Kent county cricket teams
Kent county cricket teams have been traced back to the 17th century but the county's involvement in cricket goes back much further than that. Kent, jointly with Sussex, is accepted as the birthplace of the sport, it is believed that cricket was first played by children living on the Weald in Saxon or Norman times. The world's earliest known organised match was held in Kent c.1611 and the county has always been at the forefront of cricket's development through the growth of village cricket in the 17th century to representative matches in the 18th. A Kent team took part in the earliest known inter-county match, played on Dartford Brent in 1709. Several famous players and patrons were involved in Kent cricket from until the creation of the first county club in 1842. Among them were William Bedle, Robert Colchin and the 3rd Duke of Dorset. Kent were regarded as the strongest county team in the first half of the 18th century and were always one of the main challengers to the dominance of Hambledon in the second half.
County cricket ceased through the Napoleonic War and was resurrected in 1826 when Kent played Sussex. By the 1830s, Kent remained so until mid-century. Cricket is believed to have developed out of other bat-and-ball games and was first played in early medieval times to the south and south-east of London in the geographical areas of the North Downs, the South Downs and the Weald; the world's earliest known organised match took place in c. 1611, at Chevening. A court case described it as a "cricketing of the Weald and the Upland versus the Chalk Hill". Cricket became established in Kent and its neighbouring counties through the 17th century with the development of village cricket and it is possible that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1705, a newspaper recorded an 11-a-side match between West of Kent and Chatham at a place called "Maulden", which does not exist. Historians have surmised that the venue must have been either Malling. Four years the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent.
It is believed, as asserted by G. B. Buckley, that "inter-county matches" till about 1730 were inter-parish matches involving two villages on either side of a county boundary. Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century and its team at this time featured William Bedle, acknowledged to have been cricket's first great player; the 1709 match is the earliest known mention of Dartford Brent as a venue. The Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians considers Kent to be one of cricket's "major counties" throughout its entire history and rates all Kent county matches in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as many played by teams called East Kent or West Kent, as first-class; the ACS have explained that any match between a strong Kent eleven and another top-class team justifies the classification but caution is needed with nomenclature because of the different committees and sponsors who organised the games and would sometimes use team names other than "Kent". Dartford came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team became representative of Kent as a county playing against teams from Sussex.
Stead developed a keen rivalry with the Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, Sir William Gage. Their teams would name themselves either by their counties or as the patron's XI. There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead's team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as "the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex"; the 1728 proclamation of Kent's superiority is the first time that the concept of a "Champion County" can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by a "turned the scales" comment made by a reporter after Sussex defeated Kent in 1729. The 1729 report added that the "scale of victory had been on the Kentish side for some years past". In 1730, a newspaper referred to the "Kentish champions". In his cricket history, Harry Altham titled his third chapter, about cricket in the second quarter of the 18th century, as "Kent, The First Champions". Strong teams played under the name of Kent throughout the 18th century with several famous patrons including Stead, Robert Colchin, Lord John Sackville, his son John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann organising teams.
In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation of a non-international England team, loosely termed "All-England" or, more the Rest of England, to play against them. Kent at this time were led by Lord John Sackville and his team won the first All-England match on Bromley Common. In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times; the most famous encounter was the one on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground, commemorated in a poem by James Love and is the subject of the world's second oldest scorecard. It is the opening match in Scores and Biographies. Kent, whose team included both Colchin and Sackville, won the match by one wicket. Under the Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field a strong team through the last quarter of the 18th century and were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club. Dartford had played against a Hambledo
John Pratt (judge)
Sir John Pratt was an English judge and politician. He was Lord Chief Justice of England from 15 May 1718 until 2 March 1725, he was appointed as an interim Chancellor of the Exchequer on 2 February 1721 until 3 April 1721. He was the son of Richard Pratt of Oxfordshire. After matriculating at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, on 14 March 1672–3, he migrated to Wadham College where he was elected scholar in 1674, Fellow in 1678, he graduated B. A. in 1676, proceeded M. A. in 1679. Pratt was admitted on 18 November 1675 a student at the Inner Temple, where he was called to the bar on 12 February 1682, he appeared for the Crown before the House of Lords in Sir John Fenwick's case, 16–17 December 1696, before the House of Commons for the new East India Company in support of the petition for a charter on 14 June and 1 July 1698. He was made serjeant-at-law on 6 November 1700, was heard by a committee of the House of Commons as counsel for the court of exchequer against a bill for curtailing the fees of the officers of that court on 25 February 1706.
