginia family, as a young man Coles was a neighbor and associate of presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe, as well as secretary to President James Madison. An anti-slavery advocate throughout his adult life, Coles inherited a plantation and slaves but left Virginia for the Illinois Territory in order to set his slaves free, he manumitted 19 slaves in 1819, acquired land for them. In Illinois, he twice led political campaigns that prevented the legitimization of slavery in the new state. Coles advised both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to free their slaves. In his final years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he helped shape early historians' views of the presidents' republican ideals. Coles was born on December 15, 1786, at Enniscorthy, a plantation in central Virginia's Albemarle County on the Hardware River, a tributary of the James River, he was the youngest male among ten surviving children of Rebecca Tucker.
Young Coles' earliest teachers were prominent lawyer Wilson Cary Nicholas and Mr. White who lived by Dyer's Store. After a term at Hampden-Sydney College in Hampden-Sydney, Coles transferred to the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. While at William and Mary, Coles was influenced by the enlightenment ideals taught by the Rt. Rev. James Madison; the teacher and cleric considered slavery morally indefensible, but a problem without a clear solution. Young Coles determined not not to live where slavery was accepted. However, he kept these views from his father, whose illness caused Coles to end his formal education in the summer of 1807, for fear that his father would substitute other property for slaves when writing his last will and testament, his bachelor uncles in Norfolk and John Tucker, had freed slaves when such had become legal in Virginia, Coles' father John noted that some of the slaves freed by Travis were now living in near starvation. Keeping quiet ensured that Coles would inherit slaves, thus providing him with the opportunity to give freedom.
When his father died in 1808, Coles received 12 slaves and a 782-acre plantation on the Rockfish River in Nelson County, subject to a mortgage. After John Coles' estate was settled on Christmas Eve, 1808, Edward Coles revealed his emancipation plans to his family, to great consternation; as he sorted through the challenges posed by family resistance and Virginia law, Coles abandoned his earliest plan to free his slaves in Virginia. He went to Kentucky in the summer of 1809 to investigate a land claim of his uncle Travis Tucker, but came home without plans to move to that new state. Coles placed his plantation for sale in December, 1809, despite the collapsed real estate market during the depression of 1807, began to plan for a move to the Northwest Territory. However, for years he received no reasonable offers, so continued to operate it through an overseer. Coles turned down offers to exchange his slaves for other property, but honored the requests of his family and neighbors to keep his plans secret from his slaves.
The Coles family was one of the First Families of Virginia. His great-grandfather, Walter Coles, had been a customs officer in Ireland who moved to what became Richmond and made his fortune as a merchant, his grandfather John had been one of the petitioners requesting that Richmond be recognized as a new town, continued to develop the family's business and social ties through marriage to the youngest daughter of Quaker merchant Isaac Winston. Edward Coles's father John developed Enniscorthy from a hunting camp into a profitable farm, continued the family's business and social success. Edward Coles' maternal grandfather was born in Bermuda, related to Virginia jurist St. George Tucker, his mother's maternal ancestors were among the "first & most respectable settlers at old Jamestown."Edward's elder brother, Isaac A. Coles, served as private secretary to both Thomas Jefferson and James Madison during their administrations. Thomas Jefferson's Monticello plantation was nearby in Albemarle County.
Furthermore, the wife of James Madison, Dolley Payne Todd Madison, was Coles' first cousin, Coles became a frequent guest at their Montpelier plantation nearby. James Monroe owned Ash Lawn-Highland plantation on the other side of Green Mountain for 24 years, offered young Coles use of his library, although the relationship with this family was more distant since Monroe split his time at Oak Hill plantation in Loudoun County. Isaac managed and inherited Enniscorthy, subject to a life estate held by his mother, his brother Walter had drawn his share of the inheritance early, managed Woodville plantation for many years before his father's death. John Coles III built a mansion called Estouteville on his inherited portion, Tucker Coles built Tallwood plantation on the upper acres that he inherited—both married daughters of Sir Peyton Skipwith, the only baronet in Virginia, their sister Rebecca became the second wife of South Carolina planter Richard Singleton, with whom she had five children. Her sister Elizabeth never married.
Mary Coles married Robert Carter and moved to his ne
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property. A slave works without remuneration. Many scholars now use the term chattel slavery to refer to this specific sense of legalised, de jure slavery. In a broader sense, the word slavery may refer to any situation in which an individual is de facto forced to work against their own will. Scholars use the more generic terms such as unfree labour or forced labour to refer to such situations. However, under slavery in broader senses of the word, slaves may have some rights and protections according to laws or customs. Slavery existed in many cultures since the time before written history. A person could capture, or purchase. Slavery was legal in most societies at some time in the past, but is now outlawed in all recognized countries; the last country to abolish slavery was Mauritania in 2007. There are an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide subject to some form of modern slavery.
The most common form of modern slave trade is referred to as human trafficking. In other areas, slavery continues through practices such as debt bondage, the most widespread form of slavery today, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, forced marriage; the English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo'to strip a slain enemy'. There is a dispute among historians about whether terms such as unfree labourer or enslaved person, rather than "slave", should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, including Andi Cumbo-Floyd, slave perpetuates the crime of slavery in language. Other historians prefer slave because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.
