Don E. Fehrenbacher
Don Edward Fehrenbacher was an American historian. He wrote on politics and Abraham Lincoln, he won the 1979 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics, his book about the Dred Scott Decision. In 1977 David M. Potter's The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861, which he edited and completed, won the Pulitzer Prize. In 1997 he won the Lincoln Prize. Born on August 21, 1920 in Sterling, Illinois. From 1953 to 1984 Fehrenbacher taught American history at Stanford University. Fehrenbacher died in California, he was survived by his wife Virginia, three children, numerous grandchildren, a sister and two brothers and Marvin. His posthumous book, The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States government's Relations to Slavery, won the Avery O. Craven Award from the Organization of American Historians in 2002. 1957 - Chicago Giant: A Biography of "Long John" Wentworth 1962 - Prelude To Greatness: Lincoln In The 1850s 1964 - A Basic History of California 1964 - Abraham Lincoln: A Documentary Portrait Through His Speeches and Writings 1968 - California: An Illustrated History 1968 - Changing Image of Lincoln in American Historiography 1969 - Era of Expansion 1800-1848 1970 - The Leadership of Abraham Lincoln 1970 - Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War, 1840-1861 1970 - Leadership of Abraham Lincoln 1976 - The Impending Crisis 1978 - Tradition and Modernization 1978 - The Dred Scott Case: Its Significance in American Law and Politics 1979 - The Minor Affair: An Adventure in Forgery and Detection 1980 - The South and Three Sectional Crises 1981 - Slavery and Politics: The Dred Scott Case in Historical Perspective 1987 - Lincoln in Text and Context: Collected Essays 1989 - Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings 1832-1858 1989 - Lincoln: Speeches and Writings: Volume 2: 1859-1865 1989 - Constitutions and Constitutionalism in the Slaveholding South 1995 - Sectional Crisis and Southern Constitutionalism 1996 - Recollected Words of Abraham Lincoln 2001 - The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States government's Relations to Slavery Don Edward Fehrenbacher Papers, 1928-1997 are housed in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University Libraries
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Robert V. Bruce
Robert Vance Bruce was an American historian specializing in the American Civil War, who won the 1988 Pulitzer Prize for History for his book The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1876. After serving in the Army during World War II, Bruce graduated from the University of New Hampshire, where he earned his Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering, he received his Master of Arts in history and his Doctor of Philosophy from Boston University, where he was a professor. He taught at the University of Bridgeport, Lawrence Academy at Groton, the University of Wisconsin. Bruce was a lecturer at the Fortenbaugh Lecture at Gettysburg College. In April 1998, Bruce accused Scottish historian James A. Mackay of plagiarizing his book Bell: Alexander Graham Bell and The Conquest of Solitude as Mackay acknowledged Bruce on page 12 of his book. Accusations appeared in the review of Mackay's book by The Washington Post. By Bruce's own count, 285 pages of Mackay's 297-page book Alexander Graham Bell: A Life contained plagiarisms from his book, including Mackay's acknowledging the National Geographic Society and other organizations that had not heard of Mackay.
John Wiley & Sons took the book out of print and destroyed any remaining copies at Mackay's expense in exchange for Bruce's promise not to sue. Mackay later apologized to Bruce; the American Historical Association found that Mackay had violated its Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct. Bruce wrote multiple works: Lincoln and the Tools of War ISBN 978-0252060908 1877: Year of Violence ISBN 978-0929587059 Two Roads to Plenty: An Analysis of American History Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude ISBN 9780316112512 Alexander Graham Bell: Teacher of the Deaf Lincoln and the Riddle of Death The Launching of Modern American Science, 1846–1876 ISBN 9780394553948 Bruce, Robert; the Historian's Lincoln: Rebuttals: What the University Press Would Not Print. Gettysburg College. OCLC 21762068; the Shadow of A Coming War Lincoln, the War President: The Gettysburg Lectures ISBN 9780195078916
Mike Wallace (historian)
Mike Wallace is an American historian. He specializes in the history of New York City, in the history and practice of "public history". In 1998 he co-authored Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, which in 1999 won the Pulitzer Prize in History. In 2017, he published a successor volume, Greater Gotham: A History of New York City from 1898 to 1919. Wallace is a Distinguished Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, at the Graduate Center, CUNY. Wallace was born in Queens in 1942; the family moved to San Francisco in 1943 and returned to New York in 1949. He grew up in Fresh Meadows, Valley Stream, Great Neck. Wallace went to Columbia College in 1960. On graduating in 1964 he stayed on at Columbia University for graduate studies. With historian Richard Hofstadter as his adviser, his dissertation examined the emergence of the two-party system, he worked as Hofstadter’s research assistant, in 1968 had his first article accepted by the American Historical Review. In 1968 Wallace took part in the student strike at Columbia University.
In 1969 he and Hofstadter wrote a documentary history of violence in the U. S. In 1970, he taught for a year at Franconia College. In 1971, Wallace accepted a teaching position at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. In the early 1970s Wallace began working with other historians of his generation who were “broadening the scope of American history by adding the voices of those excluded, such as women and the working class.” In 1973 Wallace helped launch, for the next ten years directed, the Radical History Forum. He participated in transforming the Radical Historians’ Newsletter, started in 1973, into the Radical History Review, by 1975, served as its editorial coordinator. During the 1980s, Wallace wrote essays about the ways history gets presented – or misrepresented – to the general public, outside of schools and universities. In 1996, these pieces were collected in a book called Mickey Mouse History and Other Essays on American Memory. In 1998 he co-authored Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, which in 1999 won the Pulitzer Prize in History.
In 2000 Wallace founded the Gotham Center for a non-profit organization. It is part of the Graduate Center of the City University of New York The successor volume, Greater Gotham: A History of New York City from 1898 to 1919, was published on October 2, 2017. Wallace is married to playwright Carmen Boullosa, he was married, in December 1969, to Nancy Greenough. The Gotham Center website
Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898
Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 is a non-fiction book by historians Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace. Based on over twenty years of research, it was published in 1998 by Oxford University Press and won the 1999 Pulitzer Prize for History; the second volume, written by Wallace, was published in 2017, covering New York City history from 1898 through 1919. Initial plans were to have the second volume's timeline go through World War II, but due to the amount of material, an upcoming third volume should cover the period from 1920 until 1945; the book was met with laudatory reviews. In his review for The Atlantic, Timothy J. Gilfoyle called the book "the most comprehensive examination to date of the city's history prior to 1900," saying that "Gotham may rank in importance with the multi-volume works on Thomas Jefferson by Dumas Malone and on the Civil War by Allan Nevins," while Clyde Haberman in The New York Times wrote that "Burrows and Wallace offer a large-canvas portrait of a city they love....
T marches relentlessly across the nearly three centuries from the Dutch landing to the emergence of the unified boroughs. The countless topics include, to list but a few, New York's wars with the Indians and its pro-Crown leanings, its financial support for the slave trade and its bloody draft riots during the Civil War, the commercial imperatives and the waves of immigration that redefined it." Publishers Weekly called the work "definitive." "Gotham" as a term for New York City was coined by Washington Irving in an 1807 November issue of his literary magazine, based on the legends of the English village of Gotham, whose inhabitants are known for their folly. Notes
History of New York City
The written history of New York City began with the first European explorer the Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. European settlement began with the Dutch in 1609; the "Sons of Liberty" destroyed British authority in New York City, the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from throughout the Thirteen Colonies met in the city in 1765 to organize resistance to British policies. The city's strategic location and status as a major seaport made it the prime target for British seizure in 1776. General George Washington lost a series of battles from which he narrowly escaped, the British Army controlled New York City and made it their base on the continent until late 1783, attracting Loyalist refugees; the city served as the national capital under the Articles of Confederation from 1785-1789, served as the new nation's capital in 1789–90 under the United States Constitution. Under the new government the city hosted the inauguration of George Washington as the first President of the United States, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, the first Supreme Court of the United States.
The opening of the Erie Canal gave excellent steamboat connections with upstate New York and the Great Lakes, along with coastal traffic to lower New England, making the city the preeminent port on the Atlantic Ocean. The arrival of rail connections to the north and west in the 1840s and 1850s strengthened its central role. Beginning in the mid-18th century, waves of new immigrants arrived from Europe changing the composition of the city and serving as workers in the expanding industries. Modern New York City traces its development to the consolidation of the five boroughs in 1898 and an economic and building boom following the Great Depression and World War II. Throughout its history, New York City has served as a main port of entry for many immigrants, its cultural and economic influence has made it one of the most important urban areas in the United States and the world; the area that encompassed modern day New York City was inhabited by the Lenape people. These groups of culturally and linguistically related Native Americans traditionally spoke an Algonquian language now referred to as Unami.
Early European settlers called bands of Lenape by the Unami place name for where they lived, such as "Raritan" in Staten Island and New Jersey, "Canarsee" in Brooklyn, "Hackensack" in New Jersey across the Hudson River from Lower Manhattan. Some modern place names such as Raritan Bay and Canarsie are derived from Lenape names. Eastern Long Island neighbors were culturally and linguistically more related to the Mohegan-Pequot peoples of New England who spoke the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language; these peoples all made use of the abundant waterways in the New York City region for fishing, hunting trips and war. Many paths created by the indigenous peoples are now main thoroughfares, such as Broadway in Manhattan, the Bronx, Westchester; the Lenape developed sophisticated techniques of managing their resources. By the time of the arrival of Europeans, they were cultivating fields of vegetation through the slash and burn technique, which extended the productive life of planted fields, they harvested vast quantities of fish and shellfish from the bay.
Historians estimate that at the time of European settlement 5,000 Lenape lived in 80 settlements around the region. Giovanni da Verrazzano, in command of the French ship La Dauphine in 1524, it is believed he sailed into Upper New York Bay, where he encountered native Lenape, returned through the Narrows, where he anchored the night of April 17, left to continue his voyage. He named the area Nouvelle-Angoulême in honor of Francis I, King of France of the royal house of Valois-Angoulême. European exploration continued on September 2, 1609, when the Englishman Henry Hudson, in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, sailed the Half Moon through the Narrows into Upper New York Bay. Like Christopher Columbus, Hudson was looking for a westerly passage to Asia, he never found one. Beaver pelts were in fashion in Europe. Hudson's report on the regional beaver population served as the impetus for the founding of Dutch trading colonies in the New World; the beaver's importance in New York City's history is reflected by its use on the city's official seal.
The first Dutch fur trading posts and settlements were in 1614 near present day Albany, New York, the same year that New Netherland first appeared on maps. Only in May 1624, the Dutch West India Company landed a number of families at Noten Eylant of the southern tip of Manhattan at the mouth of the North River. Soon thereafter, most in 1626, construction of Fort Amsterdam began; the Dutch West Indies Company imported African slaves to serve as laborers. Early directors included Peter Minuit. Willem Kieft became director in 1638 but five years was embroiled in Kieft's War against the Native Americans; the Pavonia Massacre, across the Hudson River in present-day Jersey City, resulted in the death of 80 natives in February 1643. Following the massacre, Algonquian tribes nearly defeated the Dutch. Holland sent additional forces to the aid of Kieft, leading to the overwhelming defeat of the Native Americans and a peace treaty on August 29, 1645. On May 27, 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was inaugurated as director general upon his arrival and ruled as a member of the Dutch Reformed Church.
The colony was granted self-governm