On 17 January 1710 Pratt was assigned, with Sir Simon Harcourt, as counsel for Henry Sacheverell, but declined to act. On 20 December 1711 he appeared before the House of Lords in support of the patent conferring an English dukedom on James Douglas, 4th Duke of Hamilton. On 28 December 1711 he was returned to parliament for Midhurst, for which he sat a silent member until the dissolution which followed the accession of George I. Meanwhile, on Lord Cowper's recommendation, he was raised to a puisne judgeship in the court of king's bench, was sworn in accordingly on 22 November 1714 and knighted. On the question of prerogative submitted to the judges in January 1718, whether the custody of the royal grandchildren was vested in the Prince of Wales or the king, Pratt concurred with the majority of his colleagues in favour of the Crown, he was one of the commissioners of the great seal in the interval between the resignation of Lord-chancellor Cowper and the seal's transference to Lord-keeper Parker.
He succeeded the latter, 15 May, as lord chief justice of the court of king's bench, being sworn of the Privy Council on 9 October. In the case of Colbatch v. Bentley, in 1722 he resisted the combined influence of Sir Robert Walpole and Lord Macclesfield, which Bentley had enlisted in his interest. Walpole could only explain it by supposing that Pratt was conscious of having "got to the top of his preferment", his treatment of the Jacobite Christopher Layer has damaged his reputation. Pratt bought, about 1705, the manor of Stidulfe's Place, which he renamed Wilderness, in the parish of Seal, Kent, he died at his house in Great Ormond Street, London, on 24 February 1725. Pratt married twice. By his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Gregory, rector of Middleton-Stoney, Oxfordshire, he had issue four daughters and five sons. By his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh Wilson, canon of Bangor, he had four sons and four daughters, his heir was his fourth son by his first wife. Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden was the third son by the second marriage.
Of Pratt's daughters by his first wife, the second, married Sir John Fortescue Aland. Armory v Delamirie 1 Strange 505 Lord Chief Justice Lord Camden Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Pratt, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Charing Cross is a junction in London, where six routes meet. Clockwise from north these are: the east side of Trafalgar Square leading to St Martin's Place and Charing Cross Road, it makes an unbroken public space with Trafalgar Square in central London. A bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur has stood there since 1675; the junction takes its name from the medieval Eleanor cross that stood on the site from the 1290s until its destruction on the orders of Parliament in 1647. It gives its name in turn to the immediate locality, to landmarks including Charing Cross railway station, on the forecourt of which stands the ornate Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross of 1864–1865; this was once neighbourhood of Charing. Until 1931, "Charing Cross" referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square. Drummonds Bank, on the corner with The Mall, retains the address 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has been the notional "centre of London" and the point from which distances from London are calculated.
"Erect a rich and stately carved cross, Whereon her statue shall with glory shine. George Peele The Famous Chronicle of King Edward the First The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word "cierring", referring to a bend in the River Thames; the addition of the name "Cross" to the hamlet's name originates from the Eleanor cross erected in 1291–94 by King Edward I as a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile, placed between the former hamlet of Charing and the entrance to the Royal Mews of the Palace of Whitehall. Folk etymology suggests the name derives from chère reine – "dear queen" in French – but the original name pre-dates Eleanor's death by at least a hundred years; this wooden sculpted cross was the work of Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of the purely Parliamentarian phase of the Long Parliament or Oliver Cromwell himself in the Civil War. A 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station is a copy of the original cross.
Erected in 1865, it is situated a few hundred yards to the north-east of the original cross, on the Strand. It was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite, it is not a faithful replica. A variation on the name appears to be "Charyngcrouche", near St Martin in the Fields, in 1396. Since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles; the site is recognised by modern convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on modern maps as a road junction, was a postal address denoting the stretch of road between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square. Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare; the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, a major destination for traffic, rather than for the original cross.
At some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing. It occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue, running down to a wharf by the river, it was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, under a statute "for the forfeiture of the lands of schismatic aliens". Protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the'alien' houses; the priory fell into a long decline due to lack of money and arguments regarding the collection of tithes with the parish church of St Martin-in-the-Fields. In 1541, religious artefacts were removed to St Margaret's, the chapel was adapted as a private house and its almshouse were sequestered to the Royal Palace. In 1608–09, the Earl of Northampton built Northumberland House on the eastern portion of the property. In June 1874, the whole of the duke's property at Charing Cross, was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works for the formation of Northumberland Avenue.
The frontage of the Rounceval property caused the narrowing at the end of the Whitehall entry to Charing Cross, formed the section of Whitehall known as Charing Cross, until road widening in the 1930s caused the rebuilding of the south side of the street, creating the current wide thoroughfare. In 1554, Charing Cross was the site of the final battle of Wyatt's Rebellion; this was an attempt by Thomas Wyatt and others to overthrow Queen Mary I of England, soon after her accession to the throne and replace her with Lady Jane Grey. Wyatt's army had come from Kent, with London Bridge barred to them, had crossed the river by what was the next bridge upstream, at Hampton Court, their circuitous route brought them down St Martin's Lane to Whitehall. The palace was defended by 1000 men under Sir John Gage at Charing Cross.
Scotland Yard is a metonym for the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service, the territorial police force responsible for policing most of London. The name derives from the location of the original Metropolitan Police headquarters at 4 Whitehall Place, which had a rear entrance on a street called Great Scotland Yard; the Scotland Yard entrance became the public entrance to the police station, over time the street and the Metropolitan Police became synonymous. The New York Times wrote in 1964 that just as Wall Street gave its name to New York's financial district, Scotland Yard became the name for police activity in London; the force moved from Great Scotland Yard in 1890, to a newly completed building on the Victoria Embankment, the name "New Scotland Yard" was adopted for the new headquarters. An adjacent building was completed in 1906. A third building was added in 1940. In 1967, the MPS moved its headquarters from the three-building complex to a tall, newly constructed building on Broadway in Victoria.
In summer 2013, it was announced that the force would move to the Curtis Green Building –, the third building of New Scotland Yard's previous site – and that the headquarters would be renamed Scotland Yard. In November 2016, MPS moved to its new headquarters, which continues to bear the name of "New Scotland Yard." Scotland Yard building is now owned by Indian billionaire Yusuff Ali M. A. chairman of Lulu Group International. The Metropolitan Police Service is responsible for law enforcement within Greater London, excluding the square mile of the City of London, covered by the City of London Police. Additionally, the London Underground and National Rail networks are the responsibility of the British Transport Police; the Metropolitan Police was formed by Robert Peel with the implementation of the Metropolitan Police Act, passed by Parliament in 1829. Peel, with the help of Eugène-François Vidocq, selected the original site on Whitehall Place for the new police headquarters; the first two commissioners, Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne, along with various police officers and staff, occupied the building.
A private house, 4 Whitehall Place backed onto a street called Great Scotland Yard. By 1887, the Metropolitan Police headquarters had expanded from 4 Whitehall Place into several neighbouring addresses, including 3, 5, 21 and 22 Whitehall Place; the service outgrew its original site, new headquarters were built on the Victoria Embankment, overlooking the River Thames, south of what is now the Ministry of Defence's headquarters. In 1888, during the construction of the new building, workers discovered the dismembered torso of a female. In 1890, police headquarters moved to the new location, named New Scotland Yard. By this time, the Metropolitan Police had grown from its initial 1,000 officers to about 13,000 and needed more administrative staff and a bigger headquarters. Further increases in the size and responsibilities of the force required more administrators and space. Therefore, new buildings were constructed and completed in 1906 and 1940, so that New Scotland Yard became a three-building complex..
The first two buildings are now a Grade I listed structure known as the Norman Shaw Buildings. The original building at 4 Whitehall Place still has a rear entrance on Great Scotland Yard. Stables for some of the mounted branch are still located at 7 Great Scotland Yard, across the street from the first headquarters. By the 1960s the requirements of modern technology and further increases in the size of the force meant that it had outgrown its three-building complex on Victoria Embankment. In 1967 New Scotland Yard moved to a newly constructed building on Broadway, an existing office block acquired under a long-term lease. From 1967 to 2016, the third building of the first New Scotland Yard was used as the base for the Met's Territorial Support Group; the Met's senior management team, who oversee the service, were based at New Scotland Yard at 10 Broadway, close to St. James's Park station, along with the Met's crime database; this uses a national computer system developed for major crime enquiries by all British forces, called Home Office Large Major Enquiry System, more referred to by the backronym HOLMES, which recognises the great fictional detective Sherlock Holmes.
The training programme is called'Elementary', after Holmes's well-known, yet apocryphal, phrase "elementary, my dear Watson". Administrative functions are based at the Empress State Building, communication handling at the three Metcall complexes, rather than at Scotland Yard. During the 2000s, a number of security measures were added to the exterior of New Scotland Yard, including concrete barriers in front of ground-level windows as a countermeasure against car bombing, a concrete wall around the entrance to the building, a covered walkway from the street to the entrance into the building. Armed officers from the Diplomatic Protection Group patrolled the exterior of the building along with security staff. In 2008, the Metropolitan Police Authority bought the freehold of the building for around £120 million. In May 2013 the Metropolitan Police confirmed that the New Scotland Yard building on Broadway would be sold and the force's headquarters would be moved back to the Curtis Green Building on the Victoria Emb
Chingford is a district in North East London, located in the London Borough of Waltham Forest and is situated 10 miles northeast of Charing Cross. A rural Essex parish, it gained urban district status in 1894, between 1938 and 1965 formed the core of the Municipal Borough of Chingford. Chingford is close to the Essex border of Epping Forest District, it borders Sewardstone to the north, Woodford Green and Buckhurst Hill to the east and Walthamstow to the south. To the west lie William Girling and King George V reservoirs, known together as the Chingford Reservoirs, the River Lea. Across these, Chingford is linked with Ponders End through the A110 Lea Valley Road, whilst South Chingford is linked with Edmonton through the A406 Lea Valley Viaduct. To the north and east lies Epping Forest, the most part of, in Essex but is maintained by the City of London Corporation; the River Ching runs through the area, the town of Chingford is close to a number of fords of that river. However, old maps and descriptions give a name for the settlement long before the river has a name and it is that the name of the river as "Ching" arose long after the settlement was named.
The area of Chingford is referenced in the Doomsday book as "Cingefort" from 1066AD. It is thought that to how Kingston upon Thames appears in Domesday Book of 1086AD as Chingestone and Chingetun, with ching being old English for king, that Chingford could refer to the King's river, Kings Ford; this idea is compounded by links to royalty using the area for hunting in centuries gone by, with Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge still standing in North Chingford. Furthermore, there is evidence of King Harold Harefoot having lived in Chingford and the environs in the 11th Century, a date which ties in with the Old English use of "Ching" for King. Another suggested explanation by place name genealogists is that the settlement's name has its origin as "Shingly Ford"—that is, a ford over a waterway containing shingles. However, the genealogists assertion is to be incorrect, as the usage of the placename name "Cingefort" in the Doomsday book predates the coining of the word "Shingle." The earliest known usage of the Middle English word shingle is 1200AD and the word was not used to describe loose stones on a waterway until three centuries in the 1500s..
One notable local landmark is Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge. Called the Great Standing, it was built for King Henry VIII in 1543, was used as a grandstand to watch the hunting of deer, although it has been altered over time; the building is open to the public. The lodge is preserved under the Epping Forest Preservation Act. A barn built in the mid-19th century, Butler's Retreat, a Grade II listed building, is one of the few remaining Victorian retreats within the forest; the building is adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge and takes its name from the 1891 occupier John Butler. Retreats served non-alcoholic refreshments as part of the Temperance movement. After closing in 2009 the building was refurbished by the City of London Corporation and re-opened as a cafe in 2012. All Saints' Church in Chingford Mount dates back to the 12th century. Directly opposite the church is Chingford Mount Cemetery, best known today as the burial place of the Kray family. Friday Hill House, Simmons Lane, off Friday Hill, dating from 1839, was a manor house built and owned by Robert Boothby Heathcote, both the lord of the manor and rector of the local church.
It was he who paid for the building of the church of St Paul in Chingford. He is buried in the Boothby family vault in Old Church Road; the vault was purchased by Robert Boothby. The present building has been used as a further education centre, but was put up for sale in 2012. Pimp Hall Dovecote is situated in a green area at the bottom of Friday Hill and can be viewed by entering the Pimp Hall Nature Reserve; the dovecote, which had nesting space for 250 birds, belonged to Pimp Hall, one of three manor houses around Chingford. In 1838 the estate became part of the Chingford Earls estate; the farmhouse associated with it survived until just before World War II. This dovecote is depicted in the Millennium Heritage Mosaic on the front of Chingford Assembly Hall, it is the fourth item down on the left-hand-side of the mosaic see the Key. There is a local legend telling how on one occasion Charles II was out hunting in Epping Forest and was caught in a snowstorm, he took shelter in Pimp Hall and was so delighted with the food offered him that he jocularly drew his sword and knighted the joint of beef declaring that it was now Sir Loin.
Either this story caused the nearby pub on Friday Hill to be called "The Sirloin" or vice versa. A granite obelisk at Pole Hill was erected in 1824 under the direction of the Astronomer Royal, the Rev. John Pond M. A. to mark true south of the Thames. It was placed on high ground along the line of the Greenwich Meridian, but when this was recalibrated in the 19th century, the obelisk was deemed to have been erected 19 feet west of the revised meridian line. Today, an adjoining triangulation pillar marks the modern line. Chingford Old Town Hall, dating from 1929, is on The Ridgeway in Chingford, it has more been known as the Chingford Municipal Offices. The site has been sold to property developers and the town hall building subsequently put up for sale itself. Chingford is within the Chingford and Woodford Green UK Parliament constituency, which consists of the six C
Sir John Major is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997. He served as Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Thatcher Government from 1989 to 1990, was the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon from 1979 until his retirement in 2001. Since the death of Margaret Thatcher in 2013, Major has been the oldest living former Prime Minister. Born in St Helier, Major grew up in Brixton, he worked as an insurance clerk, at the London Electricity Board, before becoming an executive at Standard Chartered. He was first elected to the House of Commons at the 1979 general election as the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon, he served as a Parliamentary Private Secretary, Assistant Whip and as a Minister for Social Security. In 1987, he joined the Cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, was promoted to Foreign Secretary two years later. Just three months in October 1989, he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, where he presented the 1990 budget.
Major became Prime Minister after Thatcher's reluctant resignation in November 1990. He presided over British participation in the Gulf War in March 1991, negotiated the Maastricht Treaty in December 1991, he went on to lead the Conservatives to a record fourth consecutive electoral victory, winning the most votes in British electoral history with over 14,000,000 votes at the 1992 general election, albeit with a reduced majority in the House of Commons. Shortly after this though a staunch supporter of the Exchange Rate Mechanism, his government became responsible for British exit from the ERM after Black Wednesday on 16 September 1992; this event led to a loss of confidence in Conservative economic policies and Major was never able to achieve a lead in opinion polls again. Despite the eventual revival of economic growth amongst other successes such as the beginnings of the Northern Ireland peace process, by the mid-1990s, the Conservative Party was embroiled in scandals involving various MPs.
Criticism of Major's leadership reached such a pitch that he chose to resign as party leader in June 1995, challenging his critics to either back him or challenge him. By this time, the Labour Party had abandoned its socialist ideology and moved to the centre under the leadership of Tony Blair and won a large number of by-elections depriving Major's government of a parliamentary majority in December 1996. Major went on to lose the 1997 general election five months in one of the largest electoral defeats since the Great Reform Act of 1832. Major was succeeded by William Hague as Leader of the Conservative Party in June 1997, he went on to retire from active politics, leaving the House of Commons at the 2001 general election. In 1999, a BBC Radio 4 poll ranked. Major was born on 29 March 1943 at St Helier Hospital and Queen Mary's Hospital for Children in St Helier, the son of Gwen Major and former music hall performer Tom Major-Ball, sixty-three years old when Major was born, he was christened "John Roy Major" but only "John Major" was recorded on his birth certificate.
He used his middle name until the early 1980s. Major grew up in Longfellow Road, Worcester Park, where he attended primary school at Cheam Common and from 1954, he attended Rutlish School, a grammar school in the London Borough of Merton. In 1955, with his father's garden ornaments business in decline, the family moved to Brixton; the following year, Major watched his first debate in the House of Commons, where Harold Macmillan presented his only Budget as Chancellor of the Exchequer, has attributed his political ambitions to that event. He credited a chance meeting with former Prime Minister Clement Attlee on the King's Road shortly afterwards. Major left school just before his 16th birthday in 1959 with three O-levels in History, English Language and English Literature, he gained three more O-levels by correspondence course, in the British Constitution and Economics. Major's first job was as a clerk in the London based insurance brokerage firm Pratt & Sons in 1959. Disliking this job, he resigned.
Major joined the Young Conservatives in Brixton at this time. Major was nineteen years old when his father died, at the age of eighty-two on 27 March 1962, his mother died eight and a half years in September 1970, at the age of sixty-five. After Major became Prime Minister, it was misreported that his failure to get a job as a bus conductor resulted from his failing to pass a maths test, he had been passed over owing to his height. After a period of unemployment, Major started working at the London Electricity Board in 1963, where incidentally his successor as Prime Minister, Tony Blair worked when he was young, he decided to undertake a correspondence course in banking. Major took up a post as an executive at the Standard Chartered Bank in May 1965 and he rose through the ranks, he was sent to work in Jos, Nigeria, by the bank in 1967 and he nearly died in a car accident there. Major was interested in politics from an early age. Encouraged by fellow Conservative Derek Stone, he started giving speeches on a soap-box in Brixton Market.
He stood as a candidate for Lambeth London Borough Council at the age of 21 in 1964, was elected in the Conservative landslide in 1968. While on the Council he was Chairman of the Housing Committee, being responsible for overseeing the building of several large council housing estates, he lost his seat in 1971. Major was an active Young Conserv
Kennington Common was a large area of common land within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area was notable for being one of the earliest venues for cricket within London and top-class matches were played there from 1724 to 1785; the common was used for public executions and public gatherings. In 1600, the common was bounded on the south west by Vauxhall Creek, it extended over marshy land to the south west of the Roman road called Stane Street, now Kennington Park Road. There is a 1660 record of a common keeper being paid for grazing. In 1661, the Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens were laid out nearby; the large open space was used for a variety of purposes by people living on the southbank of the River Thames. Cricket has been played at Kennington since the late 17th century although there are no definite records. In 1725 players were known to use the Horns tavern as their clubhouse; this was recorded a year. Other sports to have been periodically played on the common bowls. People would gather at the common to listen to public speakers.
In 1739, the Methodists John Wesley and George Whitefield preached to an audience of 30,000. On 10 April 1848, Irish Chartist leader, Feargus O'Connor addressed up to 50,000 people at Kennington over a petition in support of the Land Plan; the "Surrey gallows" were located on the common. These were the south London equivalent of Tyburn when the entire area was still part of the County of Surrey; the gallows stood on the site of St. Mark's Church not far from Oval tube station. Records show public executions were conducted throughout the period that the common was hosting cricket matches. In total 129 men and 12 women were executed at Kennington but there may well have been others; the first person was Sarah Elston, burned at the stake for the killing her husband on 24 April 1678. The last person executed was a forger on 5 August 1799. In 1746, the Jacobite officer Francis Towneley, along with other members of the Manchester Regiment, captured during the failed Jacobite rising of 1745, were convicted of high treason and condemned to be hanged and quartered on the common on 30 July.
However, by executioners possessed some discretion as to how much the condemned should suffer before death. Towneley was killed, his head was placed on a pike on Temple Bar. The earliest recorded use of the common for cricket was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724; this has been classified a first-class match given that it featured the two leading clubs of the time. In August 1726, a combined London and Surrey XI played the Kent XI of leading patron Edwin Stead for a purse of 25 guineas. In 1729, the 7 August edition of the London Evening Post reported: "On Tuesday was played a great cricket match on Kennington Common between the Londoners and the Dartford men for a considerable sum of money and bets, the latter beat the former much". There was a close contest on the common in August 1730 when London defeated Surrey by 1 run; the report said that it "was thought to be one of the completest matches, played". The London v Sevenoaks game on 12 July 1731 is the first known to have been played in an enclosed ground.
The report said "the ground will be roped round and all persons are desired to keep without side of the same". The Surrey v London game on 28 September 1731 was promoted as "likely to be the best performance of this kind, seen for some time"; the ground was again enclosed: "for the convenience of the gamesters, the ground is to be staked and roped out". It seems therefore that enclosure became common practice in 1731. In addition, the advertisement refers to "the whole county of Surrey as London's opponents"; the Prince of Wales was expected to attend and this is his first recorded involvement in cricket. Newspaper reports of the time were more concerned with odds than results and players were hardly mentioned by name. There was an exception on 7 August 1735 when the General Evening Post announced a single wicket match on the common the following Monday involving seven players of the London Club; the game would be three against four with Mr Wakeland, Mr Dunn and Mr Pool against Mr Marshall, Mr Ellis and two others.
Ellis is known to have been London's best bowler. In June 1736, a report of a single wicket match names Mr Wakeland, the distiller, Mr George Oldner playing together against two famous Richmond players who are "esteemed the best two in England"; the esteemed pair were not named, though one of them suffered serious facial injuries in this game when the ball came off his bat and hit his nose. The report rails against "human brutes who insisted he should play on despite his injuries"; this is a reflection of gambling's stranglehold on the sport at the time. When Surrey played Kent on 20 September 1736, three soldiers apprehended a deserter but the crowd turned on them, rescued the deserter and "after a severe discipline let them go about their business"! Meanwhile, Surrey won the match by 2 wickets and, unusually for the time, the team scores are known: Kent 41 & 53. From this time on, the London club used the Artillery Ground for its home matches and that became the main venue for the popular single wicket contests of the 1740s.
The common became one of several home venues used by Surrey: for example, Moulsey Hurst, Laleham Burway and others. Few major matches were played on the common thereafter. Executions did continue and it is possible that this association eventually