Indenture, otherwise known as bonded labour or debt bondage, is a form of unfree labour under which a person pledges himself or herself against a loan. The services required to repay the debt, their duration, may be undefined. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their progenitors' debt, it is the most widespread form of slavery today. Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia. Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. "Slavery" has been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.
For example, in Persia, the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens. Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour. While some unfree labourers, such as serfs, have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand, India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery. In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti. Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in
John Reynolds (U.S. politician)
John Reynolds was a United States politician from the state of Illinois. He was one of the original four justices of the Illinois Supreme Court, 1818–1825, a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from 1826–1830, 1846–1848, 1852–1854, the 4th Illinois Governor from 1830–1834, he represented Illinois in the United States House of Representatives, 1834–1837 and 1839–1843. Reynolds was born in Pennsylvania, his father, Robert Reynolds and his mother, née Margaret Moore, were both natives of Ireland, from which country they emigrated to the United States in 1785, arriving first at Philadelphia. When Reynolds was about six months old, his parents emigrated with him to Tennessee, where many of their relatives had located, at the base of the Copper Ridge Mountain, about 14 miles northeast of the present city of Knoxville. After experiencing harassment from Native Americans fighting encroachment by european settlers upon their territory, the Reynolds moved into the interior of the state, they were poor, brought up their children to habits of manual industry.
In 1800 the family moved to Kaskaskia, where Reynolds spent most of his childhood. As part of his upbringing, he adopted the principle and practice of total abstinence from intoxicating liquors. In 1807 the family made another move, this time to the Goshen Settlement, at the foot of the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River southwest of Edwardsville. At the age of twenty, Reynolds attended college for two years near Knoxville, where he had relatives, taking courses in classical studies, he studied law in Knoxville, but health problems forced him to return home to Illinois. In the fall of 1812 he was admitted to the bar at Kaskaskia. About this time he learned the French language, which he regarded as being superior to all others for social intercourse. With the ranks of private and orderly sergeant, Reynolds served as a scout in campaigns against the western Native Americans during the War of 1812. For this service, Reynolds became known as the "Old Ranger." In 1814, Reynolds opened a law office in the old French village of Cahokia the county seat of St. Clair County.
In the fall of 1818 he was elected an associate justice of the Illinois Supreme Court by the Illinois General Assembly. In 1818, he was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate. In 1826, he was elected a member of the Illinois House of Representatives for the first time, serving until 1830. Although aligning himself with the Jacksonian Democrats, his moderation earned him respect from both pro-Jackson and anti-Jackson factions. In August 1830, Reynolds was elected governor of Illinois and took office on December 6; the most significant event of his administration was the Black Hawk War in 1832. He called out the militia, was field commander appearing in person on the battle-grounds, he was recognized by U. S. President Andrew Jackson as Major-General, was authorized to make treaties with the Indians. On November 17, 1834, Reynolds resigned as governor, having been elected to the United States House of Representatives for the Twenty-third Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles Slade.
He was reelected to the Twenty-fourth Congress, serving from December 1, 1834 to March 3, 1837. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1836 to the Twenty-fifth Congress, he was subsequently elected to the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Congresses, serving from March 4, 1839 to March 3, 1843. In 1837, while out of Congress and in company with a few others, he built the first railroad in the Mississippi Valley, about six miles long, leading from his coal mine in the Mississippi bluff to the bank of the river opposite St. Louis. Not having the funds to purchase a locomotive, the railroad was operated by horse-power; the next spring, the company sold out at great loss. In 1839 Reynolds was appointed one of the Canal Commissioners and traveled to Philadelphia to raise funds for that purpose. During that year, he made a tour of Europe with his wife, he introduced the Latter-day Saint Prophet, Joseph Smith to President Martin Van Buren when Smith was seeking redress for the greviances that the Latter-day Saints suffered in Missouri.
This was done by Reynolds with the hope of winning the votes of the growing number of Latter-day Saints in Illinois in latter political contests. Reynolds was elected in 1846 for one term as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives from St. Clair County, he was again elected in 1852. In 1860, aged and infirm, he attended the Democratic National Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, as an anti-Douglas Delegate, instead supporting John C. Breckinridge in the U. S. presidential election. He had no children, he died in Belleville in May 1865, just after the close of the Civil War, is interred at Walnut Hill Cemetery in Belleville. Portrait and Biographical Album of Champaign County, Illinois Chapman Brothers, Chicago, 1887 Milan Girls The Romantic Story of Cahokia, IllinoisUnited States Congress. "John Reynolds". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John Reynolds at Find a Grave
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Edme-Jean Leclaire was a French economist and businessman. He developed an early system of employee profit-sharing. Leclaire was born the son of a poor village shoemaker, in Aisy-sur-Armançon, a small village in the district of Tonnerre, department of Yonne in France, he was a successful contractor glazier-painter. The Society of Providence and Mutual Aid of the workers and employees of the Leclaire Company, which he founded, was authorized by the French Minister of the Interior on 28 September 1838. Leclaire subsequently served as Mayor of the town of Herblay, a commune in the north-western suburbs of Paris, France; the short-lived cooperative village of Leclaire in Madison County, was founded by N. O. Nelson as a company town for the N. O. Nelson Manufacturing Company; the village was named in honor of Edme-Jean Leclaire. The village, which existed from 1890 to 1934, was operated based on some of Leclaire's principles; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wood, James, ed..
"article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne