Tomb KV10, located in the Valley of the Kings near the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor, was cut and decorated for the burial of Pharaoh Amenmesse of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. However, there is no proof that he was buried here; the decoration was replaced with scenes for Takhat and Baketwernel—two royal women dating to the late 20th dynasty. It was visited by Richard Pococke, Jean-François Champollion and Karl Richard Lepsius, studied by Edward R. Ayrton before being properly examined by a team from the University of Memphis in the United States under Otto Schaden in 1992. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo. Theban Mapping Project: KV10 - Includes description and plans of the tomb. KV-10 The Tomb of Amenmesse Project
Amenmesse was the fifth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt the son of Merneptah and Queen Takhat. Others consider him to be one of the innumerable sons of Ramesses II. Little is known about this king, who ruled Egypt for only three to four years. Various Egyptologists date his reign between 1202 BC–1199 BC or 1203 BC–1200 BC with others giving an accession date of 1200 BC. Amenmesse means "fashioned by Amun" in Egyptian. Additionally, his nomen can be found with the epithet Heqa-waset, which means "Ruler of Thebes", his royal name was Menmire Setepenre. It is that he was not Merneptah's intended heir; some scholars such as Kenneth Kitchen and Jürgen von Beckerath believe that Amenmesse usurped the throne from Seti-Merneptah, Merneptah's son and crown prince who should have been next in line to the royal succession. It is unclear. Kitchen has written that Amenmesse may have taken advantage of a momentary weakness of Seti-Merneptah or seized power while the crown prince was away in Asia.
Seti-Merneptah was most the same man as king Seti II, whose reign was traditionally thought to have followed upon Amenmesse's reign. The cartouches of Seti II's tomb in Upper Egypt were deliberately erased and repainted, suggesting that Seti's rule in Upper Egypt was temporarily interrupted by agents of his half-brother. Confusion clouds Amenmesse's reign and location within the Egyptian 19th Dynasty. However, an increasing number of Egyptologists today such as Rolf Krauss and Aidan Dodson maintain that Seti II was in fact the immediate successor of Merneptah "without any intervening rule by Amenmesse." Under this scenario, Amenmesse did not succeed Merneptah on the throne of Egypt and was rather a rival king who usurped power sometime during Years 2 to 4 of Seti II's reign in Upper Egypt and Nubia where his authority is monumentally attested. Amenmesse was documented in power at Thebes during his third and fourth year where Seti II's Year 3 and Year 4 are noticeably unaccounted for; the treatment of Amenmesse as a rival king best explains the pattern of destruction to Seti II's tomb, ransacked and restored again by Seti II's officials.
This implies that the respective reigns of Seti II were parallel to one another. Seti was ousted from power in Upper Egypt by Amenmesse whose agents desecrated Seti II's tomb. Seti would defeat his rival Amenmesse and return to Thebes in triumph whereupon he ordered the restoration of his damaged tomb. Rolf Krauss, followed by Aidan Dodson, suggests that Amenmesse was once a Kushite Viceroy called Messuwy. In particular, two representations of Messuwy on the temple of Amida shows that a royal uraeus had been added to his brows in a way consistent with other pharaohs such as Horemheb and some of the sons of Rameses III. An inscription at the temple of Amada calls him "the king's son himself" but this may be a figure of speech to emphasize Messuwy's high stature as Viceroy under Merneptah. However, Frank Yurco notes that various depictions of Messuwy in several Nubian temples were never deliberately defaced by Seti II's agents compared to the damnatio memoriae meted out to all depictions of another Viceroy of Kush, Kha-em-ter, who had served as Amenmesse's Vizier.
This implies that Seti II held no grudge against Messuwy, which would be improbable if Messuwy was indeed Amenmesse. Yurco observes that the only objects from Messuwy's tomb which identified a Pharaoh all named only Merneptah, Seti II's father, which leads to the conclusion that Messuwy died and was buried in his tomb at Aniba, during Merneptah's reign, could not be Amenmesse. There has been a suggestion that the story of the "Tale of Two Brothers", first attested during the reign of Seti II, may contain a veiled reference to the struggle between Amenmesse and Seti II; the records of a court case early in the reign of Seti II throw some light on the matter. Papyrus Salt 124 records that Neferhotep, one of the two chief workmen of the Deir el-Medina necropolis, had been killed during the reign of Amenmesse. Neferhotep was replaced by Paneb his adopted son, against whom many crimes were alleged by Neferhotep's brother Amennakhte in a worded indictment preserved on a papyrus in the British Museum.
If Amennakhte's allegations can be trusted, Paneb had stolen stone for the embellishment of his own tomb from that of Seti II in the course of its completion, besides purloining or damaging other property belonging to that monarch. He had tried to kill Neferhotep in spite of having been educated by him, after the chief workman had been killed by'the enemy' had bribed the vizier Pra'emhab in order to usurp his place. Whatever the truth of these accusations, it is clear that Thebes was going through troubled times. There are references elsewhere to a'war' that had occurred during these years, but it is obscure to what this word alludes--perhaps to no more than internal disturbances and discontent. Neferhotep had complained of the attacks upon himself to the vizier Amenmose a predecessor of Pra'emhab, whereupon Amenmose had Paneb punished. Paneb, however successfully brought a complaint before'Mose'/'Msy' whereupon the latter decided to dismiss Amenmose from office. Evidently this'Mose'/'Msy' was a person of the highest importance here who most should be identified with king Amenmesse himself.
His mother is known to be Queen Takhat, but who she is is a matter of interpretation complicate
The American University in Cairo
The American University in Cairo is an independent, English language, research university located in Cairo, Egypt. The university offers American-style learning programs at the undergraduate and professional levels, along with a continuing education program; the AUC student body represents over 50 countries. AUC's faculty members, adjunct teaching staff and visiting lecturers are internationally diverse and include academics, business professionals, journalists and others from the United States and other countries. AUC holds institutional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and from Egypt's National Authority for Quality Assurance and Assessment of Education; the American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 by American Mission in Egypt, a Protestant mission sponsored by the United Presbyterian Church of North America, as an English-language university and preparatory school. University founder Charles A. Watson wanted to establish a western institution for higher education.
AUC was intended as both a university. The preparatory school opened to 142 students on October 5, 1920 in Khairy Pasha palace, built in the 1860s; the first diplomas issued were junior college-level certificates given to 20 students in 1923. There were disputes between Watson, interested in building the university's academic reputation, United Presbyterian leaders in the United States who sought to return the university to its Christian roots. Four years Watson decided that the university could not afford to maintain its original religious ties and that its best hope was the promotion of good moral and ethical behavior. Limited to male students, the university enrolled its first female student in 1928; that same year, the University graduated its first class, with two Bachelor of Arts and one Bachelor of Sciences degrees awarded. In 1950, AUC added its first graduate programs to its ongoing bachelor of arts, bachelor of sciences, graduate diploma, continuing education programs, in 1951, phased out the preparatory school program.
During the Six-Day War, AUC avoided being nationalized, although most American faculty were forced to leave the country. By the mid-1970s, the university offered a broad range of liberal sciences programs. In the following years, the university added bachelors and diploma programs in engineering, computer science and mass communication and sciences programs, as well as establishing a number of research centers in strategic areas, including business, the social sciences and civic engagement, science and technology. In the 1950s, the university changed its name from The American University at Cairo, replacing "at" with "in." The American University in Cairo Press was established in 1960. By 2016, it was publishing up to 80 books annually. In 1978, the university established the Desert Development Center to promote sustainable development in Egypt's reclaimed desert areas; the Desert Development Center's legacy is being carried forward by the Research Institute for a Sustainable Environment. Faculty voted "no confidence" in university president Francis J. Ricciardone in February 2019.
In a letter to the president, the faculty cited "low morale, complaints about his management style, grievances over contracts and accusations of illegal discrimination" with tensions further increasing when Ricciardone invited U. S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to give a speech at the university. AUC was established in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo; the 7.8-acre Tahrir Square campus was developed around the Khairy Pasha Palace. Built in the neo-Mamluk style, the palace inspired an architectural style, replicated throughout Cairo. Ewart Hall was established in 1928, named for William Dana Ewart, the father of an American visitor to the campus, who made a gift of $100,000 towards the cost of construction on the condition that she remain anonymous; the structure was designed by A. St. John Diament, abutting the south side of the Palace; the central portion of the building houses an auditorium large enough to seat 1,200, as well as classrooms and exhibition galleries. The school's continued growth required additional space, in 1932, a new building was dedicated to house the School of Oriental Studies.
East of Ewart Hall, the building featured Oriental Hall, an auditorium and reception room built and decorated in an adaptation of traditional styles, yet responsive to the architectural style of its own time. Over time AUC added more buildings to what has become known as THE GrEEK CAMPUS, for a total of five buildings and 250,000 square feet in downtown Cairo. Sadat Metro was developed with access to the campus, its main lines intersect near there. Nearby is the Ramses Railway Station; the campus wall on Mohamed Mahmoud Street still has revolutionary graffiti put up. The American University in Cairo tried to preserve the wall graffiti. Many admirers published and documented these graffiti by collecting images/photos of the mural taken by visitors, who were present during this historic period. In the fall of 2008, AUC left the Greek Campus and inaugurated AUC New Cairo, a new 260-acre suburban campus in New Cairo, a satellite city about 20 miles from the downtown campus. New Cairo is a governmental development comprising 46,000 acres of land with a projected population of 2.5 million people.
AUC New Cairo provides advanced facilities for research and learning, as well as all the modern resources needed to support campus life. In its master plan for the new campus, the university mandated that the
Tomb KV8, located in the Valley of the Kings, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Merenptah of Ancient Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty. The burial chamber, located at the end of 160 metres of corridor held a set of four nested sarcophagi; the outer one of these was so voluminous that parts of the corridor had to have their doorjambs demolished and rebuilt to allow it to be brought in. These jambs were rebuilt with the help of inscribed sandstone blocks which were fixed into their place with dovetail cramps; the pillars in Chamber F were removed to allow passage of the sacrophagus, only two were replaced. The other two pillars may have been stolen by Paneb, a worker in the craftsman's village, for use in his own tomb. Reeves, N & Wilkinson, R. H; the Complete Valley of the Kings, 1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, A. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples, 1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project: KV8: Includes description and plans of the tomb
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
KV63 is a opened chamber in Egypt's Valley of the Kings pharaonic necropolis. Believed to be a royal tomb, it is now believed to have been a storage chamber for the mummification process, it was found in 2005 by a team of archaeologists led by Dr. Otto Schaden; the chamber contained many large storage jars. All coffins have now been opened, were found to contain only mummification materials, with the jars containing mummification supplies including salts and deliberately broken pottery; some clay seal impressions contain text, such as the partial word'pa-aten,' part of the name used by Tutankhamun's wife, Ankhesenamun. This inscription, the architectural style of the chamber, the form of the coffins and jars all point to an Eighteenth Dynasty date contemporary with Tutankhamun, whose tomb is nearby. KV63 was revisited by Schaden's team again in 2010, along with a TV team. Another 16 storage jars were explored, a wooden bed with lions' heads, along with pieces of wine jars, were discovered; the team arrived at the theory that the chamber was used by Tutankhamun's family embalmers, some time about 1337–1334 BC.
The vertical shaft of KV63 was re-discovered on 10 March 2005. The discovery that the shaft led to a chamber was announced on 8 February 2006, by the Supreme Council of Antiquities, which credited the find to a team of U. S. archaeologists under the leadership of Dr. Otto Schaden; the chamber — given the name "KV63" in accordance with the sequential numbering convention used in the Valley — was thought to be a tomb, the first new one to be revealed there since the discovery of KV62, the tomb of Tutankhamun, by Howard Carter in 1922. KV63 is located in the area between KV10 and KV62, in the centre of the Valley's eastern branch and near the main crossroads of the network of paths traversed by thousands of tourists every day; the discovery was made as the archaeological team was excavating the remains of 19th dynasty workmen's huts at the entrance to KV10, looking for evidence to clarify the succession of Amenmesse. The area around the huts had accumulated rubble from the occasional flooding. Both Theodore M. Davis and Howard Carter had dug in the area in the early twentieth century, but had not removed these particular huts.
While exploring a layer of dark rock, the dig came across chips of white stone. Further exploration revealed a straight edge of cut stone, which turned out to be on the upper lip of a vertical shaft. At that point the team knew they had discovered something much more elaborate and significant than the remains of the tomb-diggers' resthouses; the discovery came at the end of the 2004–05 digging season, further excavations had to be postponed until the team recommenced its work the following autumn. The overhang on the shaft of KV63 has been compared with and found to be similar to other Eighteenth Dynasty tombs, thereby dating the construction to the latter portion of the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom, it is broadly speculated that all three tombs are the work of the same architect, or at least the same school of architects. The newly revealed shaft descends some five metres. At the bottom of this pit stands a 1.5 metre tall door made of stone blocks. Behind this door, in which the team opened up a small window for the 10 February 2006 event, stands the single chamber.
No seals were found on the door, it was believed that KV63 was a reburial and had experienced some intrusion in antiquity. The blocking stones in the doorway were not original, suggesting that the doorway had been opened and closed a few times; the original blocking stones were found inside the tomb, giving evidence that someone had re-entered and sealed the tomb in antiquity. The chamber has plain white walls, it contained seven wooden coffins, including one scaled for one for a small infant. Two of the adult coffins and the child's coffin feature yellow funerary masks, it has been suggested. There is extensive termite damage on some coffins and the result was likened by the excavating team to "black paste"; these termites seem to have come from the workers' huts above the shaft, therefore date from the pharaonic era. There was no evidence of water damage. However, now that the chamber has been opened, the site is at risk of damage from flash floods; the identity of the owners of the coffins is unknown.
There is no evidence for the chamber having been sealed more than once and it thus seems that the deposit represents embalming debris from one particular person's mummification. The chamber held 28 large storage jars 75 cm tall, made from both pottery and alabaster; the jars weighed in at around 40 or 43 kg, varying in size and weight. Three of them appear to have been broken in antiquity at lower neck. Most of the jars did not bear pharaonic seal impressions. Shortly after their manufacture, the jars were whitewashed while standing in sand, the bottoms show the original clay. A large ostracon, not identified to have come from one of the storage jars at this time, was discovered and broken during the modern opening of the tomb. According to Dr. Schaden, the method of sealing the storage jars had
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom. The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis; the wadi consists of East Valley and West Valley. With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers, it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. All of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the pharaohs; this area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest.
In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration and conservation continues in the valley, a new tourist centre has been opened; the Valley of the Kings is situated over 1,000 feet of limestone and other sedimentary rock, which form the cliffs in the valley and the nearby Deir el-Bahri, interspersed with soft layers of marl. The sedimentary rock was deposited between 35–56 million years ago during a time when the Mediterranean Sea sometimes extended as far south as Aswan. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains. There is little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs; the quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the latter with the potential to be structurally unsound.
The occasional layer of shale caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered. Builders took advantage of available geological features; some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, or were at the edge of rock spurs created by ancient flood channels. The problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of his father Setnakhte. Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he instead usurped the tomb of Twosret, KV14; when looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended. The tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis due to the quality of the rock being excavated. Between 1998 and 2002 the Amarna Royal Tombs Project investigated the valley floor using ground-penetrating radar and found that, below the modern surface, the Valley's cliffs descend beneath the scree in a series of abrupt, natural "shelves", arranged one below the other, descending several metres down to the bedrock in the valley floor.
The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunderstorms, causing flash floods in the valley. Recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley; this central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, with several tombs buried under metres of debris. The tombs KV63, KV62, KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. After this event dynasties leveled the floor of the valley, making the floods deposit their load further down the valley, the buried tombs were forgotten and only discovered in the early 20th century; this was the area, the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, which showed several anomalies, one of, proved to be KV63. The Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or "The Peak".
It has a pyramid-shaped appearance, it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, more than a thousand years prior to the first royal burials carved here. Its isolated position resulted in reduced access, special tomb police were able to guard the necropolis. While the iconic pyramid complexes of the Giza plateau have come to symbolize ancient Egypt, the majority of tombs were cut into rock. Most pyramids and mastabas contain sections which are cut into ground level, there are full rock-cut tombs in Egypt that date back to the Old Kingdom. After the defeat of the Hyksos and the reunification of Egypt under Ahmose I, the Theban rulers began to construct elaborate tombs that reflected their newfound power; the tombs of Ahmose and his son Amenhotep I were in the Seventeenth Dyna