James D'Arcy is an English actor. He is best known for his portrayals of Howard Stark's butler, Edwin Jarvis, in the Marvel Entertainment and ABC series, Agent Carter and murder suspect Lee Ashworth in the second series of the ITV series Broadchurch. D'Arcy co-starred as Colonel Winnant in Christopher Nolan's action-thriller Dunkirk. D'Arcy was born on 24 August 1975 in Amersham and was raised in Fulham, London with his younger sister, Charlotte, by their mother, Caroline, a nurse, his father died. He has family in Ireland and Scotland, with his English relatives based around the Midlands. After completing his education at Christ's Hospital in 1991, he went to Australia for a year and worked in the drama department of Christ Church Grammar School in Perth, which gave him an interest in acting; when he returned to London he applied for drama school. He did a three-year course at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, completing a BA in Acting in 1995. During his time at LAMDA, he appeared in training productions of Heracles, As You Like It, Wild Honey, The Freedom of the City and Sherlock Holmes.
His first appearances on television were small roles on the television series Silent Witness and Dalziel and Pascoe, followed by roles in television films such as Nicholas Hawthorne in Ruth Rendell's Bribery and Corruption, Lord Cheshire in The Canterville Ghost, Jonathan Maybury in The Ice House. In 1997, he played Blifil in The History of a Foundling. In 1999, he acted in the World War I drama The Trench as well as having a small role in the comedy Guest House Paradiso. From 2001 to the present, he played bigger roles and leading characters in the mini-series Rebel Heart, The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby and Revelation. In 2002, he portrayed a young Sherlock Holmes in the television film Sherlock: Case of Evil. In 2003, he played the role of Barnaby Caspian in the film Dot the I, the character Jim Caddon on the series P. O. W, he gained wider recognition when he portrayed Lt. Tom Pullings in Peter Weir's Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World, he played in horror films Exorcist: An American Haunting and Rise: Blood Hunter.
Apart from that, he appeared on television as Derek Kettering in Agatha Christie's Poirot's The Mystery of the Blue Train, as Jerry Burton in Agatha Christie's Marple: The Moving Finger, as Tiberius Gracchus in the episode "Revolution" of Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire, as Toby Clifford in Fallen Angel and as Tom Bertram in ITV's production of Mansfield Park. He worked for BBC radio dramas such as Thomas Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Bram Stoker's Dracula and Winifred Holtby's The Crowded Street, he played the role of Duncan Atwood in Secret Diary of a Call Girl. In 2011, he played the role of King Edward VIII in W. E. the second film directed by Madonna. In 2012, he played Rufus Sixsmith in addition to two other minor roles in the independent film Cloud Atlas, as well as Psycho star Anthony Perkins in Hitchcock. In 2013, he played the role of Eric Zimit in After the Dark. In mid-2014, he played the role of Lee Ashworth in Broadchurch series 2, suspected of the murder of the two girls which killed Alec Hardy in the search to solve the case mentioned numerous times in Broadchurch series 1.
He appeared as the main villain in the 2014 action comedy Let's Be Cops, as a malevolent Los Angeles crime boss. Between January 2015 and March 2016, D'Arcy was a series regular in the television series Agent Carter, which shares continuity with the Marvel Cinematic Universe. In the series, he played the loyal butler of Howard Stark, he starred as a British Army Colonel Winnant in Christopher Nolan's Dunkirk. Nominated for the Ian Charleson Award in 2002 for Edward II. James D'Arcy on IMDb Markham and Irwin James D'Arcy information
Iron Man is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was co-created by writer and editor Stan Lee, developed by scripter Larry Lieber, designed by artists Don Heck and Jack Kirby; the character made his first appearance in Tales of Suspense #39, received his own title in Iron Man #1. A wealthy American business magnate and ingenious scientist, Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark suffers a severe chest injury during a kidnapping; when his captors attempt to force him to build a weapon of mass destruction, he instead creates a powered suit of armor to save his life and escape captivity. Stark develops his suit, adding weapons and other technological devices he designed through his company, Stark Industries, he uses successive versions to protect the world as Iron Man. Although at first concealing his true identity, Stark declared that he was, in fact, Iron Man in a public announcement. Iron Man was a vehicle for Stan Lee to explore Cold War themes the role of American technology and industry in the fight against communism.
Subsequent re-imaginings of Iron Man have transitioned from Cold War motifs to contemporary matters of the time. Throughout most of the character's publication history, Iron Man has been a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers and has been featured in several incarnations of his own various comic book series. Iron Man has been adapted for several animated TV films; the Marvel Cinematic Universe character is portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. in the live action film Iron Man, a critical and box office success. Downey, who received much acclaim for his performance, reprised the role in a cameo in The Incredible Hulk, two Iron Man sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3, The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War and will do so again in Avengers: Endgame in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Iron Man was ranked 12th on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" in 2011, third in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012. Iron Man's Marvel Comics premiere in Tales of Suspense #39 was a collaboration among editor and story-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, story-artist Don Heck, cover-artist and character-designer Jack Kirby.
In 1963, Lee had been toying with the idea of a businessman superhero. He wanted to create the "quintessential capitalist", a character that would go against the spirit of the times and Marvel's readership. Lee said, I think, it was the height of the Cold War. The readers, the young readers, if there was one thing they hated, it was war, it was the military... So I got a hero, he was a weapons manufacturer, he was providing weapons for the Army, he was rich, he was an industrialist... I thought it would be fun to take the kind of character that nobody would like, none of our readers would like, shove him down their throats and make them like him... And he became popular, he set out to make the new character a wealthy, glamorous ladies' man, but one with a secret that would plague and torment him as well. Writer Gerry Conway said, "Here you have this character, who on the outside is invulnerable, I mean, just can't be touched, but inside is a wounded figure. Stan made it much an in-your-face wound, you know, his heart was broken, you know broken.
But there's a metaphor going on there. And that's, I think, what made that character interesting." Lee based this playboy's looks and personality on Howard Hughes, explaining, "Howard Hughes was one of the most colorful men of our time. He was an inventor, an adventurer, a multi-billionaire, a ladies' man and a nutcase." "Without being crazy, he was Howard Hughes," Lee said. While Lee intended to write the story himself, a minor deadline emergency forced him to hand over the premiere issue to Lieber, who fleshed out the story; the art was split between Heck. "He designed the costume," Heck said of Kirby, ``. The covers were always done first, but I created the look of the characters, like Tony Stark and his secretary Pepper Potts." In a 1990 interview, when asked if he had "a specific model for Tony Stark and the other characters?", Heck replied "No, I would be thinking more along the lines of some characters I like, which would be the same kind of characters that Alex Toth liked, an Errol Flynn type."
Iron Man first appeared in 13- to 18-page stories in Tales of Suspense, which featured anthology science fiction and supernatural stories. The character's original costume was a bulky gray armored suit, replaced by a golden version in the second story, it was redesigned as sleeker, red-and-golden armor in issue #48 by that issue's interior artist, Steve Ditko, although Kirby drew it on the cover. As Heck recalled in 1985, "he second costume, the red and yellow one, was designed by Steve Ditko. I found it easier than drawing that bulky old thing; the earlier design, the robot-looking one, was more Kirbyish."In his premiere, Iron Man was an anti-communist hero, defeating various Vietnamese agents. Lee regretted this early focus. Throughout the character's comic book series, technological advancement and national defense were constant themes for Iron Man, but issues developed Stark into a more complex and vulnerable character as they depicted his battle with alcoholism and other personal difficulties.
From issue #59 to its final issue #99, the anthological science-fictio
Mister Fantastic is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is a founding member of the Fantastic Four. Richards possesses a mastery of mechanical and electrical engineering, all levels of physics, human and alien biology. BusinessWeek listed Mr. Fantastic as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics, he is the inventor of the spacecraft, bombarded by cosmic radiation on its maiden voyage, granting the Fantastic Four their powers. Richards gained the ability to stretch his body into any shape. Mister Fantastic acts as the leader and father figure of the Fantastic Four, although in recent years he has been portrayed as being cold and distant towards his teammates due to his scientific, methodical nature; this is true with his best friend, Ben Grimm, who blames Richards for his transformation into a large, rocky creature called the Thing. Whenever Richards is confronted with a challenge, his attention can be so focused that he can neglect his own family.
Regardless, he is the loving husband of Susan Storm, father of son Franklin Richards and daughter Valeria Richards, mentor of his brother-in-law, Johnny Storm. He was first speculated, confirmed that he had diagnosed himself to be on the autism spectrum; the character of Reed Richards was portrayed by actors Alex Hyde-White in the 1994 The Fantastic Four film, Ioan Gruffudd in the 2005 film Fantastic Four and its 2007 sequel Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, Miles Teller in the 2015 film Fantastic Four. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1, he was one of the four main characters in the title. Lee has stated the stretch powers were inspired by DC's Plastic Man, which had no equivalent in Marvel. Reed Richards has continued to appear in the Fantastic Four comic for the majority of its publication run. Born in Central City, Reed Richards is the son of Evelyn and Nathaniel Richards. Nathaniel was a scientific genius, Reed inherited a similar level of intellect and interests.
A child prodigy with special aptitude in mathematics and mechanics, Reed Richards was taking college-level courses when he was 14 He attended such prestigious universities as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Columbia University, the fictional Empire State University. By the age of 20, he had several degrees in the sciences under his belt, it was at Empire State University. Reed had begun designing a starship capable of traveling in hyperspace. Sharing his plans with his new roommate, Grimm jokingly volunteered to pilot the craft. While at State U he met a brilliant fellow student, Victor Von Doom. In Richards, Doom met the first person. Determined to prove he was better, Doom conducted reckless experiments which scarred his face and would lead him to become Doctor Doom. During the summer months, Reed rented a room in a boarding house owned by the aunt of a young woman named Susan Storm, an undergraduate student at the time. Reed fell in love with Sue and began courting her.
Reed was too distracted from his work on his dissertation due to his romance with Sue and decided that the best thing for the both of them was to move out of Marygay's home. Moving on to Harvard, Reed earned Ph. D.s in Physics and Electrical Engineering while working as a military scientist, all this by the age of 22. He worked in communications for the Army. Three years in his mid-20s, Reed used his inheritance, along with government funding, to finance his research. Determined to go to Mars and beyond, Richards based the fateful project in Central City. Susan Storm moved into the area, within a short time, found herself engaged to Reed. Reed's old college roommate, Ben Grimm, now a successful test pilot and astronaut, was indeed slated to pilot the craft. All seemed well, they knew they had not completed all the testing, planned, but Reed was confident they would be safe. Ben was skeptical about the unknown effects of radiation, while Reed theorized that their ship's shielding would be adequate to protect them.
It was on Reed's initiative that the fateful mission which had Susan Storm, Johnny Storm and Ben Grimm accompanying him into space took place. When their ship passed through the Van Allen belt they found their cockpit bombarded with nearly lethal doses of cosmic radiation. Reed had neglected to account for the abnormal radiation levels in the belt's atmosphere; the cosmic rays wreaked havoc on the starship's insufficient shielding and they were forced to return to Earth immediately. When they crash-landed they found. Reed's body was elastic and he could reshape any portion of his body at will. At his suggestion, they decided to use their new abilities to serve mankind as the Fantastic Four. Reed was chosen to lead the group, under the name "Mr. Fantastic", he told his daughter, by way of a bedtime story, that the reason he suggested they become adventurers and gave them such outlandish costumes and names as "Mister Fantastic" and "The Thing" was that he knew they would be hated and feared for their powers without such an over-the-top public image.
This history has been changed over the years in order to
Masters of Evil
The Masters of Evil is a name for a number of fictional supervillain teams appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The first version of the team appeared in The Avengers #6, with the lineup continually changing over the years; the first version of the Masters of Evil debuted in The Avengers #6 and were created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. The second version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Avengers #54 and were created by Roy Thomas, John Buscema, George Tuska; the third version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Avengers #222 and were created by Jim Shooter, Steve Grant, Greg LaRocque. The fourth version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Avengers #270 and were created by Roger Stern, John Buscema, Tom Palmer; the fifth version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Guardians of the Galaxy #28 and were created by Jim Valentino, Herb Trimpe, Steve Montano. The sixth version of the Masters of Evil debuted in The Incredible Hulk #449, written by Peter David and drawn by Mike Deodato, although they were created by Kurt Busiek and Mark Bagley.
The seventh version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Thunderbolts #3 and were created by Kurt Busiek, Mark Bagley, Vince Russell. The eighth version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Secret Avengers #21.1 and were created by Rick Remender, Patrick Zircher and Andy Troy. The ninth version of the Masters of Evil debuted in Thunderbolts #10 and were created by Jim Zub, Jon Malin, Kurt Busiek and Mark Bagley; the original Masters of Evil was gathered by former Nazi scientist Baron Heinrich Zemo. Despite attempting to capture the Avengers with Adhesive X and spreading it over the city, the Avengers find an antidote with the help of Paste-Pot Pete, give it to the Masters in secret, send most of the members to jail. Zemo is tricked into opening a container filled with tear gas inside his helicopter, but escapes anyway. Baron Zemo leads the team in his revenge on Captain America and the Avengers; the team had been joined by the Enchantress and the Executioner, whom Zemo found in their exile to Earth, imposed on them by Odin for attacking Thor.
The Enchantress hypnotizes Thor into attacking the Avengers but Iron Man breaks him out of the trance. Meanwhile, Captain America has been lured to South America to fight Zemo. After defeating Zemo, Captain America returns on Zemo's helicopter and stops Zemo from shooting the Avenger; however the Enchantress casts a spell which gets the helicopter to the rooftop she and the Executioner are on. The Executioner knocks Captain America out by striking his shoulder, takes him out of the helicopter, after which they all try to escape; the Masters are sent to another dimension in a Space Warp generated by Thor. Two issues the Enchantress returns them to Earth using a spell. Simon Williams is given superhuman strength with an ionic ray, though he is told he will die in a week unless given an antidote Zemo has, he captures the Wasp and lures the Avengers into a trap, but sacrifices himself to save the Avengers. Immortus offers to help the Masters by defeating the Avengers, he succeeds in sending Captain America to the Tower of London in 1760.
The Masters attack the Avengers. The Enchantress, sensing defeat, sends the villains back in time to. In a issue, Zemo kidnaps Rick Jones with an attractor beam and has the Enchantress and Executioner release the Black Knight and Melter, they attack the other Avengers, forcing Captain America to go alone to Zemo's kingdom to rescue Rick. The Executioner tells the Avengers that a battle in the city would hurt many people, meaning they should surrender. Captain America blinds Zemo with his shield and Zemo dies when he accidentally triggers a rock slide. Black Knight and Melter are captured after Thor transports them to another dimension with different scientific laws, meaning their weapons rebound; the Enchantress and Executioner escape by running away. The second version, organized by the robot Ultron, consisted of the second Black Knight, Melter, Radioactive Man and Whirlwind; this incarnation made one more appearance. Ultron used this incarnation to blackmail New York. Criminal scientist Egghead organized a third version, consisting of Moonstone, the original Scorpion, Tiger Shark and longtime member Whirlwind.
After the team's defeat, Egghead kept Tiger Shark. Egghead uses this incarnation to assist him in making technological breakthroughs. A fourth version was formed by Baron Helmut Zemo; this team uses over a dozen villains, consisting of Absorbing Man, Black Mamba, Goliath, Grey Gargoyle, Mister Hyde, Screaming Mimi, Tiger Shark, Whirlwind, the Wrecking Crew, Yellowjacket, created with the goal of overwhelming the Avengers with sheer raw power where others had attempted to match the current line-up. The villains storm Avengers Mansion in a multi-issue storyline titled "Avengers Under Siege". A flashback revealed that Augustus Roman's family had died during the fight between the Avengers and the Masters of Evil; the sixth incarnation was again assembled by Baron Helmut Zemo, posed as superheroes known as the Thunderbolts. In addition to Zemo, the team consisted of the Beetle, Goliath and Screaming Mimi. All became heroes and renounced their criminal ways, though Zemo, Mo
Marvel Cinematic Universe
The Marvel Cinematic Universe is an American media franchise and shared universe, centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The franchise has expanded to include comic books, short films, television series, digital series; the shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings and characters. Phil Coulson, portrayed by Clark Gregg, is an original character to the MCU and the only character to appear across all its different media; the first film released in the MCU was Iron Man, which began the first phase of films culminating in the crossover film Marvel's The Avengers. Phase Two began with Iron Man 3, concluded with Ant-Man; the MCU is in Phase Three, which began with the release of Captain America: Civil War and is set to conclude with Avengers: Endgame. The first three phases are collectively known as The Infinity Saga.
Phase Four will begin with the release of Spider-Man: Far From Home. Marvel Television expanded the universe further, first to network television with Marvel's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. On ABC in the 2013–14 television season, followed by online streaming with Marvel's Daredevil on Netflix in 2015 and Marvel's Runaways on Hulu in 2017, to cable television with Marvel's Cloak & Dagger on Freeform in 2018. Marvel Television has produced the digital series Marvel's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.: Slingshot, a supplement to Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. Soundtrack albums have been released for all of the films, along with many of the television series, as well as the release of compilation albums containing existing music heard in the films; the MCU includes tie-in comics published by Marvel Comics, while Marvel Studios has produced a series of direct-to-video short films and a viral marketing campaign for its films and the universe with the faux news program WHIH Newsfront. The franchise has been commercially successful as a multimedia shared universe, though some critics have found that some of its films and television series have suffered in service of the wider universe.
It has inspired other film and television studios with comic book character adaptation rights to attempt to create similar shared universes. The MCU has been the focus of other media, outside of the shared universe, including attractions at various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, an attraction at Discovery Times Square, a Queensland Gallery of Modern Art exhibit, two television specials, guidebooks for each film, multiple tie-in video games, commercials. By 2005, Marvel Entertainment began planning to independently produce its own films and distribute them through Paramount Pictures. Marvel had co-produced several superhero films with Columbia Pictures, New Line Cinema and others, including a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox. Marvel made little profit from its licensing deals with other studios and wanted to get more money out of its films while maintaining artistic control of the projects and distribution. Avi Arad, head of Marvel's film division, was pleased with Sam Raimi's Spider-Man films at Sony, but was less pleased about others.
As a result, they decided to form Marvel Studios, Hollywood's first major independent movie studio since DreamWorks. Arad's second-in-command, Kevin Feige, realized that unlike Spider-Man and the X-Men, whose film rights were licensed to Sony and Fox Marvel still owned the rights to the core members of the Avengers. Feige, a self-professed "fanboy", envisioned creating a shared universe just as creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby had done with their comic books in the early 1960s. To raise capital, the studio secured funding from a seven-year, $525 million revolving credit facility with Merrill Lynch. Marvel's plan was to release individual films for their main characters and merge them in a crossover film. Arad, who doubted the strategy yet insisted that it was his reputation that helped secure the initial financing, resigned the following year. In 2007, at 33 years old, Feige was named studio chief. In order to preserve its artistic integrity, Marvel Studios formed a creative committee of six people familiar with its comic book lore: Feige, Marvel Studios co-president Louis D'Esposito, Marvel Comics' president of publishing Dan Buckley, Marvel's chief creative officer Joe Quesada, writer Brian Michael Bendis, Marvel Entertainment president Alan Fine, who oversaw the committee.
Feige referred to the shared narrative continuity of these films as the "Marvel Cinema Universe", but used the term "Marvel Cinematic Universe". Since the franchise expanded to other media, this phrase has been used by some to refer to the feature films only. Marvel has designated the Marvel Cinematic Universe as Earth-199999 within the continuity of the company's multiverse, a collection of fictional alternate universes. In November 2013, Feige said that "in an ideal world" releases each year would include one film based on an existing character and one featuring a new character, saying it's "a nice rhythm" in that format. While not always the case, as evident by the 2013 releases of Iron Man 3 and Thor: The Dark World, he said it is "certainly something to aim for". Feige expanded on this in July 2014, saying, "I don't know that we'll keep to every year, but we're doing that in 2014 and 2015, so I think it would be fun to continue that sort of thing". In February 2014, Feige stated that Marvel Studios wants to mimic the "rhythm" that the comic books have developed, by having the characters appear in their own films, come together, much like "a big event or crossover series," with
The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1, created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby; the Avengers is Lee and Kirby's renovation of a previous superhero team, All-Winners Squad, who appeared in comic books series published by Marvel Comics' predecessor Timely Comics. Labeled "Earth's Mightiest Heroes", the Avengers consisted of Ant-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man and the Wasp. Ant-Man had become Giant-Man by issue #2; the original Captain America was discovered trapped in ice in issue #4, joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark of the series, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, Inhumans, aliens, supernatural beings, former villains. The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films.
The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million. A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015, followed by Avengers: Infinity War, which became the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion and was released on April 27, 2018. A fourth film, Avengers: Endgame, is scheduled for release on April 26, 2019; the team debuted in The Avengers #1. Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby; this initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series, retitled Avengers West Coast with #47.
Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity; the Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500–503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers, followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview. Following Civil War II, the book was relaunched in 2016 as Avengers, while retaining the same writer and much of the cast from the All-New, All-Different run.
The series ran for 11 issues before reverting to the numbering of the original Avengers series with issue #672. Starting with issue #675, all four Avengers titles being published at the time were merged into a single weekly series dubbed Avengers: No Surrender, designed to close out this era of the team's history. Following the conclusion of No Surrender in 2018, the series will be relaunched again as Avengers; when the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the roster changed immediately. Captain America soon joined the team in issue #4, he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place; the Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil, Kang the Conqueror, Wonder Man, Count Nefaria.
The next milestone came. Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath, the Wasp rejoined. Hercules became part of the team, while the Black Knight, the Black Widow, abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man did not join the group; the Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from Klaw. The X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53; this was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision. Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59, married the Wasp the following month; the Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark. The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler, furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet. The
